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1.  Increased dietary α-linolenic acid has sex-specific effects upon eicosapentaenoic acid status in humans: re-examination of data from a randomised, placebo-controlled, parallel study 
Nutrition Journal  2014;13(1):113.
Background
There is a metabolic pathway by which mammals can convert the omega-3 (n-3) essential fatty acid α-linolenic acid (ALA) into longer-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). As far as we know there are currently no studies that have specifically examined sex differences in the LC n-3 PUFA response to increased dietary ALA intake in humans, although acute studies with isotope-labelled ALA identified that women have a significantly greater capacity to synthesise EPA and DHA from ALA compared to men.
Findings
Available data from a placebo-controlled, randomised study were re-examined to identify whether there are sex differences in the LC n-3 PUFA response to increased dietary ALA intake in humans. There was a significant difference between sexes in the response to increased dietary ALA, with women having a significantly greater increase in the EPA content of plasma phospholipids (mean +2.0% of total fatty acids) after six months of an ALA-rich diet compared to men (mean +0.7%, P = 0.039). Age and BMI were identified as predictors of response to dietary ALA among women.
Conclusions
Women show a greater increase in circulating EPA than men during increased dietary ALA consumption. Further understanding of individual variation in the response to dietary ALA could inform nutrition advice, with recommendations being specifically tailored according to habitual diet, sex, age and BMI.
doi:10.1186/1475-2891-13-113
PMCID: PMC4274685  PMID: 25496415
α-linolenic acid; Sex; Eicosapentaenoic acid
2.  Supplementation with N-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids or Olive Oil in Men and Women with Renal Disease Induces Differential Changes in the DNA Methylation of FADS2 and ELOVL5 in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(10):e109896.
Background
Studies in animal models and in cultured cells have shown that fatty acids can induce alterations in the DNA methylation of specific genes. There have been no studies of the effects of fatty acid supplementation on the epigenetic regulation of genes in adult humans.
Methods and Results
We investigated the effect of supplementing renal patients with 4 g daily of either n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) or olive oil (OO) for 8 weeks on the methylation status of individual CpG loci in the 5′ regulatory region of genes involved in PUFA biosynthesis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from men and women (aged 53 to 63 years). OO and n-3 LCPUFA each altered (>10% difference in methylation) 2/22 fatty acid desaturase (FADS)-2 CpGs, while n-3 LCPUFA, but not OO, altered (>10%) 1/12 ELOVL5 CpGs in men. OO altered (>6%) 8/22 FADS2 CpGs and (>3%) 3/12 elongase (ELOVL)-5 CpGs, while n-3 LCPUFA altered (>5%) 3/22 FADS2 CpGs and 2/12 (>3%) ELOVL5 CpGs in women. FADS1 or ELOVL2 methylation was unchanged. The n-3 PUFA supplementation findings were replicated in blood DNA from healthy adults (aged 23 to 30 years). The methylation status of the altered CpGs in FADS2 and ELOVL5 was associated negatively with the level of their transcripts.
Conclusions
These findings show that modest fatty acid supplementation can induce altered methylation of specific CpG loci in adult humans, contingent on the nature of the supplement and on sex. This has implications for understanding the effect of fatty acids on PUFA metabolism and cell function.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0109896
PMCID: PMC4201459  PMID: 25329159
3.  Effects of Perioperative Supplementation with Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Leukotriene B4 and Leukotriene B5 Production by Stimulated Neutrophils in Patients with Colorectal Cancer: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Intervention Trial 
Nutrients  2014;6(10):4043-4057.
Omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA) may have beneficial clinical and immune-modulating effects in surgical patients. In a randomized, double-blind, prospective, placebo-controlled trial, 148 patients referred for elective colorectal cancer surgery received an n-3 FA-enriched oral nutritional supplement (ONS) providing 2.0 g of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 1.0 g of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) per day or a standard ONS for seven days before surgery. On the day of operation, there was a significant increase in the production of leukotriene B5 (LTB5) (p < 0.01) and 5-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (5-HEPE) (p < 0.01), a significant decrease in the production of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) (p < 0.01) and a trend for a decrease in the production of 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE) (p < 0.1) from stimulated neutrophils in the active group compared with controls. There was no association between LTB4 values and postoperative complications. In conclusion, oral n-3 FA exerts anti-inflammatory effects in surgical patients, without reducing the risk of postoperative complications.
doi:10.3390/nu6104043
PMCID: PMC4210906  PMID: 25268838
colorectal cancer; omega-3 fatty acids; immunomodulation; fish oil; leukotrienes
4.  Compared with Daily, Weekly n–3 PUFA Intake Affects the Incorporation of Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid into Platelets and Mononuclear Cells in Humans123 
The Journal of Nutrition  2014;144(5):667-672.
Consumption of oily fish is sporadic, whereas controlled intervention studies of n–3 (ω-3) fatty acids usually provide capsules containing eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as a daily dose. This methodologic study explored whether there are differences in the short-, medium-, and long-term incorporation of EPA and DHA into blood plasma and cells with the provision of identical amounts of EPA and DHA, equivalent to 2 oily fish servings per week (or 6.54 g/wk EPA and DHA), either intermittently (i.e., 1 portion twice per week) or continuously (i.e., divided into daily amounts). The study was part of a randomized, double-blind controlled intervention lasting 12 mo, with participants stratified by age and sex. There were 5 intervention groups, 2 of which are reported here: the 2 intermittent portions (2I) and 2 continuous portions (2C) groups. EPA and DHA were measured in plasma phosphatidylcholine, platelets, and blood mononuclear cells (MNCs) at 9 time points. Sixty-five participants completed the study (2I group, n = 30, mean age of 49.2 y; 2C group, n = 35, mean age of 50.6 y). The incorporation pattern over the 12-mo intervention was different between the 2 groups in all samples (P < 0.0001, time × treatment interaction). At the end of the 12-mo intervention, the 2C group had higher EPA, DHA, and EPA + DHA in platelets (all P < 0.01) and higher EPA and EPA + DHA in MNCs (both P < 0.05) compared with the 2I group. No significant differences were shown for plasma phosphatidylcholine EPA (P = 0.1), DHA (P = 0.15), EPA + DHA (P = 0.07), or MNC DHA (P = 0.06). In conclusion, the pattern of consumption does affect the incorporation of EPA and DHA into cells used as biomarkers of intake. The differences identified here need to be considered in the design of studies and when extrapolating results from continuous capsule-based intervention studies to dietary guidelines for oily fish consumption. This trial was registered at www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN48398526.
doi:10.3945/jn.113.186346
PMCID: PMC3985823  PMID: 24647395
6.  Parenteral omega-3 fatty acids: pouring oil on troubled waters? 
Critical Care  2012;16(6):172.
A meta-analysis of parenteral fish oil in 23 studies in intensive care unit (ICU) and non-ICU patients reported a reduced infection rate (significant in ICU patients) and shorter lengths of ICU and hospital stays (both non-ICU and ICU patients). Parenteral fish oil reduced inflammation and improved oxygenation index and liver function. The findings of the meta-analysis are discussed in this report.
doi:10.1186/cc11848
PMCID: PMC3672587  PMID: 23146333
7.  Altered Colonic Mucosal Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (PUFA) Derived Lipid Mediators in Ulcerative Colitis: New Insight into Relationship with Disease Activity and Pathophysiology 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(10):e76532.
Objectives
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a relapsing inflammatory disorder of unconfirmed aetiology, variable severity and clinical course, characterised by progressive histological inflammation and with elevation of eicosanoids which have a known pathophysiological role in inflammation. Therapeutic interventions targetting eicosanoids (5-aminosalicylates (ASA)) are effective first line and adjunctive treatments in mild-moderate UC for achieving and sustaining clinical remission. However, the variable clinical response to 5-ASA and frequent deterioration in response to cyclo-oxygenase (COX) inhibitors, has prompted an in depth simultaneous evaluation of multiple lipid mediators (including eicosanoids) within the inflammatory milieu in UC. We hypothesised that severity of inflammation is associated with alteration of lipid mediators, in relapsing UC.
Design
Study was case-control design. Mucosal lipid mediators were determined by LC-MS/MS lipidomics analysis on mucosal biopsies taken from patients attending outpatients with relapsing UC. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were used to investigate the association of mucosal lipid mediators, with the disease state and severity graded histologically.
Results
Levels of PGE2, PGD2, TXB2, 5-HETE, 11-HETE, 12-HETE and 15-HETE are significantly elevated in inflamed mucosa and correlate with severity of inflammation, determined using validated histological scoring systems.
Conclusions
Our approach of capturing inflammatory mediator signature at different stages of UC by combining comprehensive lipidomics analysis and computational modelling could be used to classify and predict mild-moderate inflammation; however, predictive index is diminished in severe inflammation. This new technical approach could be developed to tailor drug treatments to patients with active UC, based on the mucosal lipid mediator profile.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0076532
PMCID: PMC3799829  PMID: 24204637
8.  Limited Impact of 2 g/day Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters (Omacor®) on Plasma Lipids and Inflammatory Markers in Patients Awaiting Carotid Endarterectomy 
Marine Drugs  2013;11(9):3569-3581.
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of prescription omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid ethyl esters (Omacor®) on blood pressure, plasma lipids, and inflammatory marker concentrations in patients awaiting carotid endarterectomy. Patients awaiting carotid endarterectomy (n = 121) were randomised to Omacor® or olive oil as placebo (2 g/day) until surgery (median 21 days). Blood pressure, plasma lipids, and plasma inflammatory markers were determined. There were significant decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and in plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, soluble vascular cellular adhesion molecule 1, and matrix metalloproteinase 2 concentrations, in both groups. The extent of triglyceride lowering was greater with Omacor® (25%) compared with placebo (9%). Soluble E-selectin concentration was significantly decreased in the Omacor® group but increased in the placebo group. At the end of the supplementation period there were no differences in blood pressure or in plasma lipid and inflammatory marker concentrations between the two groups. It is concluded that Omacor® given at 2 g/day for an average of 21 days to patients with advanced carotid atherosclerosis lowers triglycerides and soluble E-selectin concentrations, but has limited broad impact on the plasma lipid profile or on inflammatory markers. This may be because the duration of intervention was too short or the dose of n-3 fatty acids was too low.
doi:10.3390/md11093569
PMCID: PMC3806474  PMID: 24065166
omega-3; fish oil; cytokine; adhesion molecule; cardiovascular disease
9.  Acute appearance of fatty acids in human plasma – a comparative study between polar-lipid rich oil from the microalgae Nannochloropsis oculata and krill oil in healthy young males 
Background
The long-chain n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have human health benefits. Alternatives to fish as sources of EPA and DHA are needed. Oil from the micro-algae Nannochloropsis oculata contains a significant amount of EPA conjugated to phospholipids and glycolipids and no DHA. Krill oil contains EPA and DHA conjugated to phospholipids. We compare the appearance of fatty acids in blood plasma of healthy humans after consuming a high fat meal followed by either algal oil or krill oil.
Methods
Ten healthy males aged 18-45 years consumed a standard high fat (55 g) breakfast followed by either algal oil (providing 1.5 g EPA and no DHA) or krill oil (providing 1.02 g EPA and 0.54 g DHA). All participants consumed both oils in random order and separated by 7 days. Blood samples were collected before the breakfast and at several time points up to 10 hours after taking the oils. Fatty acid concentrations (μg/ml) in plasma were determined by gas chromatography.
Results
Fatty acids derived mainly from the breakfast appeared rapidly in plasma, peaking about 3 hours after consuming the breakfast, and in a pattern that reflected their content in the breakfast. There were time-dependent increases in the concentrations of both EPA and DHA with both algal oil (P < 0.001 for EPA; P = 0.027 for DHA) and krill oil (P < 0.001 for both EPA and DHA). The concentration of EPA was higher with algal oil than with krill oil at several time points. DHA concentration did not differ between oils at any time point. The maximum concentration of EPA was higher with algal oil (P = 0.010) and both the area under the concentration curve (AUC) and the incremental AUC for EPA were greater with algal oil (P = 0.020 and 0.006). There was no difference between oils in the AUC or the incremental AUC for DHA.
Conclusion
This study in healthy young men given a single dose of oil indicates that the polar-lipid rich oil from the algae Nannochloropis oculata is a good source of EPA in humans.
doi:10.1186/1476-511X-12-102
PMCID: PMC3718725  PMID: 23855409
Omega-3; Eicosapentaenoic acid; Docosahexaenoic acid; Algal oil; Krill oil; Polar lipids; Glycolipids; Phospholipids
10.  Maternal fat intake in rats alters 20:4n-6 and 22:6n-3 status and the epigenetic regulation of Fads2 in offspring liver☆☆☆★ 
Poor prenatal nutrition, acting through epigenetic processes, induces persistent changes in offspring phenotype. We investigated the effect of maternal fat intake on polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) status and on the epigenetic regulation of Fads2, encoding Δ6 desaturase (rate limiting in PUFA synthesis), in the adult offspring. Rats (n=6 per dietary group) were fed either 3.5% (w/w), 7% (w/w) or 21% (w/w) butter or fish oil (FO) from 14 days preconception until weaning. Offspring (n=6 males and females per dietary group) were fed 4% (w/w) soybean oil until postnatal day 77. 20:4n-6 and 22:6n-3 levels were lower in liver phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine and plasma PC (all P<.0001) in offspring of dams fed 21% than 3.5% or 7% fat regardless of type. Hepatic Fads2 expression related inversely to maternal dietary fat. Fads2 messenger RNA expression correlated negatively with methylation of CpGs at −623, −394, −84 and −76 bases relative to the transcription start site (all P<.005). Methylation of these CpGs was higher in offspring of dams fed 21% than 3.5% or 7% fat; FO higher than butter. Feeding adult female rats 7% fat reduced 20:4n-6 status in liver PC and Fads2 expression and increased methylation of CpGs −623, −394, −84 and −76 that reversed in animals switched from 7% to 4% fat diets. These findings suggest that fat exposure during development induces persistent changes, while adults exhibit a transient response, in hepatic PUFA status in offspring through epigenetic regulation of Fads2. Thus, epigenetic regulation of Fads2 may contribute to short- and long-term regulation of PUFA synthesis.
doi:10.1016/j.jnutbio.2012.09.005
PMCID: PMC3698442  PMID: 23107313
Maternal dietary fat; Early life programming; Liver; Arachidonic acid; Docosahexaenoic acid; Δ6 desaturase
11.  Changes in plasma and erythrocyte omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in response to intravenous supply of omega-3 fatty acids in patients with hepatic colorectal metastases 
Background
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are functionally the most important omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Oral supply of these fatty acids increases their levels in plasma and cell membranes, often at the expense of the omega-6 PUFAs arachidonic acid (ARA) and linoleic acid. This results in an altered pattern of lipid mediator production to one which is less pro-inflammatory. We investigated whether short term intravenous supply of omega-3 PUFAs could change the levels of EPA, DHA, ARA and linoleic acid in plasma and erythrocytes in patients with hepatic colorectal metastases.
Methods
Twenty patients were randomised to receive a 72 hour infusion of total parenteral nutrition with (treatment group) or without (control group) omega-3 PUFAs. EPA, DHA, ARA and linoleic acid were measured in plasma phosphatidylcholine (PC) and erythrocytes at several times points up to the end of infusion and 5 to 12 days (mean 9 days) after stopping the infusion.
Results
The treatment group showed increases in plasma PC EPA and DHA and erythrocyte EPA and decreases in plasma PC and erythrocyte linoleic acid, with effects most evident late in the infusion period. Plasma PC and erythrocyte EPA and linoleic acid all returned to baseline levels after the 5–12 day washout. Plasma PC DHA remained elevated above baseline after washout.
Conclusions
Intravenous supply of omega-3 PUFAs results in a rapid increase of EPA and DHA in plasma PC and of EPA in erythrocytes. These findings suggest that infusion of omega-3 PUFAs could be used to induce a rapid effect especially in targeting inflammation.
Trial registration
http://www.clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00942292
doi:10.1186/1476-511X-12-64
PMCID: PMC3659039  PMID: 23648075
Parenteral nutrition; Fish oil; Omega-3 fatty acids; Eicosapentaenoic acid; Docosahexaenoic acid; Arachidonic acid; Liver metastases
12.  Perioperative Immunonutrition in Well-Nourished Patients Undergoing Surgery for Head and Neck Cancer: Evaluation of Inflammatory and Immunologic Outcomes 
Nutrients  2013;5(4):1186-1199.
Limited work is available on the benefits of nutritional support enriched with arginine and n-3 fatty acids in surgical patients with head and neck cancer, particularly if well-nourished. We conducted a pilot study in these patients to examine effects on inflammatory markers and clinical outcome. Patients scheduled for radical resection of the oral cavity were randomised to 5 day preoperative and 5 day postoperative Impact® (IMN, n = 4), or no preoperative supplementary nutrition and Isosource® postoperatively (STD, n = 4). Plasma fatty acids, C-reactive protein (CRP), tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 were measured at baseline, day of surgery and on postoperative days (POD) 2, 4 and 10. Postoperative complications were recorded. The (eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid) to arachidonic acid ratio was significantly higher in IMN patients on POD 2, 4 and 10 (P < 0.01). While not statistically significant, CRP, TNF-α, and IL-6 concentrations were higher in the STD group on POD2 while IL-10 was lower. Median length of stay was 10 (range 10–43) days in the IMN group and 21.5 (7–24) days in the STD group. Five complications were seen in the STD group and two in the IMN group. The results support the need for a larger trial focusing on clinical outcome.
doi:10.3390/nu5041186
PMCID: PMC3705342  PMID: 23571650
immunonutrition; arginine; omega-3 fatty acids; fish oil; surgery; head and neck cancer; inflammation; cytokines
13.  Maternal Plasma Phosphatidylcholine Fatty Acids and Atopy and Wheeze in the Offspring at Age of 6 Years 
Variation in exposure to polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) might influence the development of atopy, asthma, and wheeze. This study aimed to determine whether differences in PUFA concentrations in maternal plasma phosphatidylcholine are associated with the risk of childhood wheeze or atopy. For 865 term-born children, we measured phosphatidylcholine fatty acid composition in maternal plasma collected at 34 weeks' gestation. Wheezing was classified using questionnaires at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months and 6 years. At age of 6 years, the children underwent skin prick testing, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) measurement, and spirometry. Maternal n-6 fatty acids and the ratio of n-3 to n-6 fatty acids were not associated with childhood wheeze. However, higher maternal eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and total n-3 fatty acids were associated with reduced risk of non-atopic persistent/late wheeze (RR 0.57, 0.67 and 0.69, resp. P = 0.01, 0.015, and 0.021, resp.). Maternal arachidonic acid was positively associated with FENO (P = 0.024). A higher ratio of linoleic acid to its unsaturated metabolic products was associated with reduced risk of skin sensitisation (RR 0.82, P = 0.013). These associations provide some support for the hypothesis that variation in exposure to n-6 and n-3 fatty acids during pregnancy influences the risk of childhood wheeze and atopy.
doi:10.1155/2012/474613
PMCID: PMC3463812  PMID: 23049600
14.  Incorporation of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids into lipid pools when given as supplements providing doses equivalent to typical intakes of oily fish1234 
Background: Estimation of the intake of oily fish at a population level is difficult. The measurement of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in biological samples may provide a useful biomarker of intake.
Objective: We identified the most appropriate biomarkers for the assessment of habitual oily fish intake and changes in intake by elucidating the dose- and time-dependent response of EPA and DHA incorporation into various biological samples that represent roles in fatty acid transport, function, and storage.
Design: This was a double-blind, randomized, controlled intervention trial in 204 men and women that lasted 12 mo. EPA and DHA capsules were provided in a manner to reflect sporadic consumption of oily fish (ie, 1, 2, or 4 times/wk). EPA and DHA were assessed at 9 time points over 12 mo in 9 sample types (red blood cells, mononuclear cells, platelets, buccal cells, adipose tissue, plasma phosphatidylcholine, triglycerides, cholesteryl esters, and nonesterified fatty acids).
Results: A dose response (P < 0.05) was observed for EPA and DHA in all pools except for red blood cell EPA (P = 0.057). EPA and DHA measures in plasma phosphatidylcholine and platelets were best for the discrimination between different intakes (P < 0.0001). The rate of incorporation varied between sample types, with the time to maximal incorporation ranging from days (plasma phosphatidylcholine) to months (mononuclear cells) to >12 mo (adipose tissue).
Conclusions: Plasma phosphatidylcholine EPA plus DHA was identified as the most suitable biomarker of acute changes in EPA and DHA intake, and platelet and mononuclear cell EPA plus DHA were the most suitable biomarkers of habitual intake. This trial was registered at Current Controlled Trials (www.controlled-trials.com) as ISRCTN48398526.
doi:10.3945/ajcn.112.041343
PMCID: PMC3441107  PMID: 22932281
15.  Workshop Report UK Food Standards Agency Workshop Report: carbohydrate and cardiovascular risk 
The British journal of nutrition  2010;103(11):1688-1694.
This report summarises a workshop convened by the UK Food Standards Agency (FSA) on 14 October 2008 to discuss current FSA-funded research on carbohydrates and cardiovascular health. The objective of this workshop was to discuss the results of recent research and to identify any areas which could inform future FSA research calls. This workshop highlighted that the FSA is currently funding some of the largest, well-powered intervention trials investigating the type of fat and carbohydrate, whole grains and fruit and vegetables, on various CVD risk factors. Results of these trials will make a substantive contribution to the evidence on diet and cardiovascular risk.
doi:10.1017/S0007114510000735
PMCID: PMC3359681  PMID: 20236556
16.  Vascular Dysfunction Induced in Offspring by Maternal Dietary Fat Involves Altered Arterial Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Biosynthesis 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(4):e34492.
Nutrition during development affects risk of future cardiovascular disease. Relatively little is known about whether the amount and type of fat in the maternal diet affect vascular function in the offspring. To investigate this, pregnant and lactating rats were fed either 7%(w/w) or 21%(w/w) fat enriched in either18:2n-6, trans fatty acids, saturated fatty acids, or fish oil. Their offspring were fed 4%(w/w) soybean oil from weaning until day 77. Type and amount of maternal dietary fat altered acetylcholine (ACh)-mediated vaso-relaxation in offspring aortae and mesenteric arteries, contingent on sex. Amount, but not type, of maternal dietary fat altered phenylephrine (Pe)-induced vasoconstriction in these arteries. Maternal 21% fat diet decreased 20:4n-6 concentration in offspring aortae. We investigated the role of Δ6 and Δ5 desaturases, showing that their inhibition in aortae and mesenteric arteries reduced vasoconstriction, but not vaso-relaxation, and the synthesis of specific pro-constriction eicosanoids. Removal of the aortic endothelium did not alter the effect of inhibition of Δ6 and Δ5 desaturases on Pe-mediated vasoconstriction. Thus arterial smooth muscle 20:4n-6 biosynthesis de novo appears to be important for Pe-mediated vasoconstriction. Next we studied genes encoding these desaturases, finding that maternal 21% fat reduced Fads2 mRNA expression and increased Fads1 in offspring aortae, indicating dysregulation of 20:4n-6 biosynthesis. Methylation at CpG −394 bp 5′ to the Fads2 transcription start site predicted its expression. This locus was hypermethylated in offspring of dams fed 21% fat. Pe treatment of aortae for 10 minutes increased Fads2, but not Fads1, mRNA expression (76%; P<0.05). This suggests that Fads2 may be an immediate early gene in the response of aortae to Pe. Thus both amount and type of maternal dietary fat induce altered regulation of vascular tone in offspring though differential effects on vaso-relaxation, and persistent changes in vasoconstriction via epigenetic processes controlling arterial polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0034492
PMCID: PMC3317992  PMID: 22509311
17.  Nutrition issues in Codex: health claims, nutrient reference values and WTO agreements: a conference report 
European Journal of Nutrition  2012;51(Suppl 1):1-7.
Background
Codex documents may be used as educational and consensus materials for member governments. Also, the WTO SPS Agreement recognizes Codex as the presumptive international authority on food issues. Nutrient bioavailability is a critical factor in determining the ability of nutrients to provide beneficial effects. Bioavailability also influences the quantitative dietary requirements that are the basis of nutrient intake recommendations and NRVs.
Health claims
Codex, EFSA and some national regulatory authorities have established guidelines or regulations that will permit several types of health claims. The scientific basis for claims has been established by the US FDA and EFSA, but not yet by Codex. Evidence-based nutrition differs from evidence-based medicine, but the differences are only recently gaining recognition. Health claims on foods may provide useful information to consumers, but many will interpret the information to mean that they can rely upon the food or nutrient to eliminate a disease risk.
Nutrient reference values
NRVs are designed to provide a quantitative basis for comparing the nutritive values of foods, helping to illustrate how specific foods fit into the overall diet. The INL-98 and the mean of adult male and female values provide NRVs that are sufficient when used as targets for individual intakes by most adults.
World Trade Organization agreements
WTO recognizes Codex as the primary international authority on food issues. Current regulatory schemes based on recommended dietary allowances are trade restrictive. A substantial number of decisions by the EFSA could lead to violation of WTO agreements.
doi:10.1007/s00394-012-0306-8
PMCID: PMC3319875  PMID: 22350923
Codex Alimentarius; Bioavailability; Health claims; Nutrient reference values; World Trade Organization; WTO agreements
20.  A novel effect of eicosapentaenoic acid: improved diaphragm strength in endotoxemia 
Critical Care  2010;14(2):143.
Respiratory muscle weakness is commonplace in critically ill patients, impairing the ability of those patients to breath, prolonging the need for ventilatory support, and increasing the likelihood of respiratory failure when that support is removed. Infections and endotoxemia reduce respiratory muscle strength, probably acting through several mechanisms. It is reported that the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) attenuates the loss in diaphragm specific force generation (that is, diaphragm strength) induced by bacterial endotoxin treatment in rats. EPA is found in fish oils. EPA reduces calpain activation, suggesting a specific effect on this proteolytic pathway. It will be important to identify whether this effect occurs in patients receiving EPA.
doi:10.1186/cc8951
PMCID: PMC2887176  PMID: 20429961
21.  Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Inflammatory Processes 
Nutrients  2010;2(3):355-374.
Long chain fatty acids influence inflammation through a variety of mechanisms; many of these are mediated by, or at least associated with, changes in fatty acid composition of cell membranes. Changes in these compositions can modify membrane fluidity, cell signaling leading to altered gene expression, and the pattern of lipid mediator production. Cell involved in the inflammatory response are typically rich in the n-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid, but the contents of arachidonic acid and of the n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can be altered through oral administration of EPA and DHA. Eicosanoids produced from arachidonic acid have roles in inflammation. EPA also gives rise to eicosanoids and these often have differing properties from those of arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids. EPA and DHA give rise to newly discovered resolvins which are anti-inflammatory and inflammation resolving. Increased membrane content of EPA and DHA (and decreased arachidonic acid content) results in a changed pattern of production of eicosanoids and resolvins. Changing the fatty acid composition of cells involved in the inflammatory response also affects production of peptide mediators of inflammation (adhesion molecules, cytokines etc.). Thus, the fatty acid composition of cells involved in the inflammatory response influences their function; the contents of arachidonic acid, EPA and DHA appear to be especially important. The anti-inflammatory effects of marine n-3 PUFAs suggest that they may be useful as therapeutic agents in disorders with an inflammatory component.
doi:10.3390/nu2030355
PMCID: PMC3257651  PMID: 22254027
leukocyte; neutrophil; macrophage; monocyte; eicosanoid; cytokine; interleukin; fish oil
22.  Effects of a fish oil containing lipid emulsion on plasma phospholipid fatty acids, inflammatory markers, and clinical outcomes in septic patients: a randomized, controlled clinical trial 
Critical Care  2010;14(1):R5.
Introduction
The effect of parenteral fish oil in septic patients is not widely studied. This study investigated the effects of parenteral fish oil on plasma phospholipid fatty acids, inflammatory mediators, and clinical outcomes.
Methods
Twenty-five patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome or sepsis, and predicted to need parenteral nutrition were randomized to receive either a 50:50 mixture of medium-chain fatty acids and soybean oil or a 50:40:10 mixture of medium-chain fatty acids, soybean oil and fish oil. Parenteral nutrition was administrated continuously for five days from admission. Cytokines and eicosanoids were measured in plasma and in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated whole blood culture supernatants. Fatty acids were measured in plasma phosphatidylcholine.
Results
Fish oil increased eicosapentaenoic acid in plasma phosphatidylcholine (P < 0.001). Plasma interleukin (IL)-6 concentration decreased significantly more, and IL-10 significantly less, in the fish oil group (both P < 0.001). At Day 6 the ratio PO2/FiO2 was significantly higher in the fish oil group (P = 0.047) and there were fewer patients with PO2/FiO2 <200 and <300 in the fish oil group (P = 0.001 and P = 0.015, respectively). Days of ventilation, length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay and mortality were not different between the two groups. The fish oil group tended to have a shorter length of hospital stay (22 ± 7 vs. 55 ± 16 days; P = 0.079) which became significant (28 ± 9 vs. 82 ± 19 days; P = 0.044) when only surviving patients were included.
Conclusions
Inclusion of fish oil in parenteral nutrition provided to septic ICU patients increases plasma eicosapentaenoic acid, modifies inflammatory cytokine concentrations and improves gas exchange. These changes are associated with a tendency towards shorter length of hospital stay.
Trials Registration
Clinical Trials Registration Number ISRCTN89432944
doi:10.1186/cc8844
PMCID: PMC2875515  PMID: 20085628
23.  Lipid emulsions in parenteral nutrition of intensive care patients: current thinking and future directions 
Intensive Care Medicine  2010;36(5):735-749.
Background
Energy deficit is a common and serious problem in intensive care units and is associated with increased rates of complications, length of stay, and mortality. Parenteral nutrition (PN), either alone or in combination with enteral nutrition, can improve nutrient delivery to critically ill patients. Lipids provide a key source of calories within PN formulations, preventing or correcting energy deficits and improving outcomes.
Discussion
In this article, we review the role of parenteral lipid emulsions (LEs) in the management of critically ill patients and highlight important biologic activities associated with lipids. Soybean-oil-based LEs with high contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were the first widely used formulations in the intensive care setting. However, they may be associated with increased rates of infection and lipid peroxidation, which can exacerbate oxidative stress. More recently developed parenteral LEs employ partial substitution of soybean oil with oils providing medium-chain triglycerides, ω-9 monounsaturated fatty acids or ω-3 PUFA. Many of these LEs have demonstrated reduced effects on oxidative stress, immune responses, and inflammation. However, the effects of these LEs on clinical outcomes have not been extensively evaluated.
Conclusions
Ongoing research using adequately designed and well-controlled studies that characterize the biologic properties of LEs should assist clinicians in selecting LEs within the critical care setting. Prescription of PN containing LEs should be based on available clinical data, while considering the individual patient’s physiologic profile and therapeutic requirements.
doi:10.1007/s00134-009-1744-5
PMCID: PMC2850535  PMID: 20072779
Energy deficit; Fatty acid; Intensive care; Lipid emulsion; Parenteral nutrition
24.  UK Food Standards Agency Workshop Report: the effects of the dietary n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio on cardiovascular health 
The British journal of nutrition  2007;98(6):1305-1310.
This report summarises a workshop convened by the UK Food Standards Agency (FSA) on 11 September 2006 to review the results of three FSA-funded studies and other recent research on effects of the dietary n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio on cardiovascular health. The objective of this workshop was to reach a clear conclusion on whether or not it was worth funding any further research in this area. On the basis of this review of the experimental evidence and on theoretical grounds, it was concluded that the n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio is not a useful concept and that it distracts attention away from increasing absolute intakes of long-chain n-3 fatty acids which have been shown to have beneficial effects on cardiovascular health. Other markers of fatty acid intake, that more closely relate to physiological function, may be more useful.
doi:10.1017/S000711450784284X
PMCID: PMC2755100  PMID: 18039412
Polyunsaturated fatty acids; Cardiovascular disease; Fish oil
25.  Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Inflammation: Novel Interactions Reveal a New Step in Neutrophil Recruitment 
PLoS Biology  2009;7(8):e1000177.
While investigating new mechanisms by which the dietary omega-3 fatty acids regulate inflammation, the authors have identified a new step in the regulation of neutrophil migration across vascular endothelial cells.
Inflammation is a physiological response to tissue trauma or infection, but leukocytes, which are the effector cells of the inflammatory process, have powerful tissue remodelling capabilities. Thus, to ensure their precise localisation, passage of leukocytes from the blood into inflamed tissue is tightly regulated. Recruitment of blood borne neutrophils to the tissue stroma occurs during early inflammation. In this process, peptide agonists of the chemokine family are assumed to provide a chemotactic stimulus capable of supporting the migration of neutrophils across vascular endothelial cells, through the basement membrane of the vessel wall, and out into the tissue stroma. Here, we show that, although an initial chemokine stimulus is essential for the recruitment of flowing neutrophils by endothelial cells stimulated with the inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-α, transit of the endothelial monolayer is regulated by an additional and downstream stimulus. This signal is supplied by the metabolism of the omega-6-polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-6-PUFA), arachidonic acid, into the eicosanoid prostaglandin-D2 (PGD2) by cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes. This new step in the neutrophil recruitment process was revealed when the dietary n-3-PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), was utilised as an alternative substrate for COX enzymes, leading to the generation of PGD3. This alternative series eicosanoid inhibited the migration of neutrophils across endothelial cells by antagonising the PGD2 receptor. Here, we describe a new step in the neutrophil recruitment process that relies upon a lipid-mediated signal to regulate the migration of neutrophils across endothelial cells. PGD2 signalling is subordinate to the chemokine-mediated activation of neutrophils, but without the sequential delivery of this signal, neutrophils fail to penetrate the endothelial cell monolayer. Importantly, the ability of the dietary n-3-PUFA, EPA, to inhibit this process not only revealed an unsuspected level of regulation in the migration of inflammatory leukocytes, it also contributes to our understanding of the interactions of this bioactive lipid with the inflammatory system. Moreover, it indicates the potential for novel therapeutics that target the inflammatory system with greater affinity and/or specificity than supplementing the diet with n-3-PUFAs.
Author Summary
Inflammation is a physiological response to tissue trauma or infection. Neutrophils, which circulate in the blood stream, are the first inflammatory cells to be recruited to a site of tissue inflammation. In response to recruitment signals provided by chemotactic peptides called chemokines, neutrophils traverse the endothelial cell lining of blood vessels. This process involves a multistep cascade of neutrophil adhesion and activation events on the endothelial barrier. While investigating the anti-inflammatory functions of the omega-3 fatty acid , EPA, which is found, for instance, in dietary fish oil, we identified an additional unexpected lipid-derived signal that is essential for neutrophil migration across the endothelium. Our experiments show that a chemokine delivered the first signal needed to bind neutrophils firmly to the endothelial surface. However, in order to traverse the endothelium, a subsequent signal delivered by prostaglandin-D2 (PGD2), a lipid derived from the omega-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid, was essential. When EPA, was introduced into the experiment, it was used to form PGD3. This alternative lipid blocked interactions between PGD2 and its receptor on neutrophils, preventing the process of migration across the endothelial barrier. Thus, we reveal a new step in the recruitment of neutrophils during inflammation, and a novel anti-inflammatory mechanism of action of dietary EPA.
doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1000177
PMCID: PMC2718617  PMID: 19707265

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