With the development of genome-sequencing technologies, protein sequences are readily obtained by translating the measured mRNAs. Therefore predicting protein-protein interactions from the sequences is of great demand. The reason lies in the fact that identifying protein-protein interactions is becoming a bottleneck for eventually understanding the functions of proteins, especially for those organisms barely characterized. Although a few methods have been proposed, the converse problem, if the features used extract sufficient and unbiased information from protein sequences, is almost untouched.
In this study, we interrogate this problem theoretically by an optimization scheme. Motivated by the theoretical investigation, we find novel encoding methods for both protein sequences and protein pairs. Our new methods exploit sufficiently the information of protein sequences and reduce artificial bias and computational cost. Thus, it significantly outperforms the available methods regarding sensitivity, specificity, precision, and recall with cross-validation evaluation and reaches ~80% and ~90% accuracy in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae respectively. Our findings here hold important implication for other sequence-based prediction tasks because representation of biological sequence is always the first step in computational biology.
By considering the converse problem, we propose new representation methods for both protein sequences and protein pairs. The results show that our method significantly improves the accuracy of protein-protein interaction predictions.
Enzymes are known as the largest class of proteins and their functions are usually annotated by the Enzyme Commission (EC), which uses a hierarchy structure, i.e., four numbers separated by periods, to classify the function of enzymes. Automatically categorizing enzyme into the EC hierarchy is crucial to understand its specific molecular mechanism.
In this paper, we introduce two key improvements in predicting enzyme function within the machine learning framework. One is to introduce the efficient sequence encoding methods for representing given proteins. The second one is to develop a structure-based prediction method with low computational complexity. In particular, we propose to use the conjoint triad feature (CTF) to represent the given protein sequences by considering not only the composition of amino acids but also the neighbor relationships in the sequence. Then we develop a support vector machine (SVM)-based method, named as SVMHL (SVM for hierarchy labels), to output enzyme function by fully considering the hierarchical structure of EC. The experimental results show that our SVMHL with the CTF outperforms SVMHL with the amino acid composition (AAC) feature both in predictive accuracy and Matthew’s correlation coefficient (MCC). In addition, SVMHL with the CTF obtains the accuracy and MCC ranging from 81% to 98% and 0.82 to 0.98 when predicting the first three EC digits on a low-homologous enzyme dataset. We further demonstrate that our method outperforms the methods which do not take account of hierarchical relationship among enzyme categories and alternative methods which incorporate prior knowledge about inter-class relationships.
Our structure-based prediction model, SVMHL with the CTF, reduces the computational complexity and outperforms the alternative approaches in enzyme function prediction. Therefore our new method will be a useful tool for enzyme function prediction community.
A 23-year-old male died of severe pneumonia and respiratory failure in a tertiary hospital in Beijing, and 4 out of 55 close contacts developed fever. Molecular analysis confirmed human adenovirus type 7 (HAdV7) as the causative agent. We highlight the importance of early diagnosis and treatment and proper transmission control of HAdV7.
To investigate the influence of non-thermal plasma treatment on the penetration of a model dental adhesive into the demineralized dentin.
Prepared dentin surfaces were conditioned with Scotchbond Universal etchant for 15 s and sectioned equally perpendicular to the etched surfaces. The separated halves were randomly selected for treatment with an argon plasma brush (input current 6 mA, treatment time 30 s) or gentle argon air blowing (treatment time 30 s, as control). The plasma-treated specimens and control specimens were applied with a model adhesive containing 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxypropoxy) phenyl]-propane (BisGMA) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) (mass ratio of 30/70), gently air-dried for 5 s, and light-cured for 20 s. Cross-sectional specimens were characterized using micro-Raman spectral mapping across the dentin, adhesive/dentin interface, and adhesive layer at 1∼micron spatial resolution. SEM was also employed to examine the adhesive/dentin interfacial morphology.
The micro-Raman result disclosed that plasma treatment significantly improved the penetration of the adhesive, evidenced by the apparently higher content of the adhesive at the adhesive/dentin interface as compared to the control. Specifically, the improvement of the adhesive penetration using plasma technique was achieved by dramatically enhancing the penetration of hydrophilic monomer (HEMA), while maintaining the penetration of hydrophobic monomer (BisGMA). Morphological observation at the adhesive/dentin interface using SEM also confirmed the improved adhesive penetration. The results further suggested that plasma treatment could benefit polymerization of the adhesive, especially in the interface region.
The significant role of the non-thermal plasma brush in improving the adhesive penetration into demineralized dentin has been demonstrated. The results obtained may offer a better prospect of using plasma in dental restoration to optimize adhesion between tooth substrate and restorative materials.
non-thermal atmospheric plasmas; dental adhesive; resin penetration; dentin; micro-Raman
The success of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in anti-HIV therapy is severely compromised by the rapidly developing drug resistance. HIV-1 protease inhibitors, part of HAART, are losing their potency and efficacy in inhibiting the target. Multi-drug resistant (MDR) 769 HIV-1 protease (resistant mutations at residues 10, 36, 46, 54, 62, 63, 71, 82, 84, 90) was selected for the present study to understand the binding to its natural substrates. The nine crystal structures of MDR769 HIV-1 protease substrate hepta-peptide complexes were analyzed in order to reveal the conserved structural elements for the purpose of drug design against MDR HIV-1 protease. Our structural studies demonstrated that highly conserved hydrogen bonds between the protease and substrate peptides, together with the conserved crystallographic water molecules, played a crucial role in the substrate recognition, substrate stabilization and protease stabilization. In addition, the absence of the key flap-ligand bridging water molecule might imply a different catalytic mechanism of MDR769 HIV-1 protease compared to that of wild type (WT) HIV-1 protease.
Lopinavir (LPV) is a second generation HIV-1 protease inhibitor. Drug resistance has rapidly emerged against LPV US FDA approved it on September 15, 2000. Mutations at residues 32I, L33F, 46I, 47A, I54V, V82A, I84V and L90M render the protease drug resistant against LPV. We report the crystal structure of a clinical isolate multi-drug resistant (MDR) 769 HIV-1 protease (resistant mutations at residues 10, 36, 46, 54, 62, 63, 71, 82, 84, 90) complexed with LPV and the in vitro enzymatic IC50 of LPV against MDR 769. The structural and functional studies demonstrate significant drug resistance of MDR 769 against LPV, arising from reduced interactions between LPV and the protease target.
HIV-1 protease; Multi-drug resistance; X-ray crystallography; IC50; Lopinavir
In 2008 and 2009, an outbreak of desert-subtype zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis occurred in Jiashi county, Xinjiang, China. So far, no animal reservoir has been identified for this type of visceral leishmaniasis. Therefore, we surveyed the most common mammals (wild and domestic) for Leishmania infections during the outbreak in 2008 and 2009 in order to identify the source of the visceral leishmaniasis in this region. Spleen, liver, bone marrow and blood samples collected from 86 wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus), 61midday jirds (Meriones meridianus) and 27 Yarkand hares (Lepus yarkandensis) were tested for the presence of Leishmania by microscopy, culture and PCR. All of the animals were found to be negative for Leishmania infections; On the other hand, Leishmania DNA was detected in blood samples collected from livestock reared in the outbreak area: 30.36% (17/56) of sheep, 21.57% (11/51) of goats, 17.78% (8/45) of cattle, and 21.62 (8/37) of donkeys were positive for Leishmania DNA by PCR. The amplified kDNA sequences from the livestock samples matched Leishmania DNA sequences isolated from patients with visceral leishmaniasis in the study area. We suggest that these domestic mammals are a possible reservoir host for Leishmania infantum in the outbreak area.
Source leaf/sink capacity (SS) traits are important determinants of grain yield (GY) of rice. To understand the genetic basis of the SS relationship in rice, five SS and GY traits of rice were genetically dissected using two reciprocal introgression populations. Seventy-three QTL affecting the SS and GY traits were identified, most of which were detected in one of the parental genetic backgrounds (GBs). Two major QTL at bins 4.7 (SS1) and 3.12 (SS2) were associated consistently with all measured SS and yield traits in both GBs across two contrasting environments. Strong interactions between SS1/SS2 and the detected QTL led us to the discovery of genetic networks affecting the SS and GY traits. The SS1 acted as a regulator controlling two groups of downstream QTL affecting the source leaf width and grain number per panicle (GNP). SS2 functioned as a regulator positively regulating different groups of downstream QTL affecting the source leaf length, GNP, grain weight, and GY. Map-based cloning of SS1 indicates that SS1 is NAL1 involved in polar auxin/IAA transport. Different alleles at NAL1 were apparently able to qualitatively and/or quantitatively control the IAA transport from the apical meristem to different plant tissues and thus regulate those downstream loci/pathways controlling different SS traits of rice. There was a functional allele and a non-functional mutation in the parents at each of the QTL downstream of SS1 or SS2, which were detectable only in the presence of the functional allele of SS1 or SS2. Our results provided direct evidence that SS and yield traits in rice are controlled by complex signaling pathways and suggest further improvement of rice yield potential with enhanced and balanced SS relationships can be achieved by accurately manipulating allelic combinations at loci in the SS1 and SS2 mediated pathways.
The purpose of this study was to examine the choroidal thickness of patients with high myopia using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) and compare them with healthy subjects.
We first conducted a cross-sectional study and then performed a meta-analysis to address this issue further. Using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT), the macular choroidal thickness of high myopic eyes and normal control eyes were measured and compared at each location. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to assess the association between choroidal thickness and clinical factors such as axial length (AL), spherical equivalent (SE), and central corneal thickness. In the high myopic eyes, subgroup analysis of macular choroidal thickness was performed in eyes with or without lacquer cracks and choroidal neovascularization (CNV). The meta-analyses were conducted using the Stata software package.
The high myopic eyes had a thinner choroid than the control eyes at all macular locations (all P < 0.001). Multivariable linear regression analysis showed that the subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) was not significantly thinner in association with the diagnosis. Subgroup analysis showed that the high myopia with CNV and with lacquer cracks had a significantly thinner choroid than without CNV or lacquer crack eyes. The result of our cross-sectional study is consistent with the results of the further meta-analysis with the pooled weighted mean difference (WMD) of −116.30 μm (95 % CI: −145.68, −86.92) for SFCT.
The present study, along with the comprehensive meta-analysis, indicated that in the Chinese population, the choroidal thickness in high myopic eyes was thinner than that of normal control eyes, even across different subgroups. This might be secondary to the longer AL but it is not an independent factor. The presence of CNV and of lacquer cracks is associated strongly with eyes with thinner macular choroids.
Choroidal thickness; High myopia; Optical coherence tomography
Clinicopathological paradox has significantly hampered the effective assessment of the efficacy of therapeutic intervention of multiple sclerosis. The neuroimaging biomarkers of tissue injury could guide a more effective treatment by accurately reflecting the underlying subclinical pathologies. Diffusion tensor imaging-derived directional diffusivity and anisotropy indices have been applied to characterize white matter disorders. However, these biomarkers are sometimes confounded by complex pathologies seen in multiple sclerosis and its animal models. Recently, a novel diffusion basis spectrum imaging has been developed to quantitatively assess axonal injury, demyelination, and inflammation in a mouse model of inflammatory demyelination. Lenaldekar, which inhibits T-cell expansion in a non-cytolytic manner, has been shown to suppress relapses and preserve white matter integrity in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. In this study, relapsing-remitting experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis was induced through active immunization of SJL/J mice with a myelin proteolipid protein peptide. We evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of Lenaldekar treatment via daily clinical score, cross-sectional ex vivo diffusion basis spectrum imaging examination, and histological analysis. Lenaldekar greatly reduced relapse severity and protected white matter integrity in these experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice. Diffusion basis spectrum imaging-derived axial diffusivity, radial diffusivity and restricted diffusion tensor fraction accurately reflected axon, myelin integrity and inflammation associated cellularity change, respectively. These results support the potential use of diffusion basis spectrum imaging as an effective outcome measure for preclinical drug evaluation.
Multiple sclerosis; diffusion MRI; axon injury; inflammation; demyelination; DBSI; Lenaldekar; EAE
Our previous work has shown that non-thermal plasma treatment of demineralized dentin significantly (p<0.05) improved adhesive/dentin bonding strength for dental composite restoration as compared with the untreated controls. This study is to achieve mechanistic understanding of the plasma treatment effects on dentin surface through investigating the plasma treated dentin surfaces and their interaction with adhesive monomer, 2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). The plasma treated dentin surfaces from human third molars were evaluated by water contact angle measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that plasma-treated dentin surface with subsequent HEMA immersion (Plasma/HEMA Treated) had much lower water contact angle compared with only plasma-treated (Plasma Treated) or only HEMA immersed (HEMA Treated) dentin surfaces. With prolong water droplet deposition time, water droplets spread out completely on the Plasma/HEMA Treated dentin surfaces. SEM images of Plasma/HEMA Treated dentin surfaces verified that dentin tubules were opened-up and filled with HEMA monomers. Extracted type I collagen fibrils, which was used as simulation of the exposed dentinal collagen fibrils after acid etching step, were plasma treated and analyzed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and circular dichroism (CD) spectra. FT-IR spectra of the Plasma/HEMA Treated collage fibrils showed broadened amide I peak at 1660 cm−1 and amide II at 1550 cm−1, which indicate secondary structure changes of the collagen fibrils. CD spectra indicated that 67.4% collagen helix structures were denatured after plasma treatment. These experimental results demonstrate that non-thermal argon plasma treatment was very effective in loosing collagen structure and enhancing adhesive monomer penetration, which are beneficial to thicker hybrid layer and longer resin tag formation, and consequently enhance adhesive/dentin interface bonding.
Plasma treatment; demineralized dentin surface; adhesive penetration; adhesive/dentin bonding: denatured collagen
The relationship between comorbidity and ovarian cancer survival has been controversial so far. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to summarize the existing evidence from prospective studies on this issue. Relevant studies were identified by searching the PubMed, EMBASE, and ISI Web of Science databases through the end of January 2015. Two authors independently performed the eligibility evaluation and data abstraction. Random-effects models were used to estimate summary hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for overall survival. Eight prospective studies involving 12,681 ovarian cancer cases were included in the present study. The summarized HR for presence versus absence of comorbidity was 1.20 (95% CI = 1.11–1.30, n = 8), with moderate heterogeneity (I2 = 31.2%, P = 0.179). In addition, the summarized HR for the highest compared with the lowest category of the Charlson’s comorbidity index was 1.68 (95% CI = 1.50–1.87, n = 2), without heterogeneity (I2 = 0%, P = 0.476). Notably, a significant negative impact of comorbidity on ovarian cancer survival was observed in most subgroup analyses stratified by the study characteristics and whether there was adjustment for potential confounders. In conclusion, the findings of this meta-analysis suggest that underlying comorbidity is consistently associated with decreased survival in patients with ovarian cancer. Comorbidity should be taken into account when managing these patients.
This study selectively acylated the primary hydroxyl groups on flavonoids in antioxidant of bamboo leaves (AOB) using lauric acid with Candida antarctica lipase B in tert-amyl-alcohol. The separation and isolation of acylated derivatives were performed using silica gel column chromatography with a mixture of dichloromethane/diethyl ether/methanol as eluents. Both thin layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography analyses confirmed the high efficiency of the isolation process with the purified orientin-6″-laurate, isoorientin-6″-laurate, vitexin-6″-laurate, and isovitexin-6″-laurate that were obtained. The addition of AOB and acylated AOB reduced acrylamide formation in fried potato crisps. Results showed that 0.05% AOB and 0.05% and 0.1% acylated AOB groups significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the content of acrylamide in potato crisps by 30.7%, 44.5%, and 46.9%, respectively.
The aim of the current study was to investigate whether the levels of mRNA expression of brain-derived neurotrophin factor (BDNF) and a related gene MEK1 were more obviously decreased in treatment-resistant depression (TRD). In total, 50 patients with major depressive disorder (including 26 with TRD and 24 with treatment-responsive depression) and 48 healthy controls were enrolled. BDNF and MEK1 mRNA levels in blood samples from all patients and controls were measured using reverse transcriptase-PCR. BDNF and MEK1 mRNA levels were significantly reduced in patients with major depressive disorder when compared with healthy controls (BDNF: P<0.01; MEK1: P<0.001), as well as among treatment-resistant depressive patients as compared with treatment-responsive depressive patients (BDNF: P<0.001; MEK1: P<0.01). Our findings support the hypothesis that BDNF and MEK1 mRNA expression levels are more obviously decreased in patients with TRD.
brain-derived neurotrophin factor; mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1; treatment-resistant depression; treatment-responsive depression
Sponge diseases have been widely reported, yet the causal factors and major pathogenic microbes remain elusive. In this study, two individuals of the sponge Crella cyathophora in total that showed similar disease-like characteristics were collected from two different locations along the Red Sea coast separated by more than 30 kilometers. The disease-like parts of the two individuals were both covered by green surfaces, and the body size was much smaller compared with adjacent healthy regions. Here, using high-throughput pyrosequencing technology, we investigated the prokaryotic communities in healthy and disease-like sponge tissues as well as adjacent seawater. Microbes in healthy tissues belonged mainly to the Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria and Bacteroidetes, and were much more diverse at the phylum level than reported previously. Interestingly, the disease-like tissues from the two sponge individuals underwent shifts of prokaryotic communities and were both enriched with a novel clade affiliated with the phylum Verrucomicrobia, implying its intimate connection with the disease-like Red Sea sponge C. cyathophora. Enrichment of the phylum Verrucomicrobia was also considered to be correlated with the presence of algae assemblages forming the green surface of the disease-like sponge tissues. This finding represents an interesting case of sponge disease and is valuable for further study.
Low microbial abundance; Verrucomicrobia; Sponge symbiont; Disease-like sponge
The whitefly Bemisia tabaci contains more than 35 cryptic species. The higher adaptability of Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) cryptic species has been recognized as one important factor for its invasion and displacement of other indigenous species worldwide. Here we compared the performance of the invasive MEAM1 and the indigenous Asia II 3 whitefly species following host plant transfer from a suitable host (cotton) to an unsuitable host (tobacco) and analyzed their transcriptional responses. After transfer to tobacco for 24 h, MEAM1 performed much better than Asia II 3. Transcriptional analysis showed that the patterns of gene regulation were very different with most of the genes up-regulated in MEAM1 but down-regulated in Asia II 3. Whereas carbohydrate and energy metabolisms were repressed in Asia II 3, the gene expression and protein metabolisms were activated in MEAM1. Compared to the constitutive high expression of detoxification genes in MEAM1, most of the detoxification genes were down-regulated in Asia II 3. Enzymatic activities of P450, GST and esterase further verified that the detoxification of MEAM1 was much higher than that of Asia II 3. These results reveal obvious differences in responses of MEAM1 and Asia II 3 to host transfer.
Valvular calcification occurs via ongoing endothelial injury associated with inflammation. IL-10 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine and 75% of the variation in IL-10 production is genetically determined. However, the relationship between genetic polymorphisms of IL-10 and valvular calcification has not been studied. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between valvular calcification and IL-10 genetic polymorphisms in the Han, Uygur and Kazak populations in China.
Patients and Methods
All of the participants were selected from subjects participating in the Cardiovascular Risk Survey (CRS) study. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs1800871 and rs1800872 of the IL-10 gene were genotyped using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Three independent case-control studies involving the Han population, the Uygur population and the Kazak population were used in the analysis.
For the Han and Kazak populations, rs1800871 was found to be associated with valvular calcification in the recessive model, and the difference remained statistically significant following multivariate adjustment (p<0.001, p=0.031, respectively). For the Han, Uygur and Kazak populations, rs1800872 was found to be associated with valvular calcification in the dominant model, and the difference remained statistically significant following multivariate adjustment (p<0.001, p=0.009, and p=0.023,respectively)
Both rs1800871 and rs1800872 of the IL-10 gene are associated with valvular calcification in the Han and Kazak populations in China. Rs1800872 is also associated with valvular calcification in the Uygur population.
The functional reprogramming of a differentiated cell to a pluripotent state presents potential beneficial applications in disease mechanisms and regenerative medicine. Epigenetic modifications enable differentiated cells to perpetuate molecular memory to retain their identity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the reprogramming modification of yak fibroblast cells that were permeabilized and incubated in the extracts of mesenchymal stem cells derived from mice adipose tissue [adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs)]. According to the results, the treatment of ADSC extracts promoted colony formation. Moreover, pluripotent gene expression was associated with the loss of repressive histone modifications and increased global demethylation. The genes Col1a1 and Col1a2, which are typically found in differentiated cells only, demonstrated decreased expression and increased methylation in the 5′-flanking regulatory regions. Moreover, yak fibroblast cells that were exposed to ADSC extracts resulted in significantly different eight-cell and blastocyst formation rates of cloned embryos compared with their untreated counterparts. This investigation provides the first evidence that nuclear reprogramming of yak fibroblast cells is modified after the ADSC extract treatment. This research also presents a methodology for studying the dedifferentiation of somatic cells that can potentially lead to an efficient way of reprogramming somatic cells toward a pluripotent state without genetic alteration.
The inner enamel region of erupted teeth is known to exhibit higher fracture toughness and crack growth resistance than bulk phase enamel. However, an explanation for this behavior has been hampered by the lack of compositional information for the residual enamel organic matrix. Since enamel-forming ameloblasts are known to express type VII collagen and type VII collagen null mice display abnormal amelogenesis, the aim of this study was to determine whether type VII collagen is a component of the enamel organic matrix at the dentin-enamel junction (DEJ) of mature human teeth. Immunofluorescent confocal microscopy of demineralized tooth sections localized type VII collagen to the organic matrix surrounding individual enamel rods near the DEJ. Morphologically, immunoreactive type VII collagen helical-bundles resembled the gnarled-pattern of enamel rods detected by Coomassie Blue staining. Western blotting of whole crown or enamel matrix extracts also identified characteristic Mr=280 and 230 kDa type VII dimeric forms, which resolved into 75 and 25 kDa bands upon reduction. As expected, the collagenous domain of type VII collagen was resistant to pepsin digestion, but was susceptible to purified bacterial collagenase. These results demonstrate the inner enamel organic matrix in mature teeth contains macromolecular type VII collagen. Based on its physical association with the DEJ and its well-appreciated capacity to complex with other collagens, we hypothesize that enamel embedded type VII collagen fibrils may contribute not only to the structural resilience of enamel, but may also play a role in bonding enamel to dentin.
Mature human enamel; Dentin-enamel junction; Type VII collagen; Immunofluorescent confocal microscopy
Vascular cells, particularly endothelial cells, adopt aerobic glycolysis to generate energy to support cellular functions. The effect of endothelial glycolysis on angiogenesis remains unclear. 6-Phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2, 6-bisphosphatase, isoform 3 (PFKFB3), is a critical enzyme for endothelial glycolysis. By blocking or deleting PFKFB3 in endothelial cells, we investigated the influence of endothelial glycolysis on angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo.
Approach and Results
Under hypoxic conditions or following treatment with angiogenic factors, endothelial PFKFB3 was upregulated both in vitro and in vivo. The knockdown or overexpression of PFKFB3 suppressed or accelerated endothelial proliferation and migration in vitro, respectively. Neonatal mice from a model of oxygen-induced retinopathy showed suppressed neovascular growth in the retina when endothelial PFKFB3 was genetically deleted or when the mice were treated with a PFKFB3 inhibitor. Additionally, tumors implanted in mice deficient in endothelial PFKFB3 grew more slowly and were provided with less blood flow. A lower level of phosphorylated AKT (pAKT) was observed in PFKFB3-knockdown endothelial cells, which was accompanied by a decrease in intracellular lactate. The addition of lactate to PFKFB3-knockdown cells rescued the suppression of endothelial proliferation and migration.
The blockade or deletion of endothelial PFKFB3 decreases angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, PFKFB3 is a promising target for the reduction of endothelial glycolysis and its related pathological angiogenesis.
endothelial cells; angiogenesis; glycolysis; hypoxia
Cigarette smoking enhances oxidative stress and airway inflammation in asthma, the mechanisms of which are largely unknown. Myeloid-derived regulatory cells (MDRC) are free radical producing immature myeloid cells with immunoregulatory properties which have recently been demonstrated as critical regulators of allergic airway inflammation. NO (nitric oxide)-producing immunosuppressive MDRC suppress T cell proliferation and airway-hyper responsiveness (AHR), while the O2•− (superoxide)-producing MDRC are proinflammatory. We hypothesized that cigarette smoke (CS) exposure may impact MDRC function and contribute to exacerbations in asthma. Exposure of bone marrow (BM) derived NO-producing MDRC to CS reduced the production of NO and its metabolites and inhibited their potential to suppress T cell proliferation. Production of immunoregulatory cytokine IL-10 was significantly inhibited, while proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-33 were enhanced in CS exposed BMMDRC. Additionally, CS exposure increased NF-κB activation and induced BM-MDRC-mediated production of O2•−, via NF-κB dependent pathway. Intratracheal transfer of smoke exposed MDRC producing proinflammatory cytokines increased NF-κB activation, reactive oxygen species and mucin production in vivo and exacerbated AHR in C57BL/6 mice, mice deficient in Type I IFNR and MyD88, both with reduced numbers of endogenous MDRC. Thus, CS exposure modulates MDRC function and contributes to asthma exacerbation and identifies MDRC as potential targets for asthma therapy.
Exposure to sunlight has recently been postulated as responsible for the effect that more time spent outdoors protects children from myopia, while early life exposure to natural light was reported to be possibly related to onset of myopia during childhood. In this study, we had two aims: to determine whether increasing natural light exposure has a protective effect on hyperopic defocus-induced myopia, and to observe whether early postnatal exposure to natural light causes increased risk of refractive error in adolescence. Eight rhesus monkeys (aged 20-30 days) were treated monocularly with hyperopic-defocus (-3.0D lens) and divided randomly into two groups: AL group (n=4), reared under Artificial (indoor) Lighting (08:00-20:00); and NL group (n=4), exposed to Natural (outdoor) Light for 3 hours per day (11:00-14:00), and to indoor lighting for the rest of the light phase. After being reared with lenses for ca. 190 days, all monkeys were returned to unrestricted vision until the age of 3 years. Another eight age-matched monkeys, reared with unrestricted vision under artificial lighting since birth, were employed as controls. The ocular refraction, corneal curvature and axial dimensions were measured before lens-wearing (at 23±3 days of age), monthly during the light phase, and at the age of puberty (at 1185+3 days of age). During the lens-wearing treatment, infant monkeys in the NL group were more hyperopic than those in the AL group (F=5.726, P=0.032). Furthermore, the two eyes of most NL monkeys remained isometropic, whereas 3 of 4 AL monkeys developed myopic anisometropia more than -2.0D. At adolescence, eyes of AL monkeys showed significant myopic anisometropia compared with eyes of NL monkeys (AL vs NL: -1.66±0.87D vs -0.22±0.44D; P=0.002) and controls (AL vs Control: -1.66±0.87D vs -0.05±0.85D; P<0.0001). All differences in refraction were associated with parallel changes in axial dimensions. Our results suggest that exposure to natural outdoor light might have an effect to reduced hyperopic defocus-induced myopia. Also, the data imply that early life exposure to sunlight may help to maintain normal development of emmetropization later in life, and thus lower the risk of myopic anisometropia in adolescent monkey.
This study investigated the effects of fermented cottonseed meal (FCSM) on lipid metabolites, lipid metabolism-related gene expression in liver tissues and abdominal adipose tissues, and hepatic metabolomic profiling in broiler chickens. One hundred and eighty 21-d-old broiler chickens were randomly divided into three diet groups with six replicates of 10 birds in each group. The three diets consisted of a control diet supplemented with unfermented cottonseed meal, an experimental diet of cottonseed meal fermented by Candida tropicalis, and a second experimental diet of cottonseed meal fermented by C. tropicalis plus Saccharomyces cerevisae. The results showed that FCSM intake significantly decreased the levels of abdominal fat and hepatic triglycerides (P<0.05 for both). Dietary FCSM supplementation down-regulated the mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase and acetyl CoA carboxylase in liver tissues and the lipoprotein lipase expression in abdominal fat tissues (P<0.05 for both). FCSM intake resulted in significant metabolic changes of multiple pathways in the liver involving the tricarboxylic acid cycle, synthesis of fatty acids, and the metabolism of glycerolipid and amino acids. These findings indicated that FCSM regulated lipid metabolism by increasing or decreasing the expression of the lipid-related gene and by altering multiple endogenous metabolites. Lipid metabolism regulation is a complex process, this discovery provided new essential information about the effects of FCSM diets in broiler chickens and demonstrated the great potential of nutrimetabolomics in researching complex nutrients added to animal diets.
Fermented cottonseed meal; Lipid metabolism; Broiler; Gene expression; Metabolomics
Identifying effective biomarkers to battle complex diseases is an important but challenging task in biomedical research today. Molecular data of complex diseases is increasingly abundant due to the rapid advance of high throughput technologies. However, a great gap remains in identifying the massive molecular data to phenotypic changes, in particular, at a network level, i.e., a novel method for identifying network biomarkers is in pressing need to accurately classify and diagnose diseases from molecular data and shed light on the mechanisms of disease pathogenesis. Rather than seeking differential genes at an individual-molecule level, here we propose a novel method for identifying network biomarkers based on protein-protein interaction affinity (PPIA), which identify the differential interactions at a network level. Specifically, we firstly define PPIAs by estimating the concentrations of protein complexes based on the law of mass action upon gene expression data. Then we select a small and non-redundant group of protein-protein interactions and single proteins according to the PPIAs, that maximizes the discerning ability of cases from controls. This method is mathematically formulated as a linear programming, which can be efficiently solved and guarantees a globally optimal solution. Extensive results on experimental data in breast cancer demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method for identifying network biomarkers, which not only can accurately distinguish the phenotypes but also provides significant biological insights at a network or pathway level. In addition, our method provides a new way to integrate static protein-protein interaction information with dynamical gene expression data.