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1.  Sustained Elevation of Systemic Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Exacerbation and Remission of Asthma 
ISRN Allergy  2013;2013:561831.
Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma. We aimed at investigating the biomarkers of oxidative stress, inflammation, and tissue damage in patients with asthma in acute exacerbation and remission. We recruited 18 asthmatics admitted to hospital with acute exacerbation and 18 healthy nonsmoking controls matched for age. We evaluated plasma levels of 8-isoprostane, C-reactive protein (CRP) and total matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP-) 9 by ELISA, and MMP-9 activity by zymographic analysis. Plasma levels of 8-isoprostane and CRP were significantly elevated in acute exacerbation and decreased in remission but remained significantly higher compared to healthy controls. The activities of pro-MMP-9 were also significantly higher in acute exacerbation and decreased in remission but remained significantly higher compared to healthy controls in parallel to plasma levels of total MMP-9. These data suggest that overproduction of MMP-9 along with highly elevated levels of oxidative stress and inflammation is implicated in asthma exacerbation and that measurements of these biomarkers can be a valid index in its management.
doi:10.1155/2013/561831
PMCID: PMC3773380  PMID: 24073339
2.  Treatment Outcomes in Elderly with Advanced-Stage Non-small Cell Lung Cancer 
Lung  2013;191:645-654.
Purpose
Lung cancer remains the top cause of cancer morbidity and mortality in the world. Although the identification of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutations could predict efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), testing for predictive biomarkers are not always possible due to tissue availability. The overall therapeutic decision remains a clinical one for a significant proportion of elderly patients with advanced stage lung cancer but no known EGFR mutation status. The purpose of this study was to compare the outcome of drug treatment modalities in progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) for elderly with advanced-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to identify clinical parameters that could predict treatment outcome.
Methods
Clinical records of patients aged 70 years or older with advanced-stage NSCLC who have received treatment were reviewed. A group of gender- and histology-matched subjects younger than age 70 years were identified as controls.
Results
Fifty-six elderly patients were included. The median age at diagnosis was 73 years; 60.7 % received only one line of treatment. Baseline performance status (PS) was the only predictor of improved PFS (p = 0.042) and OS (p = 0.002). There was no difference in survival between the upfront chemotherapy and the TKI groups
Conclusions
In elderly with advanced-stage NSCLC without known EGFR mutation status, use of EGFR–TKI and chemotherapy resulted in comparable survival benefits. Age was not predictive of worse treatment outcome. The baseline PS should be taken into consideration in the therapeutic decision in elderly with NSCLC where the EGFR mutation status is not known.
doi:10.1007/s00408-013-9498-9
PMCID: PMC3837186  PMID: 23929397
Lung cancer; Elderly; Treatment; Outcome
3.  The association between EGFR variant III, HPV, p16, c-MET, EGFR gene copy number and response to EGFR inhibitors in patients with recurrent or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck 
Head & Neck Oncology  2011;3:11.
Background
We examine the potential prognostic and predictive roles of EGFR variant III mutation, EGFR gene copy number (GCN), human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, c-MET and p16INK4A protein expression in recurrent or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (R/M SCCHN).
Methods
We analyzed the archival tumor specimens of 53 patients who were treated in 4 phase II trials for R/M SCCHN. Two trials involved the EGFR inhibitor erlotinib, and 2 trials involved non-EGFR targeted agents. EGFRvIII mutation was determined by quantitative RT-PCR, HPV DNA by Linear Array Genotyping, p16 and c-MET protein expression by immunohistochemistry, and EGFR GCN by FISH.
Results
EGFRvIII mutation, detected in 22 patients (42%), was associated with better disease control, but no difference was seen between erlotinib-treated versus non-erlotinib treated patients. EGFRvIII was not associated with TTP or OS. The presence of HPV DNA (38%), p16 immunostaining (32%), c-MET high expression (58%) and EGFR amplification (27%), were not associated with response, TTP or OS.
Conclusion
EGFRvIII mutation, present in about 40% of SCCHN, appears to be an unexpected prognostic biomarker associated with better disease control in R/M SCCHN regardless of treatment with erlotinib. Larger prospective studies are required to validate its significance.
doi:10.1186/1758-3284-3-11
PMCID: PMC3052237  PMID: 21352589
4.  Fluorescence in situ hybridization gene amplification analysis of EGFR and HER2 in patients with malignant salivary gland tumors treated with lapatinib 
Head & neck  2009;31(8):1006-1012.
Aim
Gene amplification status of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) were analyzed and correlated with clinical outcome in patients with progressive malignant salivary glands tumors (MSGT) treated with the dual EGFR/Her2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor lapatinib
Methods
Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis for both EGFR and HER2 gene amplification was performed successfully in the archival tumor specimens of 20 patients with adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACC) and 17 patients with non-ACC, all treated with lapatinib.
Results
For ACC, no EGFR or HER2 amplifications were detected. For non-ACC, no EGFR gene amplifications were detected but 3 patients (18%) were HER2 amplified and all had stained 3+ for both EGFR and HER2 by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in their archival specimens. Two of these patients had time-to-progression (TTP) durations of 8.3 months and 18.4 months respectively. Interestingly, patients with low and high HER2/chromosome-specific centromeric enumeration probe (CEP) 17 ratio had a prolonged TTP than those with moderate ratios for both ACC and non-ACC subtypes.
Conclusions
HER2 to CEP17 FISH ratio may predict which patients with MSGT have an increased likelihood to benefit from lapatinib. The finding of HER2:CEP17 ratio as a predictive marker of efficacy to lapatinib warrants further investigation.
doi:10.1002/hed.21052
PMCID: PMC2711990  PMID: 19309723
MSGT; lapatinib; EGFR and HER2 gene amplification; FISH
5.  SNAI1 expression and the mesenchymal phenotype: an immunohistochemical study performed on 46 cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma 
Background
SNAI1 can initiate epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), leading to loss of epithelial characteristics and, in cancer, to invasion and metastasis. We hypothesized that SNAI1 reactivation occurs in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) where it might also be associated with focal adhesion kinase (FAK) expression and p63 loss.
Methods
Immunohistochemistry was performed on 46 tumors and 26 corresponding lymph node metastases. Full tissue sections were examined to account for rare and focal expression. Clinical outcome data were collected and analyzed.
Results
SNAI1-positivity (nuclear, ≥ 5% tumor cells) was observed in 10 tumors and 5 metastases (n = 12 patients). Individual SNAI1(+) tumor cells were seen in primary tumors of 30 patients. High level SNAI1 expression (>10% tumor cells) was rare, but significantly associated with poor outcome. Two cases displayed a sarcomatoid component as part of the primary tumor with SNAI1(+)/FAK(+)/E-cadherin(-)/p63(-) phenotype, but disparate phenotypes in corresponding metastases. All cases had variable SNAI1(+) stroma. A mesenchymal-like immunoprofile in primary tumors characterized by E-cadherin loss (n = 29, 63%) or high cytoplasmic FAK expression (n = 10, 22%) was associated with N(+) status and tumor recurrence/new primary, respectively.
Conclusions
SNAI1 is expressed, although at low levels, in a substantial proportion of OSCC. High levels of SNAI1 may herald a poor prognosis and circumscribed SNAI1 expression can indicate the presence of a sarcomatoid component. Absence of p63 in this context does not exclude squamous tumor origin. Additional EMT inducers may contribute to a mesenchymal-like phenotype and OSCC progression.
doi:10.1186/1472-6890-10-1
PMCID: PMC2829523  PMID: 20181105
6.  Erlotinib as salvage treatment after failure to first-line gefitinib in non-small cell lung cancer 
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology  2009;65(6):1023-1028.
Purpose
Chemotherapy is the mainstay treatment for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Gefitinib, an epidermal growth factor receptor—tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI), has been recently shown to be effective as a first-line treatment in Asian patients with advanced NSCLC, especially for those with favourable clinical features such as female, non-smoker and adenocarcinoma. However, resistance to gefitinib ensues invariably and there is little evidence as for the effectiveness of subsequent salvage treatment. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of erlotinib, another EGFR-TKI, after failed first-line use of gefitinib.
Method
Retrospective review of NSCLC patients with favourable clinical features who received gefitinib as first-line treatment and subsequent salvage treatment with erlotinib.
Results
A total of 21 patients with NSCLC were included in the study. Among them, 18 (85.7%) patients had disease control with gefitinib and 12 (57.1%) patients with salvage erlotinib. There was an association between the disease control with gefitinib and erlotinib (p = 0.031). The disease control rate of erlotinib was independent of the chemotherapy use between the two EGFR-TKIs.
Conclusion
For NSCLC patients with favourable clinical features, erlotinib was effective in those who had prior disease control with first-line gefitinib.
doi:10.1007/s00280-009-1107-5
PMCID: PMC2946542  PMID: 19680652
Non-small cell lung cancer; Gefitinib; Erlotinib; Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors; Asians; Disease control rate
7.  Quantitative image analysis of immunohistochemical stains using a CMYK color model 
Background
Computer image analysis techniques have decreased effects of observer biases, and increased the sensitivity and the throughput of immunohistochemistry (IHC) as a tissue-based procedure for the evaluation of diseases.
Methods
We adapted a Cyan/Magenta/Yellow/Key (CMYK) model for automated computer image analysis to quantify IHC stains in hematoxylin counterstained histological sections.
Results
The spectral characteristics of the chromogens AEC, DAB and NovaRed as well as the counterstain hematoxylin were first determined using CMYK, Red/Green/Blue (RGB), normalized RGB and Hue/Saturation/Lightness (HSL) color models. The contrast of chromogen intensities on a 0–255 scale (24-bit image file) as well as compared to the hematoxylin counterstain was greatest using the Yellow channel of a CMYK color model, suggesting an improved sensitivity for IHC evaluation compared to other color models. An increase in activated STAT3 levels due to growth factor stimulation, quantified using the Yellow channel image analysis was associated with an increase detected by Western blotting. Two clinical image data sets were used to compare the Yellow channel automated method with observer-dependent methods. First, a quantification of DAB-labeled carbonic anhydrase IX hypoxia marker in 414 sections obtained from 138 biopsies of cervical carcinoma showed strong association between Yellow channel and positive color selection results. Second, a linear relationship was also demonstrated between Yellow intensity and visual scoring for NovaRed-labeled epidermal growth factor receptor in 256 non-small cell lung cancer biopsies.
Conclusion
The Yellow channel image analysis method based on a CMYK color model is independent of observer biases for threshold and positive color selection, applicable to different chromogens, tolerant of hematoxylin, sensitive to small changes in IHC intensity and is applicable to simple automation procedures. These characteristics are advantageous for both basic as well as clinical research in an unbiased, reproducible and high throughput evaluation of IHC intensity.
doi:10.1186/1746-1596-2-8
PMCID: PMC1810239  PMID: 17326824

Results 1-7 (7)