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1.  Epigenetic inactivation of microRNA-34b/c predicts poor disease-free survival in early stage lung adenocarcinoma 
Purpose
The microRNA-34b/c (miR-34b/c) has been considered a tumor suppressor in different tumor types and it is a known transcriptional target of the tumor suppressor gene TP53. The main objectives of this study were to investigate the clinical implications of miR-34b/c methylation in early stage lung adenocarcinoma (AC) patients and to determine the functional role of miR-34b/c re-expression in lung AC cell lines.
Experimental Design
Aberrant methylation and expression of miR-34b/c were assessed in 15 lung AC cell lines and a cohort of 140 early stage lung AC. Lung AC cell lines were transfected with miR-34b/c and the effects upon cell proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptosis were investigated.
Results
Aberrant methylation of miR-34b/c was detected in 6 (40%) of 15 lung AC cell lines and 64 out of 140 (46%) primary lung adenocarcinomas. Expression of miR-34b/c was significantly reduced in all methylated cell lines and primary tumors, especially in those harboring a TP53 mutation. Patients with high levels of miR-34b/c methylation had significantly shorter disease-free survival and overall survival as compared to patients with unmethylated miR-34b/c or low level of miR-34b/c methylation. Ectopic expression of miR-34b/c in lung AC cell lines decreased cell proliferation, migration and invasion.
Conclusions
Epigenetic inactivation of miR-34b/c by DNA methylation has independent prognostic value in early stage lung AC patients with surgically resected tumors. Re-expression of miR-34b/c leads to a less aggressive phenotype in lung AC cell lines.
doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-13-0736
PMCID: PMC4161219  PMID: 24130071
microRNA; DNA methylation; microRNA-34b/c; lung adenocarcinoma; TP53
2.  Randomized phase II study of three doses of the integrin inhibitor cilengitide versus docetaxel as second-line treatment for patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer 
Investigational New Drugs  2012;31(1):175-182.
Summary
Introduction This multicenter, open-label, phase II study was carried out to compare the efficacy and safety of cilengitide (EMD 121974), a selective inhibitor of the cell-surface integrins αVβ3 and αVβ5, with that of docetaxel in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods Patients (n = 140) with advanced NSCLC who had failed first-line chemotherapy were randomized to cilengitide 240, 400, or 600 mg/m2 twice weekly, or docetaxel 75 mg/m2 once every 3 weeks for eight cycles. Non-progressing patients could continue cilengitide for up to 1 year. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). No statistical tests were performed since the study was exploratory in nature and the number of patients enrolled was relatively small. Results Median PFS was 54, 63, 63, and 67 days for cilengitide 240, 400, and 600 mg/m2, and docetaxel 75 mg/m2, respectively. One-year survival rates were 13 %, 13 %, 29 %, and 27 %, respectively. The response rate (partial response only) with docetaxel was 15 %. No responses were reported in any cilengitide arm. The most frequent grade 3/4 treatment-related adverse events in the docetaxel group were leukopenia and neutropenia (experienced by 13 % of patients). Hematologic toxicity of this severity did not occur in cilengitide-treated patients. Conclusion With the highest dose of cilengitide (600 mg/m2), median PFS and 1-year survival were similar to those in patients treated with docetaxel 75 mg/m2 and there were fewer grade 3/4 treatment-related adverse events.
doi:10.1007/s10637-012-9842-6
PMCID: PMC3553405  PMID: 22752690
Cilengitide; Integrin inhibitor; Docetaxel; Non-small-cell lung cancer; Second-line treatment
3.  Safety, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacodynamics of the Insulin-Like Growth Factor Type 1 Receptor Inhibitor Figitumumab (CP-751,871) in Combination with Paclitaxel and Carboplatin 
Introduction
This phase 1 study was conducted to determine the recommended phase 2 dose of the selective insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor (IGF-IR) inhibitor figitumumab (F, CP-751,871) given in combination with paclitaxel and carboplatin in patients with advanced solid tumors.
Methods
Patients received paclitaxel 200 mg/m2, carboplatin (area under the curve of 6), and F (0.05–20 mg/kg) q3 weeks for up to six cycles. Patients with objective response or stable disease were eligible to receive additional cycles of single agent F until disease progression. Safety, efficacy, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic endpoints were investigated.
Results
Forty-two patients, including 35 with stages IIIB and IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), were enrolled in eight dose escalation cohorts. A maximum tolerated dose was not identified. Severe adverse events possibly related to F included fatigue, diarrhea, hyperglycemia, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase elevation, and thrombocytopenia (one case each). F plasma exposure parameters increased with dose. Fifteen objective responses (RECIST) were reported, including two complete responses in NSCLC and ovarian carcinoma. Notably, levels of bioactive IGF-1 seemed to influence response to treatment with objective responses in patients with a high baseline-free IGF-1 to IGF binding protein-3 ratio seen only in the 10 and 20 mg/kg dosing cohorts.
Conclusions
F was well tolerated in combination with paclitaxel and carboplatin. Based on its favorable safety, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic properties, the maximal feasible dose of 20 mg/kg has been selected for further investigation.
doi:10.1097/JTO.0b013e3181ba2f1d
PMCID: PMC2941876  PMID: 19745765
IGF-1R; Figitumumab; CP-751,871; NSCLC

Results 1-3 (3)