The traditional and accelerated titration (AT) designs are two frequently utilized Phase I clinical trial designs. Although each design has theoretical advantages and disadvantages, a summary of the practical application of these theories has not been reported. We report our center's experience in evaluating novel agents using both types of Phase I trial designs over a 13-year period. Results from nine Phase I clinical trials of multiple cytotoxic agents conducted at Wayne State University/Karmanos Cancer Institute in Detroit, MI, and published from 1995–2005 were analyzed for this report. Parameters analyzed included the number of patients, the number of dose levels, the total time to completion of the study, and adverse events. The mean number of patients treated on four Phase I trials using the traditional Phase I trial design was 34 compared to a mean of 23.8 patients treated on five Phase I trials using the AT schema. The mean number of dose levels in patients treated using the traditional Phase I trial design was 8.8 (range 7–11) compared to a mean of 10.6 (range 7–15) dose levels using the AT design. The mean length of study time (25–26 months) was similar in both trial designs. The theoretical advantages and disadvantages of both Phase I trial designs did not readily emerge in their actual application in clinical trials conducted at our institution.
Accelerated design; Phase I clinical trials; Traditional design
EC145 (vintafolide), a conjugate of folic acid and the vinca alkaloid desacetylvinblastine hydrazide (DAVLBH), is a ligand for the folate receptor (FR), with activity against FR-positive tumor xenografts in vivo. This phase I study determined the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) of EC145 administered as a bolus intravenous injection or 1-hour infusion in patients with refractory solid tumors.
Patients and Methods
EC145 was administered as a bolus injection or 1-hour infusion on days 1, 3, and 5 and days 15, 17, and 19 of each 28-day cycle with dose escalation in cohorts of three to six patients until the MTD was identified. Plasma pharmacokinetics were determined on days 1 and 3 of the first cycle.
The MTD of EC145 was 2.5 mg when administered as either a bolus injection or 1-hour infusion. Constipation was the dose-limiting toxicity with both routes. Constipation, nausea, fatigue, and vomiting were the most commonly reported adverse events. One partial response to therapy was observed in a patient with metastatic ovarian cancer.
EC145 administered by bolus injection or as a 1-hour infusion at a dose of 2.5 mg on days 1, 3, and 5 and days 15, 17, and 19 of a 28-day cycle has an acceptable safety profile in patients with advanced cancer. On the basis of these findings, phase II studies of EC145 have been initiated in patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer and non–small-cell lung cancer.
Barrett’s esophagus is a premalignant condition that is a risk factor for the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma, a disease whose incidence is rapidly increasing. Because aspirin and other nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, such as celecoxib, may decrease the risk of developing esophageal cancer, we investigated the effect of long-term administration of celecoxib in patients with Barrett’s esophagus with dysplasia.
Chemoprevention for Barrett’s Esophagus Trial (CBET) is a phase IIb multicenter randomized placebo-controlled trial of celecoxib in patients with Barrett’s esophagus and low- or high-grade dysplasia. Patients were randomly assigned to treatment with 200 mg of celecoxib or placebo, both administered orally twice daily, and then stratified by grade of dysplasia. The primary outcome was the change from baseline to 48 weeks of treatment in the proportion of biopsy samples with dysplasia between the celecoxib and placebo arms. Secondary and tertiary outcomes included evaluation of changes in histology and expression levels of relevant biomarkers. All statistical tests were two-sided.
From April 1, 2000, through June 30, 2003, 222 patients were registered into CBET, and 100 of them with low- or high-grade Barrett’s dysplasia were randomly assigned to treatment (49 to celecoxib and 51 to placebo). After 48 weeks of treatment, no difference was observed in the median change in the proportion of biopsy samples with dysplasia or cancer between treatment groups in either the low-grade (median change with celecoxib = − 0.09, interquartile range [IQR] = − 0.32 to 0.14 and with placebo = − 0.07, IQR = − 0.26 to 0.12; P = .64) or high-grade (median change with celecoxib = 0.12, IQR = − 0.31 to 0.55, and with placebo = 0.02, IQR = − 0.24 to 0.28; P = .88) stratum. No statistically significant differences in total surface area of the Barrett’s esophagus; in prostaglandin levels; in cyclooxygenase-1/2 mRNA levels; or in methylation of tumor suppressor genes p16, adenomatous polyposis coli, and E-cadherin were found with celecoxib compared with placebo.
Administration of 200 mg of celecoxib twice daily for 48 weeks of treatment does not appear to prevent progression of Barrett’s dysplasia to cancer.
Introduction. Predicting the aggressiveness of prostate cancer at biopsy is invaluable in making treatment decisions. In this paper we review the differential expression of genes and microRNAs identified through microarray analysis as potentially useful markers for prostate cancer prognosis and discuss some of the challenges associated with their development. Methods. A review of the literature was conducted through Medline. Articles were identified through searches of the following terms: “prostate cancer AND differential expression”, “prostate cancer prognosis”, and “prostate cancer AND microRNAs”. Results. Though numerous differentially expressed genes and microRNAs were identified as possible prognostic markers, the significance of several of these genes is either debated due to conflicting results or is not validated in other study populations. A few of the articles constructed predictive nomograms using a panel of biomarkers which require further validation. Challenges to the development of useful markers include different methodology, cancer heterogeneity, and sampling error. These can be overcome by categorizing prognostic factors into particular gene pathways or by supplementing biopsy information with blood or urine-based biomarkers. Conclusion. Though biomarkers based on differential expression offer the potential to improve decision making concerning prostate cancer, further validation of their utility and accuracy at the biopsy level is needed.
Geriatric cancer patients (age 65 or older) comprise a majority of cancer cases in the United States, yet they are underrepresented in therapeutic clinical trials. It is therefore important to increase our understanding of their participation, survival outcomes, and recruitment barriers. This study aims to describe the demographics, treatment, toxicity, and overall survival (OS) of all patients ≥ 65 years of age who presented to the Phase I Clinical Trials service at Karmanos Cancer Institute (KCI).
A retrospective chart review was performed of all referred and seen patients ≥ 65 years of age at Phase I clinical service at KCI between 1995-2005. Data on demographics, co-morbidities, tumor type, reason not enrolled, toxicities and OS were obtained.
A total of 216 patients met the study criteria. The median age was 71 years. 114 (59%) patients were performance status 1. 102 (47%) patients were enrolled and of those 95 (44%) patients were treated. More than half of the patients failed to enroll with predominant reasons being protocol ineligibility (30%), loss to follow up (12%), patient refusal (8%), or unavailability of trial (2%). The median OS duration of treated patients was 8.4 months (95% CI: 6.2-10.5). This was significantly longer than the patients who failed to enroll or did not receive treatment (p < 0.0001).
This study suggests that elderly patients who were treated on a Phase I clinical trial(s) at our institution survived significantly longer than our elderly patients who did not receive treatment.
Elderly; Phase I clinical Trials; Barriers; Survival
17-Allylamino-17-Demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) is a benzoquinone ansamycin antibiotic with anti-proliferative activity in several mouse xenograft models including prostate cancer models. A two-stage phase II study was conducted to assess the activity and toxicity profile of 17-AAG administered to patients with metastatic, hormone-refractory prostate cancer.
Patients with at least one prior systemic therapy and a rising PSA were eligible. Patients received 17-AAG at a dose of 300 mg/m2 IV weekly for three out of four weeks. The primary objective was to assess the PSA response. Secondary objectives were to determine overall survival, to assess toxicity, to measure IL-6, IL-8 and maspin levels and quality of life.
Fifteen eligible patients were enrolled. The median age was 68 years and the median PSA was 261 ng/mL. Patients received 17-AAG for a median number of 2 cycles. Severe adverse events included: grade 3 fatigue (4 pts), grade 3 lymphopenia (2 pts) and grade 3 back pain (2 pts). The median PSA progression free survival was 1.8 months (95% CI: 1.3–3.4 months). The six-month overall survival was 71% (95% CI: 52%–100%).
17-AAG did not show any activity with regards to PSA response. Due to insufficient PSA response, enrollment was stopped at end of first stage per study design. The most significant severe toxicity was grade 3 fatigue. Further evaluation of 17-AAG at a dose of 300 mg/m2 IV weekly as a single agent in patients with metastatic, hormone-refractory prostate cancer who received at least one prior systemic therapy is not warranted.
prostate cancer; hormone-refractory; 17-AAG
3, 3′-diindolylmethane (DIM) modulates estrogen metabolism and acts as an anti-androgen which down-regulates the androgen receptor and prostate specific antigen (PSA). We conducted a dose-escalation, phase I study of BioResponse (BR)-DIM with objectives to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), toxicity profile, and phar-macokinetics (PK) of BR-DIM, and to assess its effects on serum PSA and quality of life (QoL). Patients and Methods: Cohorts of 3-6 patients received escalating doses of twice daily oral BR-DIM providing DIM at 75 mg, then 150 mg, 225 mg, and 300 mg. Toxicity was evaluated monthly. Serum PSA and QoL were measured at baseline, monthly during treatment, and at end of study. Results: 12 patients with castrate-resistant, non-metastatic, PSA relapse prostate cancer were treated over 4 dose cohorts; 2 patients (at 150 mg and 225 mg, respectively) underwent intra-patient dose escalation, by one dose level. After oral administration of the first dose of BR-DIM, the plasma exposure to DIM appeared dose proportional at doses ranging from 75 to 300 mg, with the mean Cmax and mean AUClast increasing from 41.6 to 236.4 ng/ml and from 192.0 to 899.0 ng/ml*h, respectively. Continued relatively stable systemic exposure to DIM was achieved following twice daily oral administration of BR-DIM. Minimal toxicity was observed. Two of the four patients treated at 300 mg had grade 3 asymptomatic hyponatremia (AH) discovered on routine blood work. The other 2 patients at this dose had no AH. Therefore, the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was deemed to be 300 mgand the recommended phase II dose (RP2D) of BR-DIM was 225 mg twice daily. One patient without AH at 225 mg experienced a 50% PSA decline. One patient with BR-DIM dose of 225 mg had PSA stabilization. The other 10 patients had an initial deceleration of their PSA rise (decrease in slope), but eventually progressed based on continual PSA rise or evidence of metastatic disease. Ten patients completed monthly QoL reports for a mean of 6 months (range: 1-13). QoL measures emotional functioning may have held up somewhat better over time than their physical functioning. Conclusion: BR-DIM was well tolerated. Increasing systemic exposure to DIM was achieved with the increase of BR-DIM dose. Modest efficacy was demonstrated. Patients' QoL varied over time with length of treatment. Phase II studies are recommended at the dose of 225 mg orally twice daily.
BR-DIM; DIM; PSA relapse; clinical trial; phase I; diindolylmethane; indole-3-carbinol
KX2-391 is an oral non–ATP-competitive inhibitor of Src kinase and tubulin polymerization. In phase 1 trials, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) declines were seen in patients with advanced prostate cancer. We conducted a single-arm phase 2 study evaluating KX2-391 in men with chemotherapy-naïve bone-metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC).
We treated 31 patients with oral KX2-391 (40mg twice-daily) until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was 24-week progression-free survival (PFS); a 50% success rate was predefined as clinically significant. Secondary endpoints included PSA progression-free survival (PPFS) and PSA response rates. Exploratory outcomes included pharmacokinetic studies, circulating tumor cell (CTC) enumeration, and analysis of markers of bone resorption (urinary N-telopeptide [uNTx]; C-telopeptide [CTx]) and formation (bone alkaline phosphatase [BAP]; osteocalcin).
The trial closed early after accrual of 31 patients, due to a prespecified futility rule. PFS at 24 weeks was 8%, and median PFS was 18.6 weeks. The PSA response rate (≥30% decline) was 10%, and median PPFS was 5.0 weeks. Additionally, 18% of men with unfavorable (≥5) CTCs at baseline converted to favorable (<5) CTCs with treatment. The proportion of men with declines in bone turnover markers was 32% for uNTx, 21% for CTx, 10% for BAP, and 25% for osteocalcin. In pharmacokinetic studies, median Cmax was 61 (range 16–129) ng/mL, and median AUC was 156 (35–348) ng*hr/mL. Common toxicities included hepatic derangements, myelosuppression, fatigue, nausea and constipation.
KX2-391 dosed at 40mg twice-daily lacks antitumor activity in men with CRPC, but has modest effects on bone turnover markers. Because a Cmax of ≥142 ng/mL is required for tubulin polymerization inhibition (defined from preclinical studies), higher once-daily dosing will be used in future trials.
KX2-391; prostate cancer; Src inhibitor; tubulin polymerization
As tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been associated with cardiotoxicity, we evaluated the effect of pazopanib, an inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, and c-Kit, on electrocardiographic parameters in patients with cancer.
This double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study randomized patients (N = 96) to moxifloxacin (positive control) or placebo on Day 1 followed by pazopanib or placebo 800 mg/day (fasted) on Days 2–8 and 1,600 mg (with food) on Day 9. Treatment effects were evaluated by baseline-adjusted, time-matched, serial Holter electrocardiograms.
Sixty-five patients were evaluable for preplanned analyses. On Day 1, the maximum mean difference in baseline-adjusted, time-matched Fridericia-corrected QT (QTcF) interval in moxifloxacin-treated patients versus placebo was 10.6 ms (90 % confidence interval [CI]: 4.2, 17.0). The administration scheme increased plasma pazopanib concentrations approximately 1.3- to 1.4-fold versus the recommended 800 mg once-daily dose. Pazopanib caused clinically significant increases from baseline in blood pressure, an anticipated class effect, and an unexpected reduction in heart rate from baseline that correlated with pazopanib exposure. On Day 9, the maximum mean difference in baseline-adjusted, time-matched QTcF interval in pazopanib-treated patients versus placebo was 4.4 ms (90 % CI: −2.4, 11.2). Mixed-effects modeling indicated no significant concentration-dependent effect of pazopanib or its metabolites on QTcF interval.
Pazopanib as administered in this study achieved supratherapeutic concentrations, produced a concentration-dependent decrease in heart rate, and caused a small, concentration-independent prolongation of the QTcF interval.
Moxifloxacin; Pazopanib; Pharmacokinetics; QTc; Safety; Tyrosine kinase inhibitor
A noncomparative, randomized, phase II study evaluating the antitumor efficacy of two doses of oral itraconazole was conducted in men with metastatic prostate cancer.
The antifungal drug itraconazole inhibits angiogenesis and Hedgehog signaling and delays tumor growth in murine prostate cancer xenograft models. We conducted a noncomparative, randomized, phase II study evaluating the antitumor efficacy of two doses of oral itraconazole in men with metastatic prostate cancer.
Patients and Methods.
We randomly assigned 46 men with chemotherapy-naïve metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) to receive low-dose (200 mg/day) or high-dose (600 mg/day) itraconazole until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression-free survival (PPFS) rate at 24 weeks; a 45% success rate in either arm was prespecified as constituting clinical significance. Secondary endpoints included the progression-free survival (PFS) rate and PSA response rate (Prostate Cancer Working Group criteria). Exploratory outcomes included circulating tumor cell (CTC) enumeration, serum androgen measurements, as well as pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analyses.
The high-dose arm enrolled to completion (n = 29), but the low-dose arm closed early (n = 17) because of a prespecified futility rule. The PPFS rates at 24 weeks were 11.8% in the low-dose arm and 48.0% in the high-dose arm. The median PFS times were 11.9 weeks and 35.9 weeks, respectively. PSA response rates were 0% and 14.3%, respectively. In addition, itraconazole had favorable effects on CTC counts, and it suppressed Hedgehog signaling in skin biopsy samples. Itraconazole did not reduce serum testosterone or dehydroepiandrostenedione sulfate levels. Common toxicities included fatigue, nausea, anorexia, rash, and a syndrome of hypokalemia, hypertension, and edema.
High-dose itraconazole (600 mg/day) has modest antitumor activity in men with metastatic CRPC that is not mediated by testosterone suppression.
Itraconazole; Prostate cancer; Angiogenesis; Hedgehog pathway
Despite the positive impact of targeted therapies on metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC), durable responses are infrequent and an unmet need exists for novel therapies with distinct mechanisms of action. We investigated the combination of recombinant Interleukin 21 (IL-21), a cytokine with unique immunostimulatory properties, plus sorafenib, a VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor.
In this phase 1/2 study, 52 mRCC patients received outpatient treatment with oral sorafenib 400 mg twice daily plus intravenous IL-21 (10–50 mcg/kg) on days 1–5 and 15–19 of each 7-week treatment course. The safety, antitumor activity, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects of the combination were evaluated.
In phase 1 (n = 19), the maximum tolerated dose for IL-21 with the standard dose of sorafenib was determined to be 30 mcg/kg/day; grade 3 skin rash was the only dose-limiting toxicity. In phase 2, 33 previously-treated patients tolerated the combination therapy well with appropriate dose reductions; toxicities were mostly grade 1 or 2. The objective response rate was 21% and disease control rate was 82%. Two patients have durable responses that are ongoing, despite cessation of both IL-21 and sorafenib, at 41+ and 30+ months, respectively. The median progression-free survival in phase 2 was 5.6 months. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of IL-21 appeared to be preserved in the presence of sorafenib.
IL-21 plus sorafenib has antitumor activity and acceptable safety in previously treated mRCC patients. IL-21 may represent a suitable immunotherapy in further exploration of combination strategies in mRCC.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00389285
Interleukin-21; Sorafenib; Renal cell carcinoma (RCC); Immunotherapy; Cytokine; VEGF; Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI); Durable response; Targeted therapy
Utilizing data obtained during a multicenter investigation, this paper illustrates how the use of covariates and careful modeling techniques can be useful in assessing whether a negative outcome from a small multicenter clinical trial could be due to imbalance in baseline characteristics. The Chemoprevention for Barrett’s Esophagus Trial (CBET) was a phase IIb, multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of celecoxib in patients with Barrett’s esophagus. The primary outcomes for the original study were the proportion of biopsy samples exhibiting dysplasia in the celecoxib and placebo groups. The secondary and tertiary outcomes included histologic change and measurements of biologically relevant markers, including COX-1 and –2 mRNA, prostanoid levels, and methylation of tumor suppressor genes p16, APC, and E-cadherin. The original study reported no significant differences in primary, secondary or tertiary outcomes. In this paper, we focus on the results of one of the secondary measures, quantitative endoscopy (QE).
The study utilizes data from 56 patients in the CBET for whom baseline (BL) QE and one-year follow-up QE (F04) studies were performed. Of these, 29 were treated with celecoxib (200 mg twice daily for a minimum of 48 weeks) and 27 received the placebo. These patients are segmented as to the presence or absence of circumferential, tongues or islands of Barrett’s.
The response of interest is total affected area at one year (Total F04); affected area at baseline (Total BL) is used as a covariate.
Controlling for complexity and clinic, there is a significant treatment effect. In addition, there is significant evidence that the area of Barrett’s involvement decreased for patients in the treatment group.
That there was a decrease for the celecoxib over the placebo group adds to the body of evidence that relates COX-2 specific inhibitors and cancer incidence.
Barrett’s esophagus; Covariate modeling; Chemoprevention; Quantitative endoscopy
For cancer patients on Phase I trials, one of the most important physician decisions is whether or not patients are deriving benefit from therapy. With an increasing number of cytostatic treatment agents, the criteria to determine patient response to Phase I treatment has become harder to define. Physicians are increasingly looking to patient-reported outcomes (PROs) such as quality of life (QOL) to help evaluate treatment response. Electronic daily diary (EDD) devices can be used by patients to report their QOL over extended periods of time, thereby providing a more accurate picture of how patients are affected by treatment on a daily basis. However, questions remain about how to integrate this patient-reported information into decisions about Phase I treatment. This study investigated how physicians use patients’ daily QOL reports to evaluate patient response to Phase I treatment. Data were collected over a 4-month period from Phase I patients (N = 30) and physicians (N = 3) in an NCI-designated comprehensive cancer center. Patients completed daily QOL reports using EDD devices and physicians were provided with a summary of patients’ QOL before each visit. After the visit, doctors recorded their treatment decision and also rated the importance of four biomedical factors (Toxicity, Imaging, Labs, and Performance Status) and QOL in their treatment decision for that visit. Although physicians rated QOL as being very important in evaluating treatment response, in practice, when predictors of their decisions were analyzed, results showed they relied exclusively on biomedical data (Toxicity, Imaging) to make Phase I treatment decisions. Questions remain about the utility and effective integration of QOL and biomedical data in clinical decision-making processes in Phase I clinical trials.
Patient-Reported Outcomes; Quality of Life; Clinical Trials; Quality of Life; Treatment Decision-Making
Although people with cancer want and need information from their oncologists, patients and oncologists often disagree about what information was discussed during clinical interactions. Most patients have companions present during oncology visits; we investigated whether companions process information more accurately than patients. Specifically, we examined whether patients and companions differed in agreement with oncologists about what was discussed. We also investigated the effect of topic on agreement and patient/companion self-reported understanding of discussions.
Patients with companions were invited to participate on first visits to a cancer center in Detroit, Michigan. Patients, companions, and oncologists independently completed questionnaires immediately following visits. Participants were asked whether five topics were discussed (diagnosis, prognosis, metastasis, treatment/treatment goals, and side effects), and if discussed, what oncologists said. Participants were also asked to estimate their own and each other’s understanding of discussions.
A total of 66 patient-companion-oncologist triads participated. Agreement was higher regarding whether topics were discussed than what oncologists said. Agreement did not differ by dyad type. Patients, companions, and oncologists were equally likely to be the source of triadic disagreements. Agreement was high about diagnosis (> 90%), but much lower about other topics, particularly side effects. Patients and companions reported greater understanding of discussions than oncologists estimated and more accurately estimated each other’s understanding than did oncologists.
Companions and patients showed similar levels of agreement with oncologists about what they discussed during visits. Interventions are needed to improve communication of information to both patients and companions, especially about particular topics.
patient-physician communication; oncology; information exchange; family
The Chemoprevention for Barrett’s Esophagus Trial (CBET) was a phase IIb, multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of celecoxib in patients with Barrett’s esophagus. The overall outcome of the study was that there were no significant differences in primary, secondary, or tertiary outcomes. The purpose of the current study is to focus on results related to the method of measuring lesion size called quantitative endoscopy (QE). The design includes a review of a total number of studies and then restricts analyses to the four clinics that enrolled more than four patients each for whom a baseline and 1-year QE study was performed, comparing intra- and inter-patient and clinic differences in Barrett’s esophagus. Measurements include the number of total QEs and adverse events, changes in areas from baseline to 1 year and other intervals, classification of Barrett’s lesion type with respect to patients, clinics, and treatment. A total of 309 QE studies were completed with no adverse events. Differences in surface area measurements over time for a particular patient are smaller than the differences for randomly selected patients. The complexity mix (as defined by the mix of circumferential, tongues, and islands) of the Barrett’s lesions varied with different clinics. In conclusion, QE is an efficient, safe, and accurate way to measure the area of Barrett’s lesions variation between different clinical sites may be attributable to a subtle type of selection bias at the individual clinics rather than to regional differences.
Barrett’s esophagus; chemoprevention; quantitative endoscopy; selection bias
To evaluate the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), safety, and antitumor activity of sunitinib combined with paclitaxel and carboplatin.
Successive cohorts of patients with advanced solid tumors received oral sunitinib (25, 37.5, or 50 mg) for 2 consecutive weeks of a 3-week cycle (Schedule 2/1) or as a continuous daily dose for 3-week cycles (CDD schedule) in combination with paclitaxel (175–200 mg/m2) plus carboplatin (AUC 6 mg•min/mL) on day 1 of each of 4 cycles. Dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) and adverse events (AEs) were evaluated to determine the MTD. Efficacy parameters were analyzed in patients with measurable disease.
Forty-three patients were enrolled (n = 25 Schedule 2/1; n = 18 CDD schedule). Across all doses, 6 DLTs were observed (grade 4 papilledema, grade 5 GI hemorrhage, grade 3 neutropenic infection, grade 4 thrombocytopenia [n = 3]). The MTD for Schedule 2/1 was sunitinib 25 mg plus paclitaxel 175 mg/m2 and carboplatin AUC 6 mg•min/mL. The MTD was not determined for the CDD schedule. Treatment-related AEs included neutropenia (77%), thrombocytopenia (56%), and fatigue (47%). Of 38 evaluable patients, 4 (11%) had partial responses and 12 (32%) had stable disease. PK data indicated an increase in maximum and total plasma exposures to sunitinib and its active metabolite when given with paclitaxel and carboplatin compared with sunitinib monotherapy.
Myelosuppression resulting in prolonged dose delays and frequent interruptions was observed, suggesting that this treatment combination is not feasible in the general cancer population.
Sunitinib; Phase I; Solid tumor; NSCLC; Antiangiogenesis; Chemotherapy
Apocrine carcinoma (AC) is a rare tumor with heterogeneous presentation. The disease has a highly morbid course and little is known about it. We present an otherwise healthy, 62-year-old Asian male who originally presented with chronic swelling of his left eyelid associated with excessive tears and diminished vision was diagnosed with AC. AC is often challenging to diagnose, yet it is critical to do so as early diagnosis and treatment can maximize patient survival.
apocrine adenocarcinoma; sweat gland carcinoma.
There are considerable racial disparities in prostate cancer risk, with a 60% higher incidence rate among African American (AA) men compared with European American (EA) men, and a 2.4 fold higher mortality rate in AA men than in EA men. Recently, studies have implicated several African-ancestry associated prostate cancer susceptibility loci on chromosome 8q24. In the current study, we performed admixture mapping in AA men from two independent case-control studies of prostate cancer to confirm the 8q24 ancestry association and also identify other genomic regions that may harbor prostate cancer susceptibility genes. A total of 482 cases and 261 controls were genotyped for 1,509 ancestry informative markers across the genome. The mean estimated individual admixture proportions were 20% European and 80% African. The most significant observed increase in European ancestry occurred at rs2141360 on chromosome 7q31 in both the case-only (p=0.0000035) and case-control analyses. The most significant observed increase in African ancestry across the genome occurred at a locus on chromosome 5q35 identified by SNPs rs7729084 (case-only analysis: p=0.002), and rs12474977 (case-control analysis: p=0.004), which are separated by 646 kb and were adjacent to one another on the panel. On chromosome 8, rs4367565 was associated with the greatest excess African ancestry in both the case-only and case-control analyses (case-only and case-control p=0.02), confirming previously reported African-ancestry associations with chromosome 8q24. In conclusion, we confirmed ancestry associations on 8q24, and identified additional ancestry-associated regions potentially harboring prostate cancer susceptibility loci.
Prostate Cancer; Admixture Mapping; Ancestry; PODXL; DOCK4
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is a potential pharmacologic target for the prevention of various malignancies, including prostate cancer. We conducted a randomized, double-blind trial to examine the effect of celecoxib on drug-specific biomarkers from prostate tissue obtained at prostatectomy.
Patients and Methods
Patients with localized prostate cancer and Gleason sum ≥ 7, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ≥ 15 ng/mL, clinical stage T2b or greater, or any combination with greater than 45% risk of capsular penetration were randomly assigned to celecoxib 400 mg by mouth twice daily or placebo for 4 to 6 weeks before prostatectomy. The primary end point was the difference in prostatic prostaglandin levels between the two groups. Secondary end points were differences in COX-1 and -2 expressions; oxidized DNA bases; and markers of proliferation, apoptosis and angiogenesis. Tissue celecoxib concentrations also were measured. Tertiary end points were drug safety and compliance.
Seventy-three patients consented, and 64 were randomly assigned and included in the intention-to-treat analysis. There were no treatment differences in any of the primary or secondary outcomes. Multivariable regression revealed that tumor tissue had significantly lower COX-2 expression than benign prostatic tissue (P = .01) and significantly higher levels of the proliferation marker Ki-67 (P < .0001). Celecoxib was measurable in prostate tissue of patients on treatment, demonstrating that celecoxib reached its target. Celecoxib was safe and resulted in only grade 1 toxicities.
Treatment with 4 to 6 weeks of celecoxib had no effect on intermediate biomarkers of prostate carcinogenesis, despite the achievement of measurable tissue levels. We caution against using celecoxib 400 mg twice daily as a preventive agent for prostate cancer in additional studies.
Prostate cancer remains a significant public health problem, with limited therapeutic options in the setting of castrate-resistant metastatic disease. Angiogenesis inhibition is a relatively novel antineoplastic approach, which targets the reliance of tumor growth on the formation of new blood vessels. This strategy has been used successfully in other solid tumor types, with the FDA approval of anti-angiogenic agents in breast, lung, colon, brain, and kidney cancer. The application of anti-angiogenic therapy to prostate cancer is reviewed in this article, with attention to efficacy and toxicity results from several classes of anti-angiogenic agents. Ultimately, the fate of anti-angiogenic agents in prostate cancer rests on the eagerly anticipated results of several key phase III studies.