Micromonospora species live in diverse environments and exhibit a broad range of functions, including antibiotic production, biocontrol, and degradation of complex polysaccharides. To learn more about these versatile actinomycetes, we sequenced the genome of strain L5, originally isolated from root nodules of an actinorhizal plant growing in Mexico.
The two microaerophilic, Fe-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) Sideroxydans ES-1 and Gallionella ES-2 have single circular chromosomes of 3.00 and 3.16 Mb that encode 3049 and 3006 genes, respectively. Multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) confirmed the relationship of these two organisms to one another, and indicated they may form a novel order, the Gallionellalaes, within the Betaproteobacteria. Both are adapted for chemolithoautotropy, including pathways for CO2-fixation, and electron transport pathways adapted for growth at low O2-levels, an important adaptation for growing on Fe(II). Both genomes contain Mto-genes implicated in iron-oxidation, as well as other genes that could be involved in Fe-oxidation. Nearly 10% of their genomes are devoted to environmental sensing, signal transduction, and chemotaxis, consistent with their requirement for growing in narrow redox gradients of Fe(II) and O2. There are important differences as well. Sideroxydans ES-1 is more metabolically flexible, and can utilize reduced S-compounds, including thiosulfate, for lithotrophic growth. It has a suite of genes for nitrogen fixation. Gallionella ES-2 contains additional gene clusters for exopolysaccharide production, and has more capacity to resist heavy metals. Both strains contain genes for hemerythrins and globins, but ES-1 has an especially high numbers of these genes that may be involved in oxygen homeostasis, or storage. The two strains share homology with the marine FeOB Mariprofundus ferrooxydans PV-1 in CO2 fixation genes, and respiratory genes. In addition, ES-1 shares a suite of 20 potentially redox active genes with PV-1, as well as a large prophage. Combined these genetic, morphological, and physiological differences indicate that these are two novel species, Sideroxydans lithotrophicus ES-1T (ATCC 700298T; JCM 14762; DSMZ 22444; NCMA B100), and Gallionella capsiferriformans ES-2T (ATCC 700299T; JCM 14763; DSMZ 22445; NCMA B101).
Fe-oxidizing bacteria; Sideroxydans; Gallionellaceae; Gallionella; iron oxidizing bacteria
Turneriella parva Levett et al. 2005 is the only species of the genus Turneriella which was established as a result of the reclassification of Leptospira parva Hovind-Hougen et al. 1982. Together with Leptonema and Leptospira, Turneriella constitutes the family Leptospiraceae, within the order Spirochaetales. Here we describe the features of this free-living aerobic spirochete together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. This is the first complete genome sequence of a member of the genus Turneriella and the 13th member of the family Leptospiraceae for which a complete or draft genome sequence is now available. The 4,409,302 bp long genome with its 4,169 protein-coding and 45 RNA genes is part of the Genomic
Gram-negative; motile; axial filaments; helical; flexible; non-sporulating; aerobic; mesophile; Leptospiraceae; GEBA
At present, Joostella marina Quan et al. 2008 is the sole species with a validly published name in the genus Joostella, family Flavobacteriacae, phylum Bacteriodetes. It is a yellow-pigmented, aerobic, marine organism about which little has been reported other than the chemotaxonomic features required for initial taxonomic description. The genome of J. marina strain En5T complements a list of 16 Flavobacteriaceae strains for which complete genomes and draft genomes are currently available. Here we describe the features of this bacterium, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first member of the genus Joostella for which a complete genome sequence becomes available. The 4,508,243 bp long single replicon genome with its 3,944 protein-coding and 60 RNA genes is part of the Genomic
Gram-negative; non-motile; aerobic; mesophile; Flavobacteriaceae; Bacteroidetes; GEBA
The oomycete vegetable pathogen Phytophthora capsici has shown remarkable adaptation to fungicides and new hosts. Like other members of this destructive genus, P. capsici has an explosive epidemiology, rapidly producing massive numbers of asexual spores on infected hosts. In addition, P. capsici can remain dormant for years as sexually-recombined oospores, making it difficult to produce crops at infested sites, and allowing outcrossing populations to maintain significant genetic variation. Genome sequencing, development of a high-density genetic map, and integrative genomic/genetic characterization of P. capsici field isolates and intercross progeny revealed significant mitotic loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and higher levels of SNVs than those reported for humans, plants, and P. infestans. LOH was detected in clonally propagated field isolates and sexual progeny, cumulatively affecting >30% of the genome. LOH altered genotypes for more than 11,000 single nucleotide variant (SNV) sites and showed a strong association with changes in mating type and pathogenicity. Overall, it appears that LOH may provide a rapid mechanism for fixing alleles and may be an important component of adaptability for P. capsici.
The bacterium Pelobacter carbinolicus is able to grow by fermentation, syntrophic hydrogen/formate transfer, or electron transfer to sulfur from short-chain alcohols, hydrogen or formate; it does not oxidize acetate and is not known to ferment any sugars or grow autotrophically. The genome of P. carbinolicus was sequenced in order to understand its metabolic capabilities and physiological features in comparison with its relatives, acetate-oxidizing Geobacter species.
Pathways were predicted for catabolism of known substrates: 2,3-butanediol, acetoin, glycerol, 1,2-ethanediol, ethanolamine, choline and ethanol. Multiple isozymes of 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase, ATP synthase and [FeFe]-hydrogenase were differentiated and assigned roles according to their structural properties and genomic contexts. The absence of asparagine synthetase and the presence of a mutant tRNA for asparagine encoded among RNA-active enzymes suggest that P. carbinolicus may make asparaginyl-tRNA in a novel way. Catabolic glutamate dehydrogenases were discovered, implying that the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle can function catabolically. A phosphotransferase system for uptake of sugars was discovered, along with enzymes that function in 2,3-butanediol production. Pyruvate:ferredoxin/flavodoxin oxidoreductase was identified as a potential bottleneck in both the supply of oxaloacetate for oxidation of acetate by the TCA cycle and the connection of glycolysis to production of ethanol. The P. carbinolicus genome was found to encode autotransporters and various appendages, including three proteins with similarity to the geopilin of electroconductive nanowires.
Several surprising metabolic capabilities and physiological features were predicted from the genome of P. carbinolicus, suggesting that it is more versatile than anticipated.
Pelobacter; Genome; Metabolism; Physiology; Geobacter; 2,3-butanediol
In May of 2011, an enteroaggregative Escherichia coli O104:H4 strain that had acquired a Shiga toxin 2-converting phage caused a large outbreak of bloody diarrhea in Europe which was notable for its high prevalence of hemolytic uremic syndrome cases. Several studies have described the genomic inventory and phylogenies of strains associated with the outbreak and a collection of historical E. coli O104:H4 isolates using draft genome assemblies. We present the complete, closed genome sequences of an isolate from the 2011 outbreak (2011C–3493) and two isolates from cases of bloody diarrhea that occurred in the Republic of Georgia in 2009 (2009EL–2050 and 2009EL–2071). Comparative genome analysis indicates that, while the Georgian strains are the nearest neighbors to the 2011 outbreak isolates sequenced to date, structural and nucleotide-level differences are evident in the Stx2 phage genomes, the mer/tet antibiotic resistance island, and in the prophage and plasmid profiles of the strains, including a previously undescribed plasmid with homology to the pMT virulence plasmid of Yersinia pestis. In addition, multiphenotype analysis showed that 2009EL–2071 possessed higher resistance to polymyxin and membrane-disrupting agents. Finally, we show evidence by electron microscopy of the presence of a common phage morphotype among the European and Georgian strains and a second phage morphotype among the Georgian strains. The presence of at least two stx2 phage genotypes in host genetic backgrounds that may derive from a recent common ancestor of the 2011 outbreak isolates indicates that the emergence of stx2 phage-containing E. coli O104:H4 strains probably occurred more than once, or that the current outbreak isolates may be the result of a recent transfer of a new stx2 phage element into a pre-existing stx2-positive genetic background.
Paenibacillus sp.Y412MC10 was one of a number of organisms isolated from Obsidian Hot Spring, Yellowstone National Park, Montana, USA under permit from the National Park Service. The isolate was initially classified as a Geobacillus sp. Y412MC10 based on its isolation conditions and similarity to other organisms isolated from hot springs at Yellowstone National Park. Comparison of 16 S rRNA sequences within the Bacillales indicated that Geobacillus sp.Y412MC10 clustered with Paenibacillus species, and the organism was most closely related to Paenibacillus lautus. Lucigen Corp. prepared genomic DNA and the genome was sequenced, assembled, and annotated by the DOE Joint Genome Institute. The genome sequence was deposited at the NCBI in October 2009 (NC_013406). The genome of Paenibacillus sp. Y412MC10 consists of one circular chromosome of 7,121,665 bp with an average G+C content of 51.2%. Comparison to other Paenibacillus species shows the organism lacks nitrogen fixation, antibiotic production and social interaction genes reported in other paenibacilli. The Y412MC10 genome shows a high level of synteny and homology to the draft sequence of Paenibacillus sp. HGF5, an organism from the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) Reference Genomes. This, combined with genomic CAZyme analysis, suggests an intestinal, rather than environmental origin for Y412MC10.
Geobacillus sp. Y412MC10; Paenibacillus sp. Y412MC10; Obsidian Hot Spring
Sulfobacillus acidophilus Norris et al. 1996 is a member of the genus Sulfobacillus which comprises five species of the order Clostridiales. Sulfobacillus species are of interest for comparison to other sulfur and iron oxidizers and also have biomining applications. This is the first completed genome sequence of a type strain of the genus Sulfobacillus, and the second published genome of a member of the species S. acidophilus. The genome, which consists of one chromosome and one plasmid with a total size of 3,557,831 bp harbors 3,626 protein-coding and 69 RNA genes, and is a part of the Genomic
aerobic; motile; Gram-positive; acidophilic; moderately thermophilic; sulfide- and iron-oxidizing; biomining; autotrophic; mixotrophic; soil; insertis sedis; Clostridiales; GEBA
Members of the noncultured clade of Frankia enter into root nodule symbioses with actinorhizal species from the orders Cucurbitales and Rosales. We report the genome sequence of a member of this clade originally from Pakistan but obtained from root nodules of the American plant Datisca glomerata without isolation in culture.
Saprospira grandis Gross 1911 is a member of the Saprospiraceae, a family in the class ‘Sphingobacteria’ that remains poorly characterized at the genomic level. The species is known for preying on other marine bacteria via ‘ixotrophy’. S. grandis strain Sa g1 was isolated from decaying crab carapace in France and was selected for genome sequencing because of its isolated location in the tree of life. Only one type strain genome has been published so far from the Saprospiraceae, while the sequence of strain Sa g1 represents the second genome to be published from a non-type strain of S. grandis. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 4,495,250 bp long Improved-High-Quality draft of the genome with its 3,536 protein-coding and 62 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic
strictly aerobic; gliding; Gram-negative; mesophilic; chemoorganotrophic; marine; ixotrophy; Saprospiraceae; GEBA
A plant-associated member of the family Enterobacteriaceae, Serratia plymuthica strain AS12 was isolated from rapeseed roots. It is of scientific interest because it promotes plant growth and inhibits plant pathogens. The genome of S. plymuthica AS12 comprises a 5,443,009 bp long circular chromosome, which consists of 4,952 protein-coding genes, 87 tRNA genes and 7 rRNA operons. This genome was sequenced within the 2010 DOE-JGI Community Sequencing Program (CSP2010) as part of the project entitled “Genomics of four rapeseed plant growth promoting bacteria with antagonistic effect on plant pathogens”.
Facultative anaerobe; gram-negative; motile; non-sporulating; mesophilic; chemoorganotrophic; agriculture; Enterobacteriaceae; CSP 2010
Mycoparasitism, a lifestyle where one fungus is parasitic on another fungus, has special relevance when the prey is a plant pathogen, providing a strategy for biological control of pests for plant protection. Probably, the most studied biocontrol agents are species of the genus Hypocrea/Trichoderma.
Here we report an analysis of the genome sequences of the two biocontrol species Trichoderma atroviride (teleomorph Hypocrea atroviridis) and Trichoderma virens (formerly Gliocladium virens, teleomorph Hypocrea virens), and a comparison with Trichoderma reesei (teleomorph Hypocrea jecorina). These three Trichoderma species display a remarkable conservation of gene order (78 to 96%), and a lack of active mobile elements probably due to repeat-induced point mutation. Several gene families are expanded in the two mycoparasitic species relative to T. reesei or other ascomycetes, and are overrepresented in non-syntenic genome regions. A phylogenetic analysis shows that T. reesei and T. virens are derived relative to T. atroviride. The mycoparasitism-specific genes thus arose in a common Trichoderma ancestor but were subsequently lost in T. reesei.
The data offer a better understanding of mycoparasitism, and thus enforce the development of improved biocontrol strains for efficient and environmentally friendly protection of plants.
Ruminococcus albus 7 is a highly cellulolytic ruminal bacterium that is a member of the phylum Firmicutes. Here, we describe the complete genome of this microbe. This genome will be useful for rumen microbiology and cellulosome biology and in biofuel production, as one of its major fermentation products is ethanol.
Sulfuricurvum kujiense Kodama and Watanabe 2004 is the type species of the monotypic genus Sulfuricurvum, which belongs to the family Helicobacteraceae in the class Epsilonproteobacteria. The species is of interest because it is frequently found in crude oil and oil sands where it utilizes various reduced sulfur compounds such as elemental sulfur, sulfide and thiosulfate as electron donors. Members of the species do not utilize sugars, organic acids or hydrocarbons as carbon and energy sources. This genome sequence represents the type strain of the only species in the genus Sulfuricurvum. The genome, which consists of a circular chromosome of 2,574,824 bp length and four plasmids of 118,585 bp, 71,513 bp, 51,014 bp, and 3,421 bp length, respectively, harboring a total of 2,879 protein-coding and 61 RNA genes and is a part of the Genomic
facultatively anaerobic; microaerobic; motile; Gram-negative; sulfur-oxidizing; mesophilic; chemolithoautotrophic; Helicobacteracea; GEBA
Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2, an aggressively xylanolytic bacterium isolated from sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) wood, is able to efficiently depolymerize, assimilate and metabolize 4-O-methylglucuronoxylan, the predominant structural component of hardwood hemicelluloses. A basis for this capability was first supported by the identification of genes and characterization of encoded enzymes and has been further defined by the sequencing and annotation of the complete genome, which we describe. In addition to genes implicated in the utilization of β-1,4-xylan, genes have also been identified for the utilization of other hemicellulosic polysaccharides. The genome of Paenibacillus sp. JDR-2 contains 7,184,930 bp in a single replicon with 6,288 protein-coding and 122 RNA genes. Uniquely prominent are 874 genes encoding proteins involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism. The prevalence and organization of these genes support a metabolic potential for bioprocessing of hemicellulose fractions derived from lignocellulosic resources.
aerobic; mesophile; Gram-positive; Paenibacillus; xylanolytic; xylan
Pseudonocardia dioxanivoransCB1190 is the first bacterium reported to be capable of growth on the environmental contaminant 1,4-dioxane and the first member of the genus Pseudonocardiafor which there is an annotated genome sequence. Preliminary analysis of the genome (chromosome and three plasmids) indicates that strain CB1190 possesses several multicomponent monooxygenases that could be involved in the aerobic degradation of 1,4-dioxane and other environmental contaminants.
Nitrosomonas sp. strain AL212 is an obligate chemolithotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacterium (AOB) that was originally isolated in 1997 by Yuichi Suwa and colleagues. This organism belongs to Nitrosomonas cluster 6A, which is characterized by sensitivity to high ammonia concentrations, higher substrate affinity (lower Km), and lower maximum growth rates than strains in Nitrosomonas cluster 7, which includes Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrosomonas eutropha. Genome-informed studies of this ammonia-sensitive cohort of AOB are needed, as these bacteria are found in freshwater environments, drinking water supplies, wastewater treatment systems, and soils worldwide.
Lactobacillus buchneri strain NRRL B-30929 was a contaminant obtained from a commercial ethanol fermentation. This facultative anaerobe is unique because of its rapid growth on xylose and simultaneous fermentation of xylose and glucose. The strain utilizes a broad range of carbohydrate substrates and possesses a high tolerance to ethanol and other stresses, making it an attractive candidate for bioconversion of biomass substrates to various bioproducts. The genome sequence of NRRL B-30929 will provide insight into the unique properties of this lactic acid bacterium.
The genome of the anaerobic halophilic alkalithermophile Natranaerobius thermophilus consists of one 3,165,557-bp chromosome and two plasmids (17,207 bp and 8,689 bp). The present study is the first to report the completely sequenced genome of an anaerobic polyextremophile and genes associated with roles in regulation of intracellular osmotic pressure, pH homeostasis, and growth at elevated temperatures.
The family Hyphomonadaceae within the Alphaproteobacteria is largely comprised of bacteria isolated from marine environments with striking morphologies and an unusual mode of cell growth. Here, we report the complete genome sequence Hirschia baltica, which is only the second a member of the Hyphomonadaceae with a published genome sequence. H. baltica is of special interest because it has a dimorphic life cycle and is a stalked, budding bacterium. The 3,455,622 bp long chromosome and 84,492 bp plasmid with a total of 3,222 protein-coding and 44 RNA genes were sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute Program CSP 2008.
aerobic; chemoheterotrophic; mesophile; Gram-negative; motile; budding; stalk-forming; Hyphomonadaceae; Alphaproteobacteria; CSP 2008
“Pedosphaera parvula” Ellin514 is an aerobically grown verrucomicrobial isolate from pasture soil. It is one of the few cultured representatives of subdivision 3 of the phylum Verrucomicrobia. Members of this group are widespread in terrestrial environments.
Pneumonia and myocarditis are the most commonly reported diseases due to Histophilus somni, an opportunistic pathogen of the reproductive and respiratory tracts of cattle. Thus far only a few genes involved in metabolic and virulence functions have been identified and characterized in H. somni using traditional methods. Analyses of the genome sequences of several Pasteurellaceae species have provided insights into their biology and evolution. In view of the economic and ecological importance of H. somni, the genome sequence of pneumonia strain 2336 has been determined and compared to that of commensal strain 129Pt and other members of the Pasteurellaceae.
The chromosome of strain 2336 (2,263,857 bp) contained 1,980 protein coding genes, whereas the chromosome of strain 129Pt (2,007,700 bp) contained only 1,792 protein coding genes. Although the chromosomes of the two strains differ in size, their average GC content, gene density (total number of genes predicted on the chromosome), and percentage of sequence (number of genes) that encodes proteins were similar. The chromosomes of these strains also contained a number of discrete prophage regions and genomic islands. One of the genomic islands in strain 2336 contained genes putatively involved in copper, zinc, and tetracycline resistance. Using the genome sequence data and comparative analyses with other members of the Pasteurellaceae, several H. somni genes that may encode proteins involved in virulence (e.g., filamentous haemaggutinins, adhesins, and polysaccharide biosynthesis/modification enzymes) were identified. The two strains contained a total of 17 ORFs that encode putative glycosyltransferases and some of these ORFs had characteristic simple sequence repeats within them. Most of the genes/loci common to both the strains were located in different regions of the two chromosomes and occurred in opposite orientations, indicating genome rearrangement since their divergence from a common ancestor.
Since the genome of strain 129Pt was ~256,000 bp smaller than that of strain 2336, these genomes provide yet another paradigm for studying evolutionary gene loss and/or gain in regard to virulence repertoire and pathogenic ability. Analyses of the complete genome sequences revealed that bacteriophage- and transposon-mediated horizontal gene transfer had occurred at several loci in the chromosomes of strains 2336 and 129Pt. It appears that these mobile genetic elements have played a major role in creating genomic diversity and phenotypic variability among the two H. somni strains.
Desulfovibrio desulfuricans strain ND132 is an anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacterium (SRB) capable of producing methylmercury (MeHg), a potent human neurotoxin. The mechanism of methylation by this and other organisms is unknown. We present the 3.8-Mb genome sequence to provide further insight into microbial mercury methylation.