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1.  The mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes of the haptophyte Chrysochromulina tobin contain unique repeat structures and gene profiles 
BMC Genomics  2014;15:604.
Background
Haptophytes are widely and abundantly distributed in both marine and freshwater ecosystems. Few genomic analyses of representatives within this taxon have been reported, despite their early evolutionary origins and their prominent role in global carbon fixation.
Results
The complete mitochondrial and chloroplast genome sequences of the haptophyte Chrysochromulina tobin (Prymnesiales) provide insight into the architecture and gene content of haptophyte organellar genomes. The mitochondrial genome (~34 kb) encodes 21 protein coding genes and contains a complex, 9 kb tandem repeat region. Similar to other haptophytes and rhodophytes, but not cryptophytes or stramenopiles, the mitochondrial genome has lost the nad7, nad9 and nad11 genes. The ~105 kb chloroplast genome encodes 112 protein coding genes, including ycf39 which has strong structural homology to NADP-binding nitrate transcriptional regulators; a divergent ‘CheY-like’ two-component response regulator (ycf55) and Tic/Toc (ycf60 and ycf80) membrane transporters. Notably, a zinc finger domain has been identified in the rpl36 ribosomal protein gene of all chloroplasts sequenced to date with the exception of haptophytes and cryptophytes - algae that have gained (via lateral gene transfer) an alternative rpl36 lacking the zinc finger motif. The two C. tobin chloroplast ribosomal RNA operon spacer regions differ in tRNA content. Additionally, each ribosomal operon contains multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) - a pattern observed in rhodophytes and cryptophytes, but few stramenopiles. Analysis of small (<200 bp) chloroplast encoded tandem and inverted repeats in C. tobin and 78 other algal chloroplast genomes show that repeat type, size and location are correlated with gene identity and taxonomic clade.
Conclusion
The Chrysochromulina tobin organellar genomes provide new insight into organellar function and evolution. These are the first organellar genomes to be determined for the prymnesiales, a taxon that is present in both oceanic and freshwater systems and represents major primary photosynthetic producers and contributors to global ecosystem stability.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-15-604
PMCID: PMC4226036  PMID: 25034814
Haptophytes; Chloroplast genome; Mitochondrial genome; Repeat structure; Repeat function; Chrysochromulina
2.  A pangenomic analysis of the Nannochloropsis organellar genomes reveals novel genetic variations in key metabolic genes 
BMC Genomics  2014;15:212.
Background
Microalgae in the genus Nannochloropsis are photosynthetic marine Eustigmatophytes of significant interest to the bioenergy and aquaculture sectors due to their ability to efficiently accumulate biomass and lipids for utilization in renewable transportation fuels, aquaculture feed, and other useful bioproducts. To better understand the genetic complement that drives the metabolic processes of these organisms, we present the assembly and comparative pangenomic analysis of the chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes from Nannochloropsis salina CCMP1776.
Results
The chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes of N. salina are 98.4% and 97% identical to their counterparts in Nannochloropsis gaditana. Comparison of the Nannochloropsis pangenome to other algae within and outside of the same phyla revealed regions of significant genetic divergence in key genes that encode proteins needed for regulation of branched chain amino synthesis (acetohydroxyacid synthase), carbon fixation (RuBisCO activase), energy conservation (ATP synthase), protein synthesis and homeostasis (Clp protease, ribosome).
Conclusions
Many organellar gene modifications in Nannochloropsis are unique and deviate from conserved orthologs found across the tree of life. Implementation of secondary and tertiary structure prediction was crucial to functionally characterize many proteins and therefore should be implemented in automated annotation pipelines. The exceptional similarity of the N. salina and N. gaditana organellar genomes suggests that N. gaditana be reclassified as a strain of N. salina.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-15-212
PMCID: PMC3999925  PMID: 24646409
Nannochloropsis; Chloroplast; Mitochondria; Genome; Stramenopiles; Genome evolution; Gene divergence
3.  Genome sequence and emended description of Leisingera nanhaiensis strain DSM 24252T isolated from marine sediment 
Standards in Genomic Sciences  2014;9(3):687-703.
Leisingera nanhaiensis DSM 24252T is a Gram-negative, motile, rod-shaped marine Alphaproteobacterium, isolated from sandy marine sediments. Here we present the non-contiguous genome sequence and annotation together with a summary of the organism's phenotypic features. The 4,948,550 bp long genome with its 4,832 protein-coding and 64 RNA genes consists of one chromosome and six extrachromosomal elements with lengths of 236 kb, 92 kb, 61 kb, 58 kb, 56 kb, and 35 kb, respectively. The analysis of the genome showed that DSM 24252T possesses all genes necessary for dissimilatory nitrite reduction, and the strain was shown to be facultatively anaerobic, a deviation from the original description that calls for an emendation of the species. Also present in the genome are genes coding for a putative prophage, for gene-transfer agents and for the utilization of methylated amines. Phylogenetic analysis and intergenomic distances indicate that L. nanhaiensis might not belong to the genus Leisingera.
doi:10.4056/sigs.3828824
PMCID: PMC4148953  PMID: 25197454
Marine; motile; facultative anaerobe; methylated compounds; Rhodobacteraceae; Roseobacter clade
4.  Complete genome sequence of Mesorhizobium ciceri bv. biserrulae type strain (WSM1271T) 
Standards in Genomic Sciences  2013;9(3):462-472.
Mesorhizobium ciceri bv. biserrulae strain WSM1271T was isolated from root nodules of the pasture legume Biserrula pelecinus growing in the Mediterranean basin. Previous studies have shown this aerobic, motile, Gram negative, non-spore-forming rod preferably nodulates B. pelecinus – a legume with many beneficial agronomic attributes for sustainable agriculture in Australia. We describe the genome of Mesorhizobium ciceri bv. biserrulae strain WSM1271T consisting of a 6,264,489 bp chromosome and a 425,539 bp plasmid that together encode 6,470 protein-coding genes and 61 RNA-only encoding genes.
doi:10.4056/sigs.4458283
PMCID: PMC4148989  PMID: 25197432
root-nodule bacteria; nitrogen fixation; evolution; lateral gene transfer; integrative and conjugative elements; symbiosis; Alphaproteobacteria
5.  Complete genome sequence of Enterobacter sp. IIT-BT 08: A potential microbial strain for high rate hydrogen production 
Standards in Genomic Sciences  2013;9(2):359-369.
Enterobacter sp. IIT-BT 08 belongs to Phylum: Proteobacteria, Class: Gammaproteobacteria, Order: Enterobacteriales, Family: Enterobacteriaceae. The organism was isolated from the leaves of a local plant near the Kharagpur railway station, Kharagpur, West Bengal, India. It has been extensively studied for fermentative hydrogen production because of its high hydrogen yield. For further enhancement of hydrogen production by strain development, complete genome sequence analysis was carried out. Sequence analysis revealed that the genome was linear, 4.67 Mbp long and had a GC content of 56.01%. The genome properties encode 4,393 protein-coding and 179 RNA genes. Additionally, a putative pathway of hydrogen production was suggested based on the presence of formate hydrogen lyase complex and other related genes identified in the genome. Thus, in the present study we describe the specific properties of the organism and the generation, annotation and analysis of its genome sequence as well as discuss the putative pathway of hydrogen production by this organism.
doi:10.4056/sigs.4348035
PMCID: PMC4062630  PMID: 24976892
Enterobacter sp. IIT-BT 08; genome sequence; facultative anaerobe; biohydrogen
6.  Complete genome sequence of Mesorhizobium opportunistum type strain WSM2075T 
Standards in Genomic Sciences  2013;9(2):294-303.
Mesorhizobium opportunistum strain WSM2075T was isolated in Western Australia in 2000 from root nodules of the pasture legume Biserrula pelecinus that had been inoculated with M. ciceri bv. biserrulae WSM1271. WSM2075T is an aerobic, motile, Gram negative, non-spore-forming rod that has gained the ability to nodulate B. pelecinus but is completely ineffective in N2 fixation with this host. This report reveals that the genome of M. opportunistum strain WSM2075T contains a chromosome of size 6,884,444 bp, encoding 6,685 protein-coding genes and 62 RNA-only encoding genes. The genome contains no plasmids, but does harbor a 455.7 kb genomic island from Mesorhizobium ciceri bv. biserrulae WSM1271 that has been integrated into a phenylalanine-tRNA gene.
doi:10.4056/sigs.4538264
PMCID: PMC4062634  PMID: 24976886
root-nodule bacteria; nitrogen fixation; evolution; lateral gene transfer; integrative and conjugative elements; symbiosis; Alphaproteobacteria
7.  Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis Serovar Israelensis Strain HD-789 
Genome Announcements  2013;1(6):e01023-13.
Bacillus thuringiensis is an important microbial insecticide for controlling agricultural pests. We report the finished genome sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis strain HD-789, which contains genes encoding 7 parasporal crystals consisting of Cry4Aa3, Cry4Ba5 (2 genes), Cry10Aa3, Cry11Aa3, Cry60Ba3, and Cry60Aa3, plus 3 Cyt toxin genes and 1 hemagglutinin gene.
doi:10.1128/genomeA.01023-13
PMCID: PMC3853066  PMID: 24309743
8.  Complete genome sequence of the marine methyl-halide oxidizing Leisingera methylohalidivorans type strain (DSM 14336T), a representative of the Roseobacter clade 
Standards in Genomic Sciences  2013;9(1):128-141.
Leisingera methylohalidivorans Schaefer et al. 2002 emend. Vandecandelaere et al. 2008 is the type species of the genus Leisingera. The genus belongs to the Roseobacter clade (Rhodobacteraceae, Alphaproteobacteria), a widely distributed lineage in marine environments. Leisingera and particularly L. methylohalidivorans strain MB2T is of special interest due to its methylotrophy. Here we describe the complete genome sequence and annotation of this bacterium together with previously unreported aspects of its phenotype. The 4,650,996 bp long genome with its 4,515 protein-coding and 81 RNA genes consists of three replicons, a single chromosome and two extrachromosomal elements with sizes of 221 kb and 285 kb.
doi:10.4056/sigs.4297965
PMCID: PMC3910543  PMID: 24501651
Methylotrophy; methyl halides; extrachromosomal elements; Alphaproteobacteria; Rhodobacteraceae; Roseobacter clade; aerobe
9.  Genome sequence of Phaeobacter daeponensis type strain (DSM 23529T), a facultatively anaerobic bacterium isolated from marine sediment, and emendation of Phaeobacter daeponensis 
Standards in Genomic Sciences  2013;9(1):142-159.
TF-218T is the type strain of the species Phaeobacter daeponensis Yoon et al. 2007, a facultatively anaerobic Phaeobacter species isolated from tidal flats. Here we describe the draft genome sequence and annotation of this bacterium together with previously unreported aspects of its phenotype. We analyzed the genome for genes involved in secondary metabolite production and its anaerobic lifestyle, which have also been described for its closest relative Phaeobacter caeruleus. The 4,642,596 bp long genome of strain TF-218T contains 4,310 protein-coding genes and 78 RNA genes including four rRNA operons and consists of five replicons: one chromosome and four extrachromosomal elements with sizes of 276 kb, 174 kb, 117 kb and 90 kb. Genome analysis showed that TF-218T possesses all of the genes for indigoidine biosynthesis, and on specific media the strain showed a blue pigmentation. We also found genes for dissimilatory nitrate reduction, gene-transfer agents, NRPS/ PKS genes and signaling systems homologous to the LuxR/I system.
doi:10.4056/sigs.4287962
PMCID: PMC3910554  PMID: 24501652
Marine microbiology; facultative anaerobe; indigoidine; Rhodobacteraceae; Roseobacter clade
10.  Complete Genome Sequence of Micromonospora Strain L5, a Potential Plant-Growth-Regulating Actinomycete, Originally Isolated from Casuarina equisetifolia Root Nodules 
Genome Announcements  2013;1(5):e00759-13.
Micromonospora species live in diverse environments and exhibit a broad range of functions, including antibiotic production, biocontrol, and degradation of complex polysaccharides. To learn more about these versatile actinomycetes, we sequenced the genome of strain L5, originally isolated from root nodules of an actinorhizal plant growing in Mexico.
doi:10.1128/genomeA.00759-13
PMCID: PMC3784783  PMID: 24072863
11.  Comparative genomics of freshwater Fe-oxidizing bacteria: implications for physiology, ecology, and systematics 
The two microaerophilic, Fe-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) Sideroxydans ES-1 and Gallionella ES-2 have single circular chromosomes of 3.00 and 3.16 Mb that encode 3049 and 3006 genes, respectively. Multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) confirmed the relationship of these two organisms to one another, and indicated they may form a novel order, the Gallionellalaes, within the Betaproteobacteria. Both are adapted for chemolithoautotropy, including pathways for CO2-fixation, and electron transport pathways adapted for growth at low O2-levels, an important adaptation for growing on Fe(II). Both genomes contain Mto-genes implicated in iron-oxidation, as well as other genes that could be involved in Fe-oxidation. Nearly 10% of their genomes are devoted to environmental sensing, signal transduction, and chemotaxis, consistent with their requirement for growing in narrow redox gradients of Fe(II) and O2. There are important differences as well. Sideroxydans ES-1 is more metabolically flexible, and can utilize reduced S-compounds, including thiosulfate, for lithotrophic growth. It has a suite of genes for nitrogen fixation. Gallionella ES-2 contains additional gene clusters for exopolysaccharide production, and has more capacity to resist heavy metals. Both strains contain genes for hemerythrins and globins, but ES-1 has an especially high numbers of these genes that may be involved in oxygen homeostasis, or storage. The two strains share homology with the marine FeOB Mariprofundus ferrooxydans PV-1 in CO2 fixation genes, and respiratory genes. In addition, ES-1 shares a suite of 20 potentially redox active genes with PV-1, as well as a large prophage. Combined these genetic, morphological, and physiological differences indicate that these are two novel species, Sideroxydans lithotrophicus ES-1T (ATCC 700298T; JCM 14762; DSMZ 22444; NCMA B100), and Gallionella capsiferriformans ES-2T (ATCC 700299T; JCM 14763; DSMZ 22445; NCMA B101).
doi:10.3389/fmicb.2013.00254
PMCID: PMC3770913  PMID: 24062729
Fe-oxidizing bacteria; Sideroxydans; Gallionellaceae; Gallionella; iron oxidizing bacteria
12.  Non-contiguous finished genome sequence of plant-growth promoting Serratia proteamaculans S4 
Standards in Genomic Sciences  2013;8(3):441-449.
Serratia proteamaculans S4 (previously Serratia sp. S4), isolated from the rhizosphere of wild Equisetum sp., has the ability to stimulate plant growth and to suppress the growth of several soil-borne fungal pathogens of economically important crops. Here we present the non-contiguous, finished genome sequence of S. proteamaculans S4, which consists of a 5,324,944 bp circular chromosome and a 129,797 bp circular plasmid. The chromosome contains 5,008 predicted genes while the plasmid comprises 134 predicted genes. In total, 4,993 genes are assigned as protein-coding genes. The genome consists of 22 rRNA genes, 82 tRNA genes and 58 pseudogenes. This genome is a part of the project “Genomics of four rapeseed plant growth-promoting bacteria with antagonistic effect on plant pathogens” awarded through the 2010 DOE-JGI’s Community Sequencing Program.
doi:10.4056/sigs.4027757
PMCID: PMC3910699  PMID: 24501629
Facultative aerobe; gram-negative; motile; non-sporulating; mesophilic; chemoorganotrophic; agriculture
13.  Genome sequence of Phaeobacter caeruleus type strain (DSM 24564T), a surface-associated member of the marine Roseobacter clade 
Standards in Genomic Sciences  2013;8(3):403-419.
In 2009 Phaeobacter caeruleus was described as a novel species affiliated with the marine Roseobacter clade, which, in turn, belongs to the class Alphaproteobacteria. The genus Phaeobacter is well known for members that produce various secondary metabolites. Here we report of putative quorum sensing systems, based on the finding of six N-acyl-homoserine lactone synthetases, and show that the blue color of P. caeruleus is probably due to the production of the secondary metabolite indigoidine. Therefore, P. caeruleus might have inhibitory effects on other bacteria. In this study the genome of the type strain DSM 24564T was sequenced, annotated and characterized. The 5,344,419 bp long genome with its seven plasmids contains 5,227 protein-coding genes (3,904 with a predicted function) and 108 RNA genes.
doi:10.4056/sigs.3927623
PMCID: PMC3910702  PMID: 24501626
biofilm; motile; indigoidine; quorum sensing; siderophores; Rhodobacteraceae; Alphaproteobacteria
14.  Genome sequence of the free-living aerobic spirochete Turneriella parva type strain (HT), and emendation of the species Turneriella parva 
Standards in Genomic Sciences  2013;8(2):228-238.
Turneriella parva Levett et al. 2005 is the only species of the genus Turneriella which was established as a result of the reclassification of Leptospira parva Hovind-Hougen et al. 1982. Together with Leptonema and Leptospira, Turneriella constitutes the family Leptospiraceae, within the order Spirochaetales. Here we describe the features of this free-living aerobic spirochete together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. This is the first complete genome sequence of a member of the genus Turneriella and the 13th member of the family Leptospiraceae for which a complete or draft genome sequence is now available. The 4,409,302 bp long genome with its 4,169 protein-coding and 45 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
doi:10.4056/sigs.3617113
PMCID: PMC3746428  PMID: 23991255
Gram-negative; motile; axial filaments; helical; flexible; non-sporulating; aerobic; mesophile; Leptospiraceae; GEBA
15.  High-quality-draft genome sequence of the yellow-pigmented flavobacterium Joostella marina type strain (En5T) 
Standards in Genomic Sciences  2013;8(1):37-46.
At present, Joostella marina Quan et al. 2008 is the sole species with a validly published name in the genus Joostella, family Flavobacteriacae, phylum Bacteriodetes. It is a yellow-pigmented, aerobic, marine organism about which little has been reported other than the chemotaxonomic features required for initial taxonomic description. The genome of J. marina strain En5T complements a list of 16 Flavobacteriaceae strains for which complete genomes and draft genomes are currently available. Here we describe the features of this bacterium, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first member of the genus Joostella for which a complete genome sequence becomes available. The 4,508,243 bp long single replicon genome with its 3,944 protein-coding and 60 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
doi:10.4056/sigs.3537045
PMCID: PMC3739173  PMID: 23961310
Gram-negative; non-motile; aerobic; mesophile; Flavobacteriaceae; Bacteroidetes; GEBA
16.  Genome sequencing and mapping reveal loss of heterozygosity as a mechanism for rapid adaptation in the vegetable pathogen Phytophthora capsici 
The oomycete vegetable pathogen Phytophthora capsici has shown remarkable adaptation to fungicides and new hosts. Like other members of this destructive genus, P. capsici has an explosive epidemiology, rapidly producing massive numbers of asexual spores on infected hosts. In addition, P. capsici can remain dormant for years as sexually-recombined oospores, making it difficult to produce crops at infested sites, and allowing outcrossing populations to maintain significant genetic variation. Genome sequencing, development of a high-density genetic map, and integrative genomic/genetic characterization of P. capsici field isolates and intercross progeny revealed significant mitotic loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and higher levels of SNVs than those reported for humans, plants, and P. infestans. LOH was detected in clonally propagated field isolates and sexual progeny, cumulatively affecting >30% of the genome. LOH altered genotypes for more than 11,000 single nucleotide variant (SNV) sites and showed a strong association with changes in mating type and pathogenicity. Overall, it appears that LOH may provide a rapid mechanism for fixing alleles and may be an important component of adaptability for P. capsici.
doi:10.1094/MPMI-02-12-0028-R
PMCID: PMC3551261  PMID: 22712506
17.  The genome of Pelobacter carbinolicus reveals surprising metabolic capabilities and physiological features 
BMC Genomics  2012;13:690.
Background
The bacterium Pelobacter carbinolicus is able to grow by fermentation, syntrophic hydrogen/formate transfer, or electron transfer to sulfur from short-chain alcohols, hydrogen or formate; it does not oxidize acetate and is not known to ferment any sugars or grow autotrophically. The genome of P. carbinolicus was sequenced in order to understand its metabolic capabilities and physiological features in comparison with its relatives, acetate-oxidizing Geobacter species.
Results
Pathways were predicted for catabolism of known substrates: 2,3-butanediol, acetoin, glycerol, 1,2-ethanediol, ethanolamine, choline and ethanol. Multiple isozymes of 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase, ATP synthase and [FeFe]-hydrogenase were differentiated and assigned roles according to their structural properties and genomic contexts. The absence of asparagine synthetase and the presence of a mutant tRNA for asparagine encoded among RNA-active enzymes suggest that P. carbinolicus may make asparaginyl-tRNA in a novel way. Catabolic glutamate dehydrogenases were discovered, implying that the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle can function catabolically. A phosphotransferase system for uptake of sugars was discovered, along with enzymes that function in 2,3-butanediol production. Pyruvate:ferredoxin/flavodoxin oxidoreductase was identified as a potential bottleneck in both the supply of oxaloacetate for oxidation of acetate by the TCA cycle and the connection of glycolysis to production of ethanol. The P. carbinolicus genome was found to encode autotransporters and various appendages, including three proteins with similarity to the geopilin of electroconductive nanowires.
Conclusions
Several surprising metabolic capabilities and physiological features were predicted from the genome of P. carbinolicus, suggesting that it is more versatile than anticipated.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-13-690
PMCID: PMC3543383  PMID: 23227809
Pelobacter; Genome; Metabolism; Physiology; Geobacter; 2,3-butanediol
18.  Genomic Comparison of Escherichia coli O104:H4 Isolates from 2009 and 2011 Reveals Plasmid, and Prophage Heterogeneity, Including Shiga Toxin Encoding Phage stx2 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(11):e48228.
In May of 2011, an enteroaggregative Escherichia coli O104:H4 strain that had acquired a Shiga toxin 2-converting phage caused a large outbreak of bloody diarrhea in Europe which was notable for its high prevalence of hemolytic uremic syndrome cases. Several studies have described the genomic inventory and phylogenies of strains associated with the outbreak and a collection of historical E. coli O104:H4 isolates using draft genome assemblies. We present the complete, closed genome sequences of an isolate from the 2011 outbreak (2011C–3493) and two isolates from cases of bloody diarrhea that occurred in the Republic of Georgia in 2009 (2009EL–2050 and 2009EL–2071). Comparative genome analysis indicates that, while the Georgian strains are the nearest neighbors to the 2011 outbreak isolates sequenced to date, structural and nucleotide-level differences are evident in the Stx2 phage genomes, the mer/tet antibiotic resistance island, and in the prophage and plasmid profiles of the strains, including a previously undescribed plasmid with homology to the pMT virulence plasmid of Yersinia pestis. In addition, multiphenotype analysis showed that 2009EL–2071 possessed higher resistance to polymyxin and membrane-disrupting agents. Finally, we show evidence by electron microscopy of the presence of a common phage morphotype among the European and Georgian strains and a second phage morphotype among the Georgian strains. The presence of at least two stx2 phage genotypes in host genetic backgrounds that may derive from a recent common ancestor of the 2011 outbreak isolates indicates that the emergence of stx2 phage-containing E. coli O104:H4 strains probably occurred more than once, or that the current outbreak isolates may be the result of a recent transfer of a new stx2 phage element into a pre-existing stx2-positive genetic background.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048228
PMCID: PMC3486847  PMID: 23133618
19.  Complete Genome Sequence of Paenibacillus strain Y4.12MC10, a Novel Paenibacillus lautus strain Isolated from Obsidian Hot Spring in Yellowstone National Park 
Standards in Genomic Sciences  2012;6(3):381-400.
Paenibacillus sp.Y412MC10 was one of a number of organisms isolated from Obsidian Hot Spring, Yellowstone National Park, Montana, USA under permit from the National Park Service. The isolate was initially classified as a Geobacillus sp. Y412MC10 based on its isolation conditions and similarity to other organisms isolated from hot springs at Yellowstone National Park. Comparison of 16 S rRNA sequences within the Bacillales indicated that Geobacillus sp.Y412MC10 clustered with Paenibacillus species, and the organism was most closely related to Paenibacillus lautus. Lucigen Corp. prepared genomic DNA and the genome was sequenced, assembled, and annotated by the DOE Joint Genome Institute. The genome sequence was deposited at the NCBI in October 2009 (NC_013406). The genome of Paenibacillus sp. Y412MC10 consists of one circular chromosome of 7,121,665 bp with an average G+C content of 51.2%. Comparison to other Paenibacillus species shows the organism lacks nitrogen fixation, antibiotic production and social interaction genes reported in other paenibacilli. The Y412MC10 genome shows a high level of synteny and homology to the draft sequence of Paenibacillus sp. HGF5, an organism from the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) Reference Genomes. This, combined with genomic CAZyme analysis, suggests an intestinal, rather than environmental origin for Y412MC10.
doi:10.4056/sigs.2605792
PMCID: PMC3558958  PMID: 23408395
Geobacillus sp. Y412MC10; Paenibacillus sp. Y412MC10; Obsidian Hot Spring
20.  Complete genome sequence of the moderately thermophilic mineral-sulfide-oxidizing firmicute Sulfobacillus acidophilus type strain (NALT) 
Sulfobacillus acidophilus Norris et al. 1996 is a member of the genus Sulfobacillus which comprises five species of the order Clostridiales. Sulfobacillus species are of interest for comparison to other sulfur and iron oxidizers and also have biomining applications. This is the first completed genome sequence of a type strain of the genus Sulfobacillus, and the second published genome of a member of the species S. acidophilus. The genome, which consists of one chromosome and one plasmid with a total size of 3,557,831 bp harbors 3,626 protein-coding and 69 RNA genes, and is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
doi:10.4056/sigs.2736042
PMCID: PMC3558970  PMID: 23407703
aerobic; motile; Gram-positive; acidophilic; moderately thermophilic; sulfide- and iron-oxidizing; biomining; autotrophic; mixotrophic; soil; insertis sedis; Clostridiales; GEBA
21.  Genome Sequence of “Candidatus Frankia datiscae” Dg1, the Uncultured Microsymbiont from Nitrogen-Fixing Root Nodules of the Dicot Datisca glomerata 
Journal of Bacteriology  2011;193(24):7017-7018.
Members of the noncultured clade of Frankia enter into root nodule symbioses with actinorhizal species from the orders Cucurbitales and Rosales. We report the genome sequence of a member of this clade originally from Pakistan but obtained from root nodules of the American plant Datisca glomerata without isolation in culture.
doi:10.1128/JB.06208-11
PMCID: PMC3232863  PMID: 22123767
22.  Permanent draft genome sequence of the gliding predator Saprospira grandis strain Sa g1 (= HR1) 
Standards in Genomic Sciences  2012;6(2):210-219.
Saprospira grandis Gross 1911 is a member of the Saprospiraceae, a family in the class ‘Sphingobacteria’ that remains poorly characterized at the genomic level. The species is known for preying on other marine bacteria via ‘ixotrophy’. S. grandis strain Sa g1 was isolated from decaying crab carapace in France and was selected for genome sequencing because of its isolated location in the tree of life. Only one type strain genome has been published so far from the Saprospiraceae, while the sequence of strain Sa g1 represents the second genome to be published from a non-type strain of S. grandis. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 4,495,250 bp long Improved-High-Quality draft of the genome with its 3,536 protein-coding and 62 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
doi:10.4056/sigs.2816096
PMCID: PMC3387799  PMID: 22768364
strictly aerobic; gliding; Gram-negative; mesophilic; chemoorganotrophic; marine; ixotrophy; Saprospiraceae; GEBA
24.  Complete genome sequence of Serratia plymuthica strain AS12 
Standards in Genomic Sciences  2012;6(2):165-173.
A plant-associated member of the family Enterobacteriaceae, Serratia plymuthica strain AS12 was isolated from rapeseed roots. It is of scientific interest because it promotes plant growth and inhibits plant pathogens. The genome of S. plymuthica AS12 comprises a 5,443,009 bp long circular chromosome, which consists of 4,952 protein-coding genes, 87 tRNA genes and 7 rRNA operons. This genome was sequenced within the 2010 DOE-JGI Community Sequencing Program (CSP2010) as part of the project entitled “Genomics of four rapeseed plant growth promoting bacteria with antagonistic effect on plant pathogens”.
doi:10.4056/sigs.2705996
PMCID: PMC3387793  PMID: 22768360
Facultative anaerobe; gram-negative; motile; non-sporulating; mesophilic; chemoorganotrophic; agriculture; Enterobacteriaceae; CSP 2010
25.  Comparative genome sequence analysis underscores mycoparasitism as the ancestral life style of Trichoderma 
Genome Biology  2011;12(4):R40.
Background
Mycoparasitism, a lifestyle where one fungus is parasitic on another fungus, has special relevance when the prey is a plant pathogen, providing a strategy for biological control of pests for plant protection. Probably, the most studied biocontrol agents are species of the genus Hypocrea/Trichoderma.
Results
Here we report an analysis of the genome sequences of the two biocontrol species Trichoderma atroviride (teleomorph Hypocrea atroviridis) and Trichoderma virens (formerly Gliocladium virens, teleomorph Hypocrea virens), and a comparison with Trichoderma reesei (teleomorph Hypocrea jecorina). These three Trichoderma species display a remarkable conservation of gene order (78 to 96%), and a lack of active mobile elements probably due to repeat-induced point mutation. Several gene families are expanded in the two mycoparasitic species relative to T. reesei or other ascomycetes, and are overrepresented in non-syntenic genome regions. A phylogenetic analysis shows that T. reesei and T. virens are derived relative to T. atroviride. The mycoparasitism-specific genes thus arose in a common Trichoderma ancestor but were subsequently lost in T. reesei.
Conclusions
The data offer a better understanding of mycoparasitism, and thus enforce the development of improved biocontrol strains for efficient and environmentally friendly protection of plants.
doi:10.1186/gb-2011-12-4-r40
PMCID: PMC3218866  PMID: 21501500

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