The effect of a low glycemic load (GL) diet on insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentration is still unknown but may contribute to lower chronic disease risk. We aimed to assess the impact of GL on concentrations of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3.
We conducted a randomized, controlled crossover feeding trial in 84 overweight-obese and normal weight healthy individuals using two 28-day weight-maintaining high- and low-GL diets. Measures were fasting and post-prandial concentrations of insulin, glucose, IGF-1 and IGFBP-3. 20 participants completed post-prandial testing by consuming a test breakfast at the end of each feeding period. We used paired t-tests for diet-component and linear mixed models for biomarker analyses.
The 28-day low-GL diet led to 4% lower fasting concentrations of IGF-1 (10.6 ng/mL, p=0.04) and a 4% lower ratio of IGF-1/IGFBP-3 (0.24, p=0.01) compared to the high-GL diet. The low-GL test breakfast led to 43% and 27% lower mean post-prandial glucose and insulin responses, respectively; mean incremental areas under the curve for glucose and insulin, respectively, were 64.3±21.8 (mmol/L/240min) (p<0.01) and 2253±539 (μU/mL/240min) (p<0.01) lower following the low- compared to the high-GL test meal. There was no effect of GL on mean HOMA-IR or on mean integrated post-prandial concentrations of glucose-adjusted insulin, IGF-1 or IGFBP-3. We did not observe modification of the dietary effect by adiposity.
Low-GL diets resulted in 43% and 27% lower post-prandial responses of glucose and insulin, respectively, and modestly lower fasting IGF-1 concentrations. Further intervention studies are needed to weigh the impact of dietary GL on risk for chronic disease.
Adiposity; Glycemic Index; Insulin Resistance; Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3; Randomized Controlled Trial [Publication Type]
To evaluate racial variation in umbilical cord blood concentration of vitamin D and to explore its correlation with markers of the insulin-like growth factor axis (IGFs) and sex steroid hormones in white and black male neonates.
In 2004/2005 venous umbilical cord blood samples were collected from 75 black and 38 white male neonates, along with maternal and birth characteristics from two hospitals in Maryland, US. 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA), testosterone, estradiol and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) by immunoassay and IGF-1, IGF-2, and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) by ELISA. Crude and multivariable-adjusted geometric mean concentrations were computed.
Mean 25(OH)D levels were lower in black than in white neonates (11.44; 95% CI 10.10–12.95 ng/mL vs. 18.24; 95% CI 15.32–21.72 ng/mL; p<0.0001). Black neonates were at higher risk of suboptimal vitamin D levels [25(OH)D < 20 ng/mL] than whites (84% vs. 63%). 25(OH)D concentrations varied by season in whites but not in blacks and were significantly inversely correlated with mother’s parity (number of live births) in blacks but not in whites. Mean concentration of 1,25(OH)2D did not differ by race. 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D did not correlate with IGFs, sex steroid hormones and SHBG.
Suboptimal vitamin D levels were prevalent especially in blacks and influenced by mother’s parity and by season. The observed vitamin D differences between black and white neonates warrant further evaluation of the etiology of the disparity in chronic diseases in adulthood.
Vitamin D; umbilical cord blood; black and white Americans
Many epidemiologic studies have examined the association between CRP and risk of cancer with inconsistent results.
We conducted two nested, case-control studies in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study and Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer (PLCO) Screening Trial to test whether pre-diagnostic circulating CRP concentrations were associated with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Between 1985 and 2004, 311 cases occurred in ATBC and between 1994 and 2006, 182 cases occurred in PLCO. Controls (n=510 in ATBC, n=374 in PLCO) were alive at the time the case was diagnosed and were matched by age, date of blood draw, sex, and race. We used conditional logistic regression adjusted for smoking to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for pancreatic cancer.
CRP concentrations (ng/ml) tended to be inversely or not associated with pancreatic cancer risk in ATBC, PLCO, and combined analyses (per standardized quintile increase in CRP, continuous OR= 0.94, 95% CI 0.89, 0.99; OR=0.99, 95% CI 0.95, 1.04; OR=0.98, 95% CI 0.95, 1.01, respectively). In combined analyses, we observed a significant interaction (p-interaction=0.02) such that inverse associations were suggestive in younger (OR=0.95; 95% CI, 0.90–1.01), but not older participants.
Our results do not support the hypothesis that higher CRP concentrations are associated with incident pancreatic cancer.
Our results highlight the importance of investigating more specific biomarkers for inflammation that may reflect the biological mechanisms underlying pancreatic cancer in prospective cohort studies.
CRP; ATBC; PLCO; Pancreatic; Case-Control
Body size in early life has been associated with breast cancer risk. This may be partly mediated through the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathway. The authors assessed whether birth weight, body fatness at ages 5 and 10 years, and body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)2) at age 18 years were associated with plasma concentrations of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 in 6,520 women aged 32–70 years at blood draw from the Nurses’ Health Study (1990–2006) and Nurses’ Health Study II (1997–2005). Birth weight, body fatness in childhood, and BMI at age 18 years were inversely associated with adult IGF-1 levels. For example, IGF-1 levels were 11.9% lower in women who reported being heaviest at age 10 years than in those who were leanest at age 10 (P-trend < 0.0001). Further, women who reported their birth weight as ≥10 pounds (≥4.5 kg) (vs. <5.5 pounds (<2.5 kg)) had 7.9% lower IGF-1 levels (P-trend = 0.002). Women whose BMI at age 18 years was ≥30 (vs. <20) had 14.1% lower IGF-1 levels (P-trend < 0.0001). Similar inverse associations were observed for insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3. These observations did not vary by adult BMI or menopausal status at blood draw. These findings suggest that altered IGF-1 levels in adulthood may be a mechanism through which early-life body size influences subsequent breast cancer risk.
birth weight; body mass index; breast neoplasms; child; growth; insulin-like growth factor 1; insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3; obesity
To evaluate whether there is racial variation in venous umbilical cord blood concentrations of sex steroid hormones and the insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-axis between female African-American and white neonates.
Maternal and birth characteristics and venous umbilical cord blood samples were collected from 77 African-American and 41 white full-term uncomplicated births at two urban hospitals in 2004 and 2005. Cord blood was measured for testosterone, dehydroespiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS), estradiol, sex-steroid hormone binding globulin (SHBG) by immunoassay. IGF-1, IGF-2, and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) were measured by ELISA. Crude and multivariable-adjusted geometric mean concentrations were computed for the hormones.
African-American neonates weighed less at birth (3,228 vs. 3,424 grams, p<0.004) than whites. Birth weight was positively correlated with IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and the molar ratio of IGF1 to IGFBP-3, but inversely correlated with the molar ratio of IGF-2 to IGFBP-3. Adjusted models showed higher testosterone (1.82 vs. 1.47 ng/mL, p=0.006) and the molar ratio of testosterone to SHBG (0.42 vs. 0.30, p=0.03) in African-American compared to white female neonates. IGF-1, IGF-2, and IGFBP-3 were lower in African-American compared to white female neonates, but only the difference for IGF-2 remained significant (496.5 vs. 539.2 ng/mL, p=0.04).
We provide evidence of racial variation in cord blood testosterone and testosterone to SHBG in African-American compared to white female neonates, and higher IGF-2 in white compared to African-American female neonates. Findings suggest plausible explanations for a prenatal influence on subsequent breast cancer risk and mortality. Further work is needed to confirm these observations.
umbilical cord blood; IGF axis; sex steroid hormones; African American
Previous studies have suggested that higher plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D] levels are associated with decreased colorectal cancer risk and improved survival, but the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in advanced colorectal cancer and its influence on outcomes are unknown.
Patients and Methods
We prospectively measured plasma 25(OH)D levels in 515 patients with stage IV colorectal cancer participating in a randomized trial of chemotherapy. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25(OH)D lower than 20 ng/mL, insufficiency as 20 to 29 ng/mL, and sufficiency as ≥ 30 ng/mL. We examined the association between baseline 25(OH)D level and selected patient characteristics. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) for death, disease progression, and tumor response, adjusted for prognostic factors.
Among 515 eligible patients, 50% of the study population was vitamin D deficient, and 82% were vitamin D insufficient. Plasma 25(OH)D levels were lower in black patients compared to white patients and patients of other race (median, 10.7 v 21.1 v 19.3 ng/mL, respectively; P < .001), and females compared to males (median, 18.3 v 21.7 ng/mL, respectively; P = .0005). Baseline plasma 25(OH)D levels were not associated with patient outcome, although given the distribution of plasma levels in this cohort, statistical power for survival analyses were limited.
Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent among patients with stage IV colorectal cancer receiving first-line chemotherapy, particularly in black and female patients.
Previous research in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and the NHSII observed that, among women diagnosed with benign breast disease (BBD), those with predominant type 1/no type 3 lobules (a marker of complete involution) versus other lobule types were at lower risk of subsequent breast cancer. Studies in animal models suggest that insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) may inhibit involution of lobules in the breast; however, this has not been studied in humans.
We conducted a cross-sectional study among 472 women in the NHSII who were diagnosed with biopsy-confirmed proliferative BBD between 1991 and 2002 and provided blood samples between 1996 and 1999. A pathologist, blinded to exposure status, classified lobule type in normal adjacent tissue on available biopsy slides according to the number of acini per lobule. For each participant, the pathologist determined the predominant lobule type (that is, type 1, type 2, or type 3) and whether any type 1 or any type 3 lobules were present. Lobule type was then classified as: predominant type 1/no type 3 lobules, which is suggestive of complete involution; or other lobule types. Multivariate logistic models were used to assess the associations between plasma IGF-1, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), and the ratio of IGF-1:IGFBP-3 levels with lobule type.
In univariate analyses, greater age, higher body mass index, postmenopausal status, nulliparity, and lower IGF-1 levels were associated with predominant type 1/no type 3 lobules (P < 0.05). In multivariate models adjusting for age and assay batch, higher IGF-1 levels were associated with decreased odds of predominant type 1/no type 3 lobules (odds ratio quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 = 0.37, 95% confidence interval = 0.15 to 0.89). Greater ratios of IGF-1:IGFBP-3 levels were also associated with decreased odds of predominant type 1/no type 3 lobules (odds ratio quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 = 0.26, 95% confidence interval = 0.11 to 0.64). These results were slightly attenuated after adjustment for other potential predictors of lobule type.
Higher IGF-1 levels and a greater IGF-1:IGFBP-3 ratio were associated with decreased odds of having predominant type 1 lobules/no type 3 lobules among women with proliferative BBD in the NHSII. This study provides further evidence for the role of insulin-like growth factors in the structure of breast lobules and lobular involution.
Low insulin-like growth factor–1 (IGF-I) may influence the development of age-related cardiovascular diseases including congestive heart failure (CHF). Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), which increases during catabolic states and inhibits anabolic IGF-I effects, is increased in CHF patients and has been associated prospectively with increased mortality among older adults and myocardial infarction survivors. We investigated the association between fasting plasma levels of IGF-I, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-3, and insulin and risk of incident CHF in the prospective Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS).
From among 5,888 65+ year-old adults in the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS), we studied 566 incident CHF cases and 1,072 comparison subjects, after exclusion of underweight individuals (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2) and insulin users. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for CHF were estimated after adjustment for age, race, gender, hypertension, systolic blood pressure, lipid levels, left ventricular hypertrophy, coronary disease, C-reactive protein, health status, diabetes, and BMI.
High baseline IGFBP-1 level was a significant predictor of CHF, independent of established CHF risk factors and inflammation markers. The HR per SD of IGFBP-1 was 1.22 (95% CI=1.07–1.39, p < 0.01). Relative to the lowest IGFBP-1 tertile, the HR was 1.29 (95% CI=0.96–1.74, p=0.09) for the second IGFBP-1 tertile and 1.47 (95% CI=1.06–2.04; p=0.02) for the highest IGFBP-1 tertile (tertile cutpoints 19.5 and 35.8 ng/ml). Total IGF-I, IGFBP-3, or insulin levels had no association with CHF after adjustment for CHF risk factors.
High circulating IGFBP-1 may be a CHF risk factor among older adults.
The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis plays a role in growth and progression of prostate cancer. High circulating IGF-1 levels have been associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer. Results for IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) are inconclusive. Some studies have indicated that the positive association with IGF-1 is observed only for low-grade prostate cancer (Gleason sum <7). We previously reported in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS) a direct positive association between ELISA-measured plasma IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 and risk of prostate cancer (462 cases diagnosed after providing a blood specimen (between 1993 and 1995), but before February 1998). With additional follow-up through January 31st 2004, and 1331 case-control pairs in total, we were now able to investigate low-grade (Gleason sum <7, n=635) and high-grade (Gleason sum ≥7, n=515) prostate cancer separately. Matched odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using conditional logistic regression. ORs of total prostate cancer comparing top to bottom quartiles were 1.41 (95% CI 1.12–1.78, p-trend=0.001) for IGF-1 and 1.58 (95% CI 1.24–2.01, p-trend=0.003) for IGFBP-3. IGF-1 was more strongly associated with low-grade (OR=1.61 top versus bottom quartile, 95% CI 1.16–2.25, p-trend=0.01), than with high-grade (OR=1.29, 95% CI 0.89–1.88, p-trend-0.12) prostate cancer (p-heterogeneity=0.08). We hypothesize that these findings reflect that high-grade prostate cancers are more autonomous, and, thus, less sensitive to the action of IGF-1 than low-grade cancers.
Experimental evidence suggests that an overexpression of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is implicated in human pancreatic tumors. Increased IGF-II and decreased insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) serum concentrations have been linked to a number of other cancers.
We conducted a nested case-control study in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial cohort of men and women 55–74 years of age at baseline, to test whether pre-diagnostic circulating IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-3, andIGF-I/IGFBP-3 molar ratio concentrations were associated with exocrine pancreatic cancer risk. Between 1994 and 2006, 187 incident cases of pancreatic adenocarcinoma occurred (follow-up to 11.7 years). Two controls (n=374), who were alive at the time the case was diagnosed, were selected for each case and matched by age, race, sex and date of blood draw. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using conditional logistic regression, adjusting for smoking.
IGF-I, IGF-II, and IGFBP-3 concentrations were not significantly associated with pancreatic cancer (highest compared with lowest quartile, OR=1.58, 95% CI 0.91–2.76, p-trend=0.25; OR=0.86, 95% CI 0.49–1.50, p-trend=0.31; and OR=0.88, 95% CI 0.51–1.51, p-trend=0.47, respectively). However, a significant positive trend was observed with high IGF-I/IGFBP-3 molar ratio levels (highest compared with lowest quartile OR=1.54, 95% CI 0.89–2.66, p-trend=0.04).
A higher IGF-I/IGFBP-3 molar ratio represents increased free IGF-I, which maybe a risk factor for pancreatic cancer.
Our results highlight the importance of this biomarker for further investigation in large prospective cohort studies and pooled analysis with other prospective cohorts.
IGF-I; IGF-II; IGFBP-3; IGF-I/IGFBP-3; Pancreatic
The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathway has been implicated in prostate development and carcinogenesis. We conducted a comprehensive analysis, utilizing a resequencing and tagging single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) approach, between common genetic variation in the IGF1, IGF binding protein (BP) 1, and IGFBP3 genes with IGF-I and IGFBP-3 blood levels, and prostate cancer (PCa) risk, among Caucasians in the NCI Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium. We genotyped 14 IGF1 SNPs and 16 IGFBP1/IGFBP3 SNPs to capture common [minor allele frequency (MAF) ≥ 5%] variation among Caucasians. For each SNP, we assessed the geometric mean difference in IGF blood levels (N = 5684) across genotypes and the association with PCa risk (6012 PCa cases/6641 controls). We present two-sided statistical tests and correct for multiple comparisons. A non-synonymous IGFBP3 SNP in exon 1, rs2854746 (Gly32Ala), was associated with IGFBP-3 blood levels (Padj = 8.8 × 10−43) after adjusting for the previously established IGFBP3 promoter polymorphism A-202C (rs2854744); IGFBP-3 blood levels were 6.3% higher for each minor allele. For IGF1 SNP rs4764695, the risk estimates among heterozygotes was 1.01 (99% CI: 0.90–1.14) and 1.20 (99% CI: 1.06–1.37) for variant homozygotes with overall PCa risk. The corrected allelic P-value was 8.7 × 10−3. IGF-I levels were significantly associated with PCa risk (Ptrend = 0.02) with a 21% increase of PCa risk when compared with the highest quartile to the lowest quartile. We have identified SNPs significantly associated with IGFBP-3 blood levels, but none of these alter PCa risk; however, a novel IGF1 SNP, not associated with IGF-I blood levels, shows preliminary evidence for association with PCa risk among Caucasians.
Androgens and growth factors are thought to be associated with prostate cancer risk, though past research has produced mixed results. We conducted a nested case-control study of biomarkers of prostate cancer risk within the Multiethnic Cohort. We compared prediagnostic levels of testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), 3α-androstanediol glucuronide (3α-diol G), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), IGF-II, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1), and IGFBP-3 in serum from 467 incident prostate cancer cases and 934 cancer-free controls. Controls were matched to the cases on geographic site (HI, LA), ethnicity, age at specimen collection (± 1 year), date (± 1 month) and time of day (± 2 hours) of sample collection, and fasting status (<6, 6-7, 8-9, 10+ hours). Multivariate conditional logistic regression models were used to compute adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Serum concentrations of testosterone, DHT, SHBG, 3α-diol G, IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-1, and IGFBP-3 were not associated with risk of prostate cancer. Tests for trend of quartiles of serum concentrations also did not show any association. Results were relatively unchanged for men with advanced prostate cancer and their matched controls. However, the follow-up period was relatively short (mean of 1.9 years). Analysis by ethnic group showed an increased risk for Latino men in the second (OR=3.67, 95% CI: 1.63-8.24) and third (OR=2.96, 95% CI:1.19-7.40) tertiles of IGF-I serum levels compared to the first tertile. The suggested increased risk for IGF-I in Latino men merits further study, with greater statistical power.
IGFs; androgens; prostate cancer; risk; ethnicity
Type 2 diabetes has been associated with diminished late-life cognition; less is known about relations of insulin levels and insulin secretion to cognitive change among persons without diabetes. We examined prospectively relations of fasting insulin levels and insulin secretion to cognitive decline among healthy, community-dwelling older men without diabetes.
Fasting plasma insulin and C-peptide (insulin secretion) levels were measured in 1,353 nondiabetic men, aged 60–92 years (mean = 71.3 years), in the Physicians’ Health Study II, who participated in cognitive testing an average of 3.3 years later. Two assessments were administered 2 years apart (range = 1.5–4.0 years) using telephone-based tests (general cognition, verbal memory and category fluency). Primary outcomes were the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS), global cognition (averaging all tests) and verbal memory (averaging 4 verbal tests). Multivariable linear regression models were used to estimate the relations of insulin and C-peptide to cognitive decline.
Higher fasting insulin was associated with a greater decline on all tests, after adjustment. Findings were statistically significant for the TICS and category fluency, e.g. the multivariable-adjusted mean difference (95% CI) in decline for men with the highest versus lowest insulin levels was −0.62 (−1.15, −0.09) points on the TICS (p for trend = 0.04); this difference was similar to that between men 7 years apart in age. Similarly, there was a greater decline across all tests with increasing C-peptide, but the findings were statistically significant only for the global score (p for trend = 0.03).
Higher fasting insulin and greater insulin secretion in older men may be related to overall cognitive decline, even in the absence of diabetes.
Insulin; C-Peptide; Cognitive decline; Dementia; Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes has been associated with diminished late-life cognition; less is known about relations of insulin levels and insulin secretion to cognitive change among persons without diabetes. We examined prospectively relations of fasting insulin levels and insulin secretion to cognitive decline, among healthy, community-dwelling older men without diabetes.
Fasting plasma insulin and c-peptide (insulin secretion) levels were measured in 1,353 non-diabetic men, aged 60–92 years (mean=71.3), in the Physicians’ Health Study II who participated in cognitive testing an average of 3.3 years later. Two assessments were administered 2 years apart (range=1.5–4.0) using telephone-based tests (general cognition, verbal memory, and category fluency). Primary outcomes were the Telephone interview for Cognitive Status (TICS), global cognition (averaging all tests) and verbal memory (averaging four verbal tests). Multivariable linear regression models were used to estimate relations of insulin and c-peptide to cognitive decline.
Higher fasting insulin was associated with worse decline on all tests, after adjustment. Findings were statistically significant for the TICS and category fluency: e.g., the multivariable-adjusted mean difference (95% CI) in decline for men with the highest vs. lowest insulin levels was −0.62 (−1.15, −0.09) points on the TICS (p-trend=0.04); this difference was similar to that between men 7 years apart in age. Similarly, there was worse decline across all tests with increasing c-peptide, but findings were statistically significant only for global score (p-trend=0.03).
Higher fasting insulin and greater insulin secretion in older men may be related to overall cognitive decline, even in the absence of diabetes.
insulin; c-peptide; cognitive decline; dementia; diabetes
The acid-labile subunit (ALS) acts in the insulin-like growth (IGF) system by binding circulating IGF1 in a ternary complex with binding protein (IGFBP)-3 to prevent IGF1 from crossing the endothelial barrier. Given the role of the IGF system in prostate cancer, ALS may influence carcinogenesis by modulating IGF1 levels or bioavailability.
Materials and Methods
We undertook a prospective study nested in the Physicians’ Health Study to examine ALS, free IGF1 and prostate cancer. We assayed circulating levels of ALS and IGF components among 545 incident cases and 545 matched controls. We calculated relative risks and 95% confidence intervals (RR, 95% CI) adjusted for lifestyle factors, total IGF1 and IGFBP3.
ALS was positively correlated with total IGF1 (r=0.58), IGFBP3 (r=0.68), and free IGF1 (r=0.36). Comparing highest versus lowest quartiles, we found no association between free IGF1 and prostate cancer risk (0.9, 0.6–1.3). In contrast, ALS was positively associated with risk among men in the 2nd (1.5, 1.0–2.3), 3rd (1.6, 1.1–2.5) and 4th quartiles (1.4, 0.9–2.1) compared to lowest quartile. The association was stronger for advanced stage tumors (2.0, 0.8–4.6). Among men with low ALS, high total IGF1 was associated with a substantial increase in advanced prostate cancer (9.3, 1.7–51.3), while high IGF1 did not confer risk for those with higher ALS levels.
Plasma ALS is positively associated with prostate cancer risk, and may interact biologically with IGF1 to affect carcinogenesis. These data provide further support for the role of the IGF axis in prostate cancer.
IGF system; acid labile subunit; prostate cancer; epidemiology
Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and its major binding protein IGFBP-3 have been implicated in breast carcinogenesis. We examined the associations between genetic variants and circulating levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 with proliferative benign breast disease (BBD), a marker of increased breast cancer risk, in the Nurses’ Health Study II (NHSII). Participants were 359 pathology-confirmed proliferative BBD cases and 359 matched controls. Circulating IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels were measured in blood samples collected between 1996 and 1999. Thirty single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IGF-I, IGFBP-1, and IGFBP-3 genes were selected using a haplotype tagging approach and genotyped in cases and controls. Circulating IGF-I levels were not associated with proliferative BBD risk. Higher circulating IGFBP-3 levels were significantly associated with increased risk of proliferative BBD (highest vs. lowest quartile odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI)), 1.70 (1.06–2.72); p-trend = 0.03). The minor alleles of two IGFBP-3 SNPs were associated with lower proliferative BBD risk (homozygous variant vs. homozygous wild-type OR (95% CI): rs3110697: 0.6 (0.4–0.9), p-trend = 0.02; rs2132570: 0.2 (0.1–0.6), p-trend = 0.02). Three other IGFBP-3 SNPs (rs2854744, rs2960436, and rs2854746) were significantly associated with circulating IGFBP-3 levels (p < 0.01). Although these SNPs were not significantly associated with proliferative BBD risk, there was suggestive evidence that the alleles associated with higher circulating IGFBP-3 levels were also associated with higher risk of proliferative BBD. These results suggest that genetic variants and circulating levels of IGFBP-3 may play a role in the early stage of breast carcinogenesis.
IGF-I; IGFBP-3; Circulating levels; Genetic Variation; Proliferative BBD
To address whether umbilical cord blood concentrations of sex steroid hormones and the insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-axis differ between African-American and white male neonates.
In 2004/2005, venous cord blood samples were collected from 75 African-American and 38 white male full-term uncomplicated births along with birth weight, placental weight, mother’s age and parity, and time of birth. Testosterone, androstanediol glucuronide, estradiol, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were measured by immunoassay, and IGF-1, IGF-2, and IGF binding protein (BP)-3 by ELISA. Crude and multivariable-adjusted geometric mean concentrations were computed.
Androstanediol glucuronide, estradiol, and SHBG concentrations did not differ by race; however, the molar ratio of testosterone to SHBG was higher in African-American than white male babies after adjustment (p=0.01). Both before and after adjustment, whites had higher concentrations of IGF-1 (adjusted; white, African-American: 93.1, 71.9 ng/mL), IGF-2 (537.3, 474.8 ng/mL), and IGFBP-3 (1673, 1482 ng/mL) than African-Americans (p<0.05), although the molar ratio of IGF-1 plus IGF-2 to IGFBP-3 did not differ by race.
The higher cord blood testosterone to SHBG ratio in African-American compared with white male babies after taking into account maternal and birth factors is compatible with the hypothesis that differences in androgen levels in utero contribute to their higher prostate cancer risk, although we would have expected crude differences as well. Lower cord blood IGF-1 and IGF-2 levels in African-American compared with white male babies are not consistent with the hypothesis that differences in growth factor levels contribute to their higher prostate cancer risk.
Metabolic syndrome components have been associated with colorectal cancer in several studies; however, the evidence for colorectal adenomas is limited. Thus, we evaluated the association between markers of the metabolic syndrome with colorectal adenoma development in a nested case-control study.
Colorectal adenoma cases (n= 132) and matched controls who had had a negative sigmoidoscopy or a colonoscopy (n=260) were identified between baseline in 1989 and 2000 among participants in the CLUE II cohort of Washington County, Maryland. Concentrations of C-peptide, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1, glycosylated hemoglobin, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglycerides were measured in baseline blood specimens. Body mass index was calculated using baseline height and weight. Use of medications to treat diabetes mellitus was self-reported at baseline. Blood pressure was measured at baseline. Distributional cutpoints of the latter markers were used to define the metabolic syndrome components (hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension) present at baseline.
No statistically significant associations with adenomas were observed for the markers of the metabolic syndrome, with the exception of a strong positive association for use of diabetes medications (OR, 8.00; 95% CI, 1.70 – 37.67), albeit based on small numbers.
Our findings do not support that components of the metabolic syndrome influence risk of colorectal adenomas, except possibly for severe diabetes mellitus warranting medical treatment.
insulin resistance; colorectal neoplasia; prospective study
This phase 1 study was conducted to determine the recommended phase 2 dose of the selective insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor (IGF-IR) inhibitor figitumumab (F, CP-751,871) given in combination with paclitaxel and carboplatin in patients with advanced solid tumors.
Patients received paclitaxel 200 mg/m2, carboplatin (area under the curve of 6), and F (0.05–20 mg/kg) q3 weeks for up to six cycles. Patients with objective response or stable disease were eligible to receive additional cycles of single agent F until disease progression. Safety, efficacy, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic endpoints were investigated.
Forty-two patients, including 35 with stages IIIB and IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), were enrolled in eight dose escalation cohorts. A maximum tolerated dose was not identified. Severe adverse events possibly related to F included fatigue, diarrhea, hyperglycemia, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase elevation, and thrombocytopenia (one case each). F plasma exposure parameters increased with dose. Fifteen objective responses (RECIST) were reported, including two complete responses in NSCLC and ovarian carcinoma. Notably, levels of bioactive IGF-1 seemed to influence response to treatment with objective responses in patients with a high baseline-free IGF-1 to IGF binding protein-3 ratio seen only in the 10 and 20 mg/kg dosing cohorts.
F was well tolerated in combination with paclitaxel and carboplatin. Based on its favorable safety, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic properties, the maximal feasible dose of 20 mg/kg has been selected for further investigation.
IGF-1R; Figitumumab; CP-751,871; NSCLC
Insulin degradation pathways may be related to Alzheimer disease pathology. In preliminary analyses, we considered the relation of combined lower insulin secretion (c-peptide) and higher insulin – possibly a phenotype for impaired insulin degradation – to cognitive decline.
Fasting plasma c-peptide and insulin were measured in 1,187 non-diabetic Nurses’ Health Study participants (mean age=64 years). Cognitive testing began 10 years later. Participants completed three repeated assessments (over an average span of 4.4 years) of verbal memory, a strong predictor of Alzheimer disease development. C-peptide and insulin distributions were dichotomized at their medians to create 4 cross-tabulated categories. Multivariable linear mixed effects models were used to relate c-peptide/insulin categories to cognitive decline.
Compared to the lower c-peptide/lower insulin group, women with lower c-peptide/higher insulin had a significantly faster rate of verbal memory decline: the mean difference was −0.05 units/year (95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.09,−0.01). This mean difference was similar to that which we found for women five years apart in age, indicating that having a profile of lower c-peptide/higher insulin appeared cognitively equivalent to aging by five years on tests of verbal memory. For women with higher c-peptide/higher insulin, the estimated mean difference in decline compared to those in the lower c-peptide/lower insulin group was statistically significant, but slightly lower, at −0.04 units/year (95% CI: −0.07,−0.02).
These preliminary analyses of a possible phenotype of impaired insulin degradation provide supportive evidence that deficits in insulin degradation may be related to late-life verbal memory decline.
c-peptide; insulin-degrading enzyme; cognition; aging; Alzheimer disease
Obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and Western dietary pattern have been linked to increased risk of cancer recurrence and mortality among patients with surgically resected colorectal cancer. Excess energy balance leads to increased circulating insulin and depressed levels of circulating insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP) -1, which promote cancer cell growth in preclinical models.
Patients and Methods
Among 373 patients diagnosed with nonmetastatic colorectal cancer between 1991 and 2004, we performed a prospective observational study nested within two large US cohorts to evaluate the association between mortality and prediagnosis circulating C-peptide (a marker of insulin secretion), IGFBP-1, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and IGFBP-3.
Compared with patients in the bottom quartile, patients in the top quartile of plasma C-peptide had an age-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for death of 1.87 (95% CI, 1.04 to 3.36; P = .03 for trend), whereas those in the top quartile of circulating IGFBP-1 had a significant reduction in mortality (HR = 0.48; 95% CI, 0.28 to 0.84; P = .02 for trend). Little change in these estimates was noted after adjusting for other covariates known or suspected to influence survival. No associations were noted between mortality and IGF-I or IGFBP-3, which are two components of the IGF axis not closely correlated with lifestyle factors.
Among patients with surgically resected colorectal cancer, higher levels of prediagnosis plasma C-peptide and lower levels of prediagnosis plasma IGFBP-1 were associated with increased mortality. Circulating insulin and IGFBP-1 are potential mediators of the association between lifestyle factors and mortality after colorectal cancer resection.
Both type 2 diabetes and hyperinsulinemia have been related to diminished cognition. To address independent effects of increasing mid-life insulin secretion on late-life cognition, we prospectively examined the relation of plasma c-peptide levels to cognitive decline in a large sample of older women without diabetes or stroke.
Plasma c-peptide levels were measured in 1,187 “young-old” women (mean age=64 years) without diabetes in the Nurses’ Health Study. Cognitive decline was assessed approximately 10 years later. Three repeated cognitive batteries were administered over an average of 4.4 years using telephone-based tests of general cognition, verbal memory, category fluency, and attention. Primary outcomes were general cognition (measured by the Telephone interview for Cognitive Status [TICS], as well as a global score averaging all tests) and a verbal memory score averaging 4 tests of word-list and paragraph recall. Linear mixed effects models were used to compute associations between c-peptide levels and rates of cognitive decline.
Higher c-peptide levels were associated with faster decline in global cognition and verbal memory. Compared to those in the lowest c-peptide quartile, multivariable-adjusted mean differences (95% CI) in rates of decline for women in the highest quartile were −0.03 (−0.06, − 0.00) units/year for the global score, and −0.05 (−0.09, −0.02) units/year for verbal memory. Each one standard-deviation increase in c-peptide was associated with significantly faster decline on the TICS (p-trend=0.05), global score (p-trend=0.04) and verbal memory (p-trend=0.006).
Higher levels of insulin secretion in those without diabetes may be related to decline in general cognition and verbal memory.
insulin; c-peptide; diabetes; cognitive decline; aging
Type 2 diabetes has been associated with an increased risk of dementia. To assess possible independent effects of insulin, we investigated the relation of insulin levels to cognitive decline in nondiabetic women.
Fasting plasma insulin levels were measured in mid-life in 1,416 nondiabetic Nurses’ Health Study participants, who also completed cognitive testing that began 10 years later (current age: 70–75 years). Over 4 years, 3 assessments of general cognition, verbal memory, category fluency and attention were administered. Primary outcomes were the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS) performance, the global score (average of all tests) and verbal memory (average of verbal recall tests). Linear mixed-effects models were used to calculate the association between insulin and cognitive decline.
Higher insulin levels were associated with a faster decline on the TICS and verbal memory. For analysis, batch-specific quartiles of insulin levels were constructed. Compared to the lowest quartile, adjusted differences in the annual rates of decline (with 95% CI values in parentheses) for the second, third and fourth quartiles were: TICS, −0.06 (−0.16, 0.03), −0.14 (−0.24, −0.04), and −0.09 (−0.19, 0.01) points (p trend = 0.04); verbal memory, −0.01 (−0.04, 0.02), −0.05 (−0.08, −0.02), and −0.02 (−0.05, 0.01) units (p trend = 0.02). These associations remained after multivariable adjustment.
Our study provides evidence for a potential role of higher fasting insulin levels in cognitive decline, possibly independent of diabetes.
Diabetes; Insulin, cognitive performance; Aging, cognitive decline; Dementia
Nutrients, hormones and growth factors in dairy foods may stimulate growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), and raise the ratio of IGF-I to its binding protein, IGFBP-3. We conducted pilot studies in Mongolia and Massachusetts to test the extent to which milk intake raised somatotropic hormone concentrations in prepubertal children.
In Ulaanbaatar, we compared plasma levels before and after introducing 710 ml daily whole milk for a month among 46 10–11 year old schoolchildren. In a randomized cross-over study in Boston, we compared plasma hormone levels of 28 6–8 year old girls after one week of drinking 710 ml lowfat (2%) milk with their hormone levels after one week of consuming a macronutrient substitute for milk.
After a month of drinking whole milk, Mongolian children had higher mean plasma levels of IGF-I (p < 0.0001), IGF-I/IGFBP-3 (p < 0.0001), and 75th percentile of GH levels (p = 0.005). After a week of drinking lowfat milk, Boston girls had small and non-significant increases in IGF-1, IGF-1/IGFBP-3 and GH.
Milk drinking may cause increases in somatotropic hormone levels of prepubertal girls and boys. The finding that milk intake may raise GH levels is novel, and suggests that nutrients or bioactive factors in milk may stimulate endogenous GH production.
Mammographic density is one of the strongest risk factors for breast cancer and is believed to represent epithelial and stromal proliferation. Because of the high heritability of breast density, and the role of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathway in cellular proliferation and breast development, we examined the association between common genetic variation in this pathway and mammographic density.
We conducted a cross-sectional analysis among controls (n = 1,121) who were between the ages of 42 and 78 years at mammography, from a breast cancer case-control study nested within the Nurses' Health Study cohort. At the time of mammography, 204 women were premenopausal and 917 were postmenopausal. We genotyped 29 haplotype-tagging SNPs demonstrated to capture common genetic variation in IGF1, IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-1, and IGFBP-3.
Common haplotype patterns in three of the four haplotype blocks spanning the gene encoding IGF1 were associated with mammographic density. Haplotype patterns in block 1 (p = 0.03), block 3 (p = 0.009), and block 4 (p = 0.007) were associated with mammographic density, whereas those in block 2 were not. None of the common haplotypes in the three haplotype blocks spanning the genes encoding IGFBP-1/IGFBP-3 were significantly associated with mammographic density. Two haplotype-tagging SNPs in IGF1, rs1520220 and rs2946834, showed a strong association with mammographic density. Those with the homozygous variant genotype for rs1520220 had a mean percentage mammographic density of 19.6% compared with those with the homozygous wild-type genotype, who had a mean percentage mammographic density of 27.9% (p for trend < 0.0001). Those that were homozygous variant for rs2946834 had a mean percentage mammographic density of 23.2% compared with those who were homozygous wild-type with a mean percentage mammographic density of 28.2% (p for trend = 0.0004). Permutation testing demonstrated that results as strong as these are unlikely to occur by chance (p = 0.0005).
Common genetic variation in IGF1 is strongly associated with percentage mammographic density.