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1.  A Phase I/II Study of Erlotinib in Combination with the Anti-Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Receptor Monoclonal Antibody IMC-A12 (Cixutumumab) in Patients with Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer 
Journal of Thoracic Oncology  2012;7(2):419-426.
This phase I/II study evaluated the safety and anti-tumor effect of the combination of erlotinib with cixutumumab, a recombinant fully humanized anti-insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor IgG1 monoclonal antibody, in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
Patients with advanced NSCLC were treated in an initial safety-lead and drop-down cohorts using erlotinib 150 mg/d with cixutumumab 6 or 5 mg/kg on days 1, 8, 15, and 22 in 28-day cycles (cohorts 1 and 2). Emerging pharmacokinetic data led to an additional cohort (3 + 3 design) with cixutumumab at 15 mg/kg on day 1 in 21-day cycles (cohort 3).
Eighteen patients entered the study (6 at 6 mg/kg, 8 at 5 mg/kg, and 4 at 15 mg/kg), with median age of 65 years. Four of six patients at 6 mg/kg experienced dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), whereas at 5 mg/kg, one of eight patients experienced DLT but three of eight patients still required a dose delay during cycle 1. At 15 mg/kg every 21 days, two of four patients experienced DLTs. In all cohorts, DLTs were either G3 rash or fatigue. Five patients had stable disease as best response and 14 patients had progressive disease. The median progression-free survival was 39 days (range 21–432+ days). Biomarkers analyses showed a trend toward better progression-free survival seen with higher free baseline insulin-like growth factor-1 levels as seen with other insulin-like growth factor-1R inhibitors.
The combinations of cixutumumab at 6 mg/kg every 7 days and 15 mg/kg every 21 days and full-dose erlotinib are not tolerable in unselected patients with NSCLC, as measured by DLT. Cixutumumab at 5 mg/kg every 7 days was tolerable per DLT, but dose delays were common. Efficacy in unselected patients with NSCLC seems to be low.
PMCID: PMC3358820  PMID: 22237261
Non-small cell lung cancer; IGF1R monoclonal antibody; EGFR; Metastatic disease
2.  Randomized, Phase II Study of the Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Receptor Inhibitor IMC-A12, With or Without Cetuximab, in Patients With Cetuximab- or Panitumumab-Refractory Metastatic Colorectal Cancer 
Journal of Clinical Oncology  2010;28(27):4240-4246.
To evaluate the safety and efficacy of IMC-A12, a human monoclonal antibody (mAb) that blocks insulin-like growth factor receptor-1 (IGF-1R), as monotherapy or in combination with cetuximab in patients with metastatic refractory anti–epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mAb colorectal cancer.
A randomized, phase II study was performed in which patients in arm A received IMC-A12 10 mg/kg intravenously (IV) every 2 weeks, while patients in arm B received this same dose of IMC-A12 plus cetuximab 500 mg/m2 IV every 2 weeks. Subsequently, arm C (same combination treatment as arm B) was added to include patients who had disease control on a prior anti-EGFR mAb and wild-type KRAS tumors. Archived pretreatment tumor tissue was obtained when possible for KRAS, PIK3CA, and BRAF genotyping, and immunohistochemistry was obtained for pAKT as well as IGF-1R.
Overall, 64 patients were treated (median age, 61 years; range, 40 to 84 years): 23 patients in arm A, 21 in arm B, and 20 in arm C. No antitumor activity was seen in the 23 patients treated with IMC-A12 monotherapy. Of the 21 patients randomly assigned to IMC-A12 plus cetuximab, one patient (with KRAS wild type) achieved a partial response, with disease control lasting 6.5 months. Arm C (all patients with KRAS wild type), however, showed no additional antitumor activity. Serious adverse events thought possibly related to IMC-A12 included a grade 2 infusion-related reaction (2%; one of 64 patients), thrombocytopenia (2%; one of 64 patients), grade 3 hyperglycemia (2%; one of 64 patients), and grade 1 pyrexia (2%, one of 64 patients).
IMC-A12 alone or in combination with cetuximab was insufficient to warrant additional study in patients with colorectal cancer refractory to EGFR inhibitors.
PMCID: PMC3296668  PMID: 20713879
3.  Phase I Pharmacologic and Biologic Study of Ramucirumab (IMC-1121B), a Fully Human Immunoglobulin G1 Monoclonal Antibody Targeting the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 
Journal of Clinical Oncology  2010;28(5):780-787.
To evaluate the safety, maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), pharmacokinetics (PKs), pharmacodynamics, and preliminary anticancer activity of ramucirumab (IMC-1121B), a fully human immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibody targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-2.
Patients and Methods
Patients with advanced solid malignancies were treated once weekly with escalating doses of ramucirumab. Blood was sampled for PK studies throughout treatment. The effects of ramucirumab on circulating vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), soluble VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2, tumor perfusion, and vascularity using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging were assessed.
Thirty-seven patients were treated with 2 to 16 mg/kg of ramucirumab. After one patient each developed dose-limiting hypertension and deep venous thrombosis at 16 mg/kg, the next lower dose (13 mg/kg) was considered the MTD. Nausea, vomiting, headache, fatigue, and proteinuria were also noted. Four (15%) of 27 patients with measurable disease had a partial response (PR), and 11 (30%) of 37 patients had either a PR or stable disease lasting at least 6 months. PKs were characterized by dose-dependent elimination and nonlinear exposure consistent with saturable clearance. Mean trough concentrations exceeded biologically relevant target levels throughout treatment at all dose levels. Serum VEGF-A increased 1.5 to 3.5 times above pretreatment values and remained in this range throughout treatment at all dose levels. Tumor perfusion and vascularity decreased in 69% of evaluable patients.
Objective antitumor activity and antiangiogenic effects were observed over a wide range of dose levels, suggesting that ramucirumab may have a favorable therapeutic index in treating malignancies amenable to VEGFR-2 inhibition.
PMCID: PMC2834394  PMID: 20048182
4.  Pleiotropic Stromal Effects of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 2 Antibody Therapy in Renal Cell Carcinoma Models1 
Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)  2011;13(1):49-59.
The benefits of inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling in cancer patients are predominantly attributed to effects on tumor endothelial cells. Targeting non-endothelial stromal cells to further impact tumor cell growth and survival is being pursued through the inhibition of additional growth factor pathways important for the survival and/or proliferation of these cells. However, recent data suggest that VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-specific inhibitors may target lymphatic vessels and pericytes in addition to blood vessels. Here, in fact, we demonstrate that DC101 (40 mg/kg, thrice a week), an antibody specific to murine VEGFR2, significantly reduces all three of these stromal components in subcutaneous (SKRC-29) and orthotopic (786-O-LP) models of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) established in nu/nu athymic mice. Sunitinib (40 mg/kg, once daily), a receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor of VEGFR2 and other growth factor receptors, also caused significant loss of tumor blood vessels in RCC models but had weaker effects than DC101 on pericytes and lymphatic vessels. In combination, sunitinib did not significantly add to the effects of DC101 on tumor blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, or pericytes. Nevertheless, sunitinib increased the effect of DC101 on tumor burden in the SKRC-29 model, perhaps related to its broader specificity. Our data have important implications for combination therapy design, supporting the conclusion that targeting VEGFR2 alone in RCC has the potential to have pleiotropic effects on tumor stroma.
PMCID: PMC3022428  PMID: 21245940
5.  Defective mitochondrial peroxiredoxin-3 results in sensitivity to oxidative stress in Fanconi anemia 
The Journal of Cell Biology  2006;175(2):225-235.
Cells from patients with Fanconi anemia (FA), an inherited disorder that includes bone marrow failure and cancer predisposition, have increased sensitivity to oxidative stress through an unknown mechanism. We demonstrate that the FA group G (FANCG) protein is found in mitochondria. Wild-type but not G546R mutant FANCG physically interacts with the mitochondrial peroxidase peroxiredoxin-3 (PRDX3). PRDX3 is deregulated in FA cells, including cleavage by a calpainlike cysteine protease and mislocalization. FA-G cells demonstrate distorted mitochondrial structures, and mitochondrial extracts have a sevenfold decrease in thioredoxin-dependent peroxidase activity. Transient overexpression of PRDX3 suppresses the sensitivity of FA-G cells to H2O2, and decreased PRDX3 expression increases sensitivity to mitomycin C. Cells from the FA-A and -C subtypes also have PRDX3 cleavage and decreased peroxidase activity. This study demonstrates a role for the FA proteins in mitochondria witsh sensitivity to oxidative stress resulting from diminished peroxidase activity. These defects may lead to apoptosis and the accumulation of oxidative DNA damage in bone marrow precursors.
PMCID: PMC2064564  PMID: 17060495
6.  Cell Cycle-dependent Expression and Nucleolar Localization of hCAP-H 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  2001;12(11):3527-3537.
Condensin is a conserved 13S heteropentamer composed of two nonidentical structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) family proteins, in Xenopus XCAP-C and XCAP-E, and three regulatory subunits, XCAP-D2, XCAP-G, and XCAP-H. Both biochemical and genetic analyses have demonstrated an essential role for the 13S condensin complex in mitotic chromosome condensation. Further, a potential requirement for condensin in completion of chromatid arm separation in early anaphase is demonstrated by the mutational phenotypes of the Drosophila homologues of XCAP-H, barren and XCAP-C, DmSMC4. In this study we have investigated the expression and subcellular distribution of hCAP-H, the human homolog of XCAP-H, in order to better understand its cellular functions. Transcription of hCAP-H was restricted to proliferating cells with highest expression during the G2 phase of the cell cycle. In contrast, cellular hCAP-H protein levels were constant throughout the cell cycle. hCAP-H was found to be associated with mitotic chromosomes exhibiting a nonuniform but symmetric distribution along sister chromatids. The symmetry of hCAP-H association with sister chromatids suggests that there are sequence-dependent domains of condensin aggregation. During interphase hCAP-H, -C, and -E, have distinct punctate nucleolar localization, suggesting that condensin may associate with and modulate the conformation and function of rDNA. hCAP-H association with condensed chromatin was not observed in the early phase of chromosome condensation when histone H3 phosphorylation has already taken place. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that histone H3 phosphorylation precedes condensin-mediated condensation.
PMCID: PMC60273  PMID: 11694586

Results 1-6 (6)