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1.  The presence of bacteria species in semen and sperm quality 
Purpose
To verify the prevalence of semen bacterial contamination and whether the contamination could decrease sperm quality.
Methods
Spermiogram, semen culture, and sperm transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis were performed. TEM data were elaborated using a mathematical formula that calculates a fertility index (FI)—able to define patients as fertile or infertile—and the percentage of sperm apoptosis, immaturity and necrosis. We aligned the amino acid sequence of beta-tubulin with protein of the most frequent species isolated from semen.
Results
Patients were divided according to the contaminating species; in each group, we observed fertile individuals, in whom the semen quality was similar to that of controls and infertile men whose sperm quality was significantly decreased, in terms of motility, FI, apoptosis and necrosis. Partial homology between β-tubulin and bacterial proteins was observed.
Conclusion
Sperm bacterial contamination is quite frequent and could contribute to the deterioration of the sperm quality of infertile men.
doi:10.1007/s10815-008-9283-5
PMCID: PMC2649329  PMID: 19089609
Bacteria; Semen quality; Spermatozoa; TEM
2.  18, X, Y aneuploidies and transmission electron microscopy studies in spermatozoa from five carriers of different reciprocal translocations 
Asian Journal of Andrology  2009;11(3):325-332.
We analysed ejaculated spermatozoa from five infertile men with different balanced reciprocal translocations to contribute to the study of meiotic segregation of chromosomes 18, X and Y and also to evaluate sperm morphology by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Conventional lymphocyte karyotype analyses highlighted different reciprocal balanced translocations: t(12;13), t(4;9), t(X;8), t(8;10) and t(3;16). Semen analysis was performed by light and TEM. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed directly on sperm nuclei using centromeric probes for chromosomes 18, X and Y. The carriers of the balanced reciprocal translocations considered in the present study showed a very similar pattern of sperm pathologies: diffused presence of apoptosis and immaturity. All patients showed meiotic segregation derangements, highlighted by the presence of sperm diploidies and sex chromosome disomies particularly related to the failure of the first meiotic division. However, an increased incidence of chromosome 18 aneuploidy was detected in spermatozoa from t(X;8) and t(8;10) carriers. We have also reported values from sex chromosomes such as t(X;8), although the X chromosome was involved in translocation. Since patients with reciprocal translocations and spermatogenetic impairment are candidates for intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles, the study of sperm parameters, and particularly of the level of aneuploidy rates, would provide better information for couples at risk and would contribute to the data in the literature for a better understanding of the effects of chromosomal rearrangement on the whole meiotic process and, in particular, on chromosomes not involved in translocation.
doi:10.1038/aja.2008.31
PMCID: PMC3735288  PMID: 19349951
electron microscopy; fluorescence in situ hybridization; altered karyotype; spermatozoa; reciprocal translocation

Results 1-2 (2)