PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-6 (6)
 

Clipboard (0)
None

Select a Filter Below

Journals
Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  Lenalidomide in combination with gemcitabine as first-line treatment for patients with metastatic carcinoma of the pancreas 
Cancer Biology & Therapy  2013;14(4):340-346.
Objectives: To evaluate the 6-mo overall survival, safety and tolerability of lenalidomide in combination with standard gemcitabine as first-line treatment for patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer. Methods: Eligibility included: previously untreated metastatic adenocarcinoma of the pancreas with metastases incurable by surgery/radiation therapy; ECOG PS 0–2; adequate organ function; prophylactic anticoagulation for venous thromboembolic events (VTEs). Patients received lenalidomide 25 mg PO (days 1–21) and gemcitabine 1,000 mg/m2 IV (days 1, 8 and 15) each 28-day cycle, with response evaluations every eight weeks. Results: Between 5/2009–4/2010, 72 patients (median age 64 years; 68% male; 42% ECOG PS 0) were enrolled in this multicenter, community-based study. Six-month OS was 37% (95% CI 26–48%). Median PFS and OS were 2.3 (95% CI 1.9–3.5) and 4.7 (95% CI 3.4–5.7) months, respectively. Eight partial responses (11%) were documented. Thirty-nine patients (54%) experienced thrombocytopenia (2 patients, 3% grade 4). Hematologic toxicities resulted in dose modifications for the majority of patients. Twenty patients (28%) developed VTEs during treatment. Conclusions: The observed 6-month OS (37%) of lenalidomide with gemcitabine does not suggest improvement compared with historical results with gemcitabine alone. Toxicities and dose modifications likely limited dose intensity. Further development of this regimen in pancreas cancer is not recommended.
doi:10.4161/cbt.23625
PMCID: PMC3667874  PMID: 23358470
pancreas cancer; lenalidomide; phase II; gemcitabine combination
2.  The Value of Observational Cohort Studies for Cancer Drugs 
Biotechnology healthcare  2010;7(2):18-24.
Although the risk of bias is greater, OCS can provide much-needed data on the efficacy of cancer treatment and intervention in oncology practices.
Randomized controlled trials — the gold standard for clinical drug evaluation —can’t always predict adverse events in real-world settings. For the new cancer therapies, observational cohort studies (OCSs) can help evaluate their effects in broader populations and provide valuable information for future clinical trials.
PMCID: PMC2899798  PMID: 22478817
3.  A Phase I Study of Weekly Topotecan in Combination with Pemetrexed in Patients with Advanced Malignancies 
The Oncologist  2010;15(9):954-960.
The safety, tolerability, preliminary antitumor activity, and pharmacokinetic interaction of weekly topotecan plus pemetrexed in patients with advanced solid tumors were investigated. The combination was well tolerated and active.
Introduction.
This phase I study evaluated the safety, tolerability, preliminary antitumor activity, and pharmacokinetic interaction of weekly topotecan (days 1 and 8) in combination with pemetrexed (day 1 only) in patients with advanced solid tumors.
Methods.
Patients received topotecan (3.0–4.0 mg/m2 i.v. days 1 and 8) and pemetrexed (375–500 mg/m2 i.v. day 1) over 21-day cycles. Patients were accrued across five different dose levels and were observed for safety, tolerability, and preliminary activity.
Results.
Twenty-six patients received 120 cycles of pemetrexed and topotecan, including five patients who received 8, 8, 10, 12, and 17 cycles without dose reductions, confirming a lack of cumulative myelosuppression. Four patients received topotecan (4.0 mg/m2 i.v.) and pemetrexed (500 mg/m2 i.v.), but experienced two dose-limiting toxicities (febrile neutropenia, grade 4 thrombocytopenia). As a result, the topotecan (3.5 mg/m2 i.v.) and pemetrexed (500 mg/m2 i.v.) group was expanded to 12 patients. The only grade 3 or 4 nonhematologic toxicity was one episode of grade 3 fatigue; no grade 3 or 4 nausea/vomiting/diarrhea, mucositis, or rash was reported. One non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patient (12 months) and one soft tissue sarcoma patient (6 months) achieved a partial response.
Conclusions.
Weekly topotecan plus every-3-week pemetrexed was well tolerated and active. Full doses of topotecan plus pemetrexed caused brief reversible myelosuppression with minimal dose delays/reductions; no grade 3 or 4 nausea/vomiting/diarrhea, mucositis, or rash was reported. All six NSCLC patients at the recommended phase II dose had at least stable disease as a best response, including one partial response lasting 12 months. There was no evidence of an effect of pemetrexed on topotecan pharmacokinetics. Collectively, these data suggest that further phase II exploration of weekly topotecan plus every-3-week pemetrexed for advanced malignancies is indicated.
doi:10.1634/theoncologist.2010-0006
PMCID: PMC3228036  PMID: 20798192
Topotecan; Pemetrexed; Hematologic toxicity; Pharmacokinetics; Advanced solid tumors
4.  Molecular Profiling in Unknown Primary Cancer: Accuracy of Tissue of Origin Prediction 
The Oncologist  2010;15(5):500-506.
The authors evaluated the accuracy of tissue-of-origin prediction by molecular profiling in patients with carcinoma of unknown primary site. They found the Cancer Type ID assay (bioTheranostics, Inc.) to be reliable in predicting the primary site in patients with carcinoma of unknown primary, and suggest that this could form the basis for more successful site-directed therapy when used in concert with clinicopathologic data.
Introduction.
This retrospective, multi-institutional study evaluated the accuracy of tissue-of-origin prediction by molecular profiling in patients with carcinoma of unknown primary site (CUP).
Methods.
Thirty-eight of 501 patients (7.6%) with CUP, seen in 2000–2008, had their latent primary site tumor subsequently identified during life. Twenty-eight of these patients (73.7%) had adequate initial tissue biopsies available for molecular profiling with a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay (Cancer Type ID; bioTheranostics, Inc., San Diego, CA). The assay was performed on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded biopsy specimens in a blinded fashion, and the assay results were compared with clinicopathologic data and the actual latent primary sites.
Results.
Twenty of the 28 (71.4%) RT-PCR assays were successfully completed (eight biopsies had either insufficient tumor or poorly preserved RNA). Fifteen of the 20 assay predictions (75%) were correct (95% confidence interval, 60%–85%), corresponding to the actual latent primary sites identified after the initial diagnosis of CUP. Primary sites correctly identified included breast (four patients), ovary/primary peritoneal (four patients), non-small cell lung (three patients), colorectal (two patients), gastric (one patient), and melanoma (one patient). Three predictions were incorrect (intestinal, testicular, sarcoma) in patients with gastroesophageal, pancreatic, and non-small cell lung cancer, respectively, and two were unclassifiable in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Clinicopathologic findings were helpful in suggesting the correct primary site in some patients and appear to complement the molecular assay findings.
Conclusions.
These data validate the reliability of this assay in predicting the primary site in CUP patients and may form the basis for more successful site-directed therapy, when used in concert with clinicopathologic data.
doi:10.1634/theoncologist.2009-0328
PMCID: PMC3227979  PMID: 20427384
Carcinoma of unknown primary site; Molecular profiling; Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction; Site-directed therapy
5.  Safety, Activity, and Immune Correlates of Anti–PD-1 Antibody in Cancer 
The New England journal of medicine  2012;366(26):2443-2454.
Background
Blockade of programmed death 1 (PD-1), an inhibitory receptor expressed by T cells, can overcome immune resistance. We assessed the antitumor activity and safety of BMS-936558, an antibody that specifically blocks PD-1.
Methods
We enrolled patients with advanced melanoma, non–small-cell lung cancer, castration-resistant prostate cancer, or renal-cell or colorectal cancer to receive anti–PD-1 antibody at a dose of 0.1 to 10.0 mg per kilogram of body weight every 2 weeks. Response was assessed after each 8-week treatment cycle. Patients received up to 12 cycles until disease progression or a complete response occurred.
Results
A total of 296 patients received treatment through February 24, 2012. Grade 3 or 4 drug-related adverse events occurred in 14% of patients; there were three deaths from pulmonary toxicity. No maximum tolerated dose was defined. Adverse events consistent with immune-related causes were observed. Among 236 patients in whom response could be evaluated, objective responses (complete or partial responses) were observed in those with non–small-cell lung cancer, melanoma, or renal-cell cancer. Cumulative response rates (all doses) were 18% among patients with non–small-cell lung cancer (14 of 76 patients), 28% among patients with melanoma (26 of 94 patients), and 27% among patients with renal-cell cancer (9 of 33 patients). Responses were durable; 20 of 31 responses lasted 1 year or more in patients with 1 year or more of follow-up. To assess the role of intratumoral PD-1 ligand (PD-L1) expression in the modulation of the PD-1–PD-L1 pathway, immunohistochemical analysis was performed on pretreatment tumor specimens obtained from 42 patients. Of 17 patients with PD-L1–negative tumors, none had an objective response; 9 of 25 patients (36%) with PD-L1–positive tumors had an objective response (P = 0.006).
Conclusions
Anti–PD-1 antibody produced objective responses in approximately one in four to one in five patients with non–small-cell lung cancer, melanoma, or renal-cell cancer; the adverse-event profile does not appear to preclude its use. Preliminary data suggest a relationship between PD-L1 expression on tumor cells and objective response. (Funded by Bristol-Myers Squibb and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00730639.)
doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1200690
PMCID: PMC3544539  PMID: 22658127
6.  A Phase I Dose-Escalation Study of Danusertib (PHA-739358) Administered as a 24-hour Infusion With and Without G-CSF in a 14-day Cycle in Patients with Advanced Solid Tumors 
Purpose
This study was conducted to assess the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the intravenous pan-aurora kinase inhibitor PHA-739358, danusertib, in patients with advanced solid tumors.
Experimental Design
In Part 1, patients received escalating doses of danusertib (24-h infusion every 14 days) without filgrastim (G-CSF). Febrile neutropenia was the dose-limiting toxicity without G-CSF. Further dose escalation was performed in part 2 with G-CSF. Blood samples were collected for danusertib pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Skin biopsies were collected to assess histone H3 phosphorylation (pH3).
Results
Fifty-six patients were treated, 40 in part 1 and 16 in part 2. Febrile neutropenia was the dose limiting toxicity in Part 1 without G-CSF. Most other adverse events were grade 1–2, occurring at doses ≥360 mg/m2 with similar incidence in parts 1 and 2. The MTD without G-CSF is 500 mg/m2. The recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D) in Part 2 with G-CSF is 750 mg/m2. Danusertib demonstrated dose-proportional pharmacokinetics in parts 1 and 2 with a median half-life of 18–26 hours. pH3 modulation in skin biopsies was observed at ≥500 mg/m2. One patient with refractory small cell lung cancer (1000 mg/m2 with G-CSF) had an objective response lasting 23 weeks. One patient with refractory ovarian cancer had 27% tumor regression and 30% CA125 decline.
Conclusions
Danusertib was well tolerated with target inhibition in skin at ≥500 mg/m2. Preliminary evidence of anti-tumor activity, including a PR and several occurrences of prolonged stable disease (SD), was seen across a variety of advanced refractory cancers. Phase II studies are ongoing.
doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-09-1445
PMCID: PMC2826106  PMID: 19825950
Danusertib; PHA-739358; Aurora Kinase Inhibitor; phase I trial; solid tumors

Results 1-6 (6)