(See the article by Delwart et al, on pages 875–85, and see the editorial commentary by Katz, on pages 867–9.)
Background. There have been anecdotal reports of influenza viremia since the 1960s. We present an assessment of the prevalence of seasonal and 2009 H1N1 influenza viremia (via RNA testing) in blood donor populations using multiple sensitive detection assays.
Methods. Several influenza RNA amplification assays, including transcription-mediated amplification (TMA) and 2 reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays, were evaluated and used to test donor samples. Retrospective samples from 478 subjects drawn at sites with high influenza activity were tested. Prospective samples were collected from 1004 blood donors who called their donation center within 3 days of donation complaining of influenza-like illness (ILI). The plasma collected on the day of donation for these subjects was tested.
Results. Of the repository samples, 2 of 478 plasma samples were initially reactive but not repeat reactive by influenza TMA. Of blood donors reporting ILI symptoms postdonation, 1 of 1004 samples was TMA initially reactive but not repeat reactive; all samples were nonreactive by RT-PCR testing.
Conclusions. Targeting blood donor populations most likely to have influenza infection, we failed to detect influenza RNA in 1482 donor samples, with most tested by 3 different RNA assays. Seasonal influenza does not appear to pose a significant contamination threat to the blood supply.
Neuregulin-1 binds to ErbB3 and ErbB4 and regulates cancer proliferation and differentiation. Neuregulin-1 had been suggested to also react with ErbB2, but this argument becomes controversial. Here, we re-evaluated the cellular responses and ErbB2 interaction of neuregulin-1 in ErbB2 overexpressing cell lines. In a competitive ligand-binding assay, we detected significant replacement of [35S]-labeled neuregulin-1 with nano molar ranges of cold neuregulin-1 in L929 cells expressing ErbB2 alone and SKOV3 cells carrying sulf-1 cDNA but not in these parental cells. The concentration of neuregulin-1 significantly decreased thymidine incorporation and phosphorylation of ErbB2 (Tyr877, Tyr1396, and Tyr1121) in ErbB2-overexpressing cancer cells as well as in L929 cells expressing ErbB2. A crosslinking assay ascertained the presence of neuregulin-1 immunoreactivity in the ErbB2 immune complexes of L929 expressing ErbB2 alone. These results suggest that the higher concentrations of neuregulin-1 exert an anti-oncogenic activity to attenuate ErbB2 auto-phosphorylation potentially through its low-affinity interaction with ErbB2.
The patatin-related phospholipase A (pPLA) hydrolyzes membrane glycerolipids to produce monoacyl compounds and free fatty acids. Phospholipids are cleaved by pPLAIIα at the sn-1 and sn-2 positions, and galactolipids, including those containing oxophytodienoic acids, can also serve as substrates. Ablation of pPLAIIα decreased lysophosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylethanolamine levels, but increased free linolenic acid. pPLAIIα-deficient plants displayed a higher level of jasmonic acid and methyl jasmonate, as well as the oxylipin-biosynthetic intermediates 13-hydroperoxylinolenic acid and 12-oxophytodienoic acid than wild-type (WT) plants. The expression of genes involved in oxylipin production was also higher in the pPLAIIα-deficient mutant than in WT plants. The mutant plants lost water more quickly than WT plants. The stomata of WT and mutant plants responded similarly to abscisic acid. In response to desiccation, the mutant and WT leaves produced abscisic acid at the same rate, but, after 4 h of desiccation, the jasmonic acid level was much higher in mutant than WT leaves. These results indicate that pPLAIIα negatively regulates oxylipin production and suggest a role in the removal of oxidatively modified fatty acids from membranes.
patatin-related phospholipase A; oxidative modified lipids; jasmonate synthesis; water loss; Arabidopsis thaliana
Objective: Side population (SP) cells may play a crucial role in tumorigenesis and the recurrence of cancer. Many kinds of cell lines and tissues have demonstrated the presence of SP cells, including several gastric cancer cell lines. This study is aimed to identify the cancer stem-like cells in the SP of gastric cancer cell line MKN-45. Methods: We used fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) to sort SP cells in the human gastric carcinoma cell line MKN-45 (cells labeled with Hoechst 33342) and then characterized the cancer stem-like properties of SP cells. Results: This study found that the SP cells had higher clone formation efficiency than major population (MP) cells. Five stemness-related gene expression profiles, including OCT-4, SOX-2, NANOG, CD44, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette transporters gene ABCG2, were tested in SP and MP cells using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Western blot was used to show the difference of protein expression between SP and MP cells. Both results show that there was significantly higher protein expression in SP cells than in MP cells. When inoculated into non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency (NOD/SCID) mice, SP cells show higher tumorigenesis tendency than MP cells. Conclusions: These results indicate that SP cells possess cancer stem cell properties and prove that SP cells from MKN-45 are gastric cancer stem-like cells.
ATP-binding cassette transporters; Side population cells; Stem cells; Benzimidazole (Hoechst 33342); Stomach neoplasm
Immunotherapy, in recent times, has found its application in a variety of immunologically mediated diseases. Oral immunotherapy may not only increase patient compliance but may, in particular, also induce both systemic as well as mucosal immune responses, due to mucosal application of active agents. To improve the bioavailability and to trigger strong immunological responses, recent research projects focused on the encapsulation of drugs and antigens into polymer particles. These particles protect the loaded antigen from the harsh conditions in the GI tract. Furthermore, modification of the surface of particles by the use of lectins, such as Aleuria aurantia lectin, wheatgerm agglutinin or Ulex europaeus-I, enhances the binding to epithelial cells, in particular to membranous cells, of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. Membranous cell-specific targeting leads to an improved transepithelial transport of the particle carriers. Thus, enhanced uptake and presentation of the encapsulated antigen by antigen-presenting cells favor strong systemic, but also local, mucosal immune responses.
Hypertrophic scars are pathologic proliferations of the dermal skin layer resulting from excessive collagen deposition during the healing process of cutaneous wounds. Current research suggests that the TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway is closely associated with normal scar and hypertrophic scar formation. TRAP-1-like protein (TLP), a cytoplasmic protein, has been reported to efficiently regulate Smad2- and Smad3-dependent signal expression in the TGF-β pathway. The relationship between TLP and Type I/III collagen (Col I/III) synthesis explored in the present study provides an effective target for wound healing and gene therapy of hypertrophic scarring.
To investigate the effects of TLP on collagen synthesis in human dermal fibroblasts.
Lentiviral vectors encoding TLP was constructed to transfect fibroblasts derived from normal human skin. The expression of Col I/III and phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3 in fibroblasts were examined after TLP treatment. In addition, the comparison of TLP expression in normal skin tissues and in hypertrophic scar tissues was performed, and the effect of TLP on cell viability was analyzed by MTT assay.
TLP expression in hypertrophic scar tissue was markedly higher than in normal skin tissue. The Real Time PCR and Western blot test results both revealed that the synthesis of Col I/III was positively correlated with the expression of TLP. TLP also facilitate Smad2 phosphorylation while, conversely, inhibiting Smad3 phosphorylation. TLP may play a cooperative role, along with the cytokine TGF-β1, in improving the overall cell viability of skin fibroblasts.
TLP likely acts as a molecular modulator capable of altering the balance of Smad3- and Smad2-dependent signaling through regulation of phosphorylation, thus facilitating collagen synthesis in fibroblasts. Based on genetic variation in TLP levels in different tissues, these results suggest that TLP plays a key role in the process of TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling that contributes to wound healing and genesis of pathologic scars.
RNA interference (RNAi) mediated by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) or short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) has become a powerful genetic tool for conducting functional studies. Previously, vector-based shRNA-expression strategies capable of inducing RNAi in viable cells have been developed, however, these vector systems have some disadvantages, either because they were error-prone or cost prohibitive.
In this report we described the development of a simple, robust shRNA expression system utilizing 1 long oligonucleotide or 2 short oligonucleotides for half the cost of conventional shRNA construction methods and with a>95% cloning success rate. The shRNA loop sequence and stem structure were also compared and carefully selected for better RNAi efficiency. Furthermore, an easier strategy was developed based on isocaudomers which permit rapid combination of the most efficient promoter-shRNA cassettes. Finally, using this method, the conservative target sites for hepatitis B virus (HBV) knockdown were systemically screened and HBV antigen expression shown to be successfully suppressed in the presence of connected multiple shRNAs both in vitro and in vivo.
This novel design describes an inexpensive and effective way to clone and express single or multiple shRNAs from the same vector with the capacity for potent and effective silencing of target genes.
Water-soluble nanographite was prepared by in situ emulsion polymerization using methacrylate as polymeric monomer. The dispersion stability and dispersion state of graphite particles were evaluated by UV-visible spectrophotometry and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The water-soluble nanographite was then added into the water-based cutting fluid as lubricant additive. The lubrication performance of water-based cutting fluid with the nanographite additive was studied on four-ball friction tester and surface tensiometer. Results indicate that the modification method of in situ emulsion polymerization realizes the uniform and stabilized dispersion of nanographite in aqueous environment. The optimal polymerization condition is 70°C (polymerization temperature) and 5 h (polymerization time). The addition of nanographite decreases the friction coefficient and wear scar diameter by 44% and 49%. Meanwhile, the maximum non-seizure load (PB) increases from 784 to 883 N, and the value of surface tension (32.76 × 10−3 N/m) is at low level. Nanographite additive improves apparently the lubrication performance of water-based cutting fluid.
Nanographite; Emulsion polymerization; Lubrication performance; Water-based cutting fluid
Rabbit hemorrhagic disease, first described in China in 1984, causes hemorrhagic necrosis of the liver. Its etiological agent, rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV), belongs to the Lagovirus genus in the family Caliciviridae. The detailed molecular structure of any lagovirus capsid has yet to be determined. Here, we report a cryo-electron microscopic (cryoEM) reconstruction of wild-type RHDV at 6.5 Å resolution and the crystal structures of the shell (S) and protruding (P) domains of its major capsid protein, VP60, each at 2.0 Å resolution. From these data we built a complete atomic model of the RHDV capsid. VP60 has a conserved S domain and a specific P2 sub-domain that differs from those found in other caliciviruses. As seen in the shell portion of the RHDV cryoEM map, which was resolved to ∼5.5 Å, the N-terminal arm domain of VP60 folds back onto its cognate S domain. Sequence alignments of VP60 from six groups of RHDV isolates revealed seven regions of high variation that could be mapped onto the surface of the P2 sub-domain and suggested three putative pockets might be responsible for binding to histo-blood group antigens. A flexible loop in one of these regions was shown to interact with rabbit tissue cells and contains an important epitope for anti-RHDV antibody production. Our study provides a reliable, pseudo-atomic model of a Lagovirus and suggests a new candidate for an efficient vaccine that can be used to protect rabbits from RHDV infection.
Rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD), first described in China in 1984, causes hemorrhagic necrosis of the liver within three days after infection and with a mortality rate that exceeds 90%. RHD has spread to large parts of the world and threatens the rabbit industry and related ecology. Its etiological agent, rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV), belongs to the Lagovirus genus in the family Caliciviridae. Currently, the absence of a high-resolution model of any lagovirus impedes our understanding of its molecular interactions with hosts and successful design of an efficient anti-RHDV vaccine. Here, we use hybrid structural approaches to construct a pseudo-atomic model of RHDV that reveals significant differences in the P2 sub-domain of the major capsid protein compared to that seen in other caliciviruses. We identified seven regions of high sequence variation in this sub-domain that dictate the binding specificities of histo-blood group antigens. In one of these regions, we identified an antigenic peptide that interacts with rabbit tissue cells and elicits a significant immune response in rabbits and, hence, protects them from RHDV infection. Our pseudo-atomic model provides a structural framework for developing new anti-RHDV vaccines and will also help guide use of the RHDV capsid as a vehicle to display human tumor antigens as part of anti-tumor therapy.
NT-proBNP has been widely regarded as a useful tool for diagnosis or exclusion of heart failure (HF) in many settings. However, in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (AECB), its roles have not been well described. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of NT-proBNP for identifying left ventricular (LV) failure in such patients.
Methods and Results
311 AECB patients and 102 stable chronic bronchitis patients with no history of HF were enrolled. Plasma NT-proBNP concentrations were measured using Roche Elecsys. The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) diagnostic principles were adopted to identify HF and the diagnostic performance of NT-proBNP was evaluated by ROC. Our results showed, the median NT-proBNP level in patients with LV failure [4828.4 (2044.4–9203.6) ng/L] was significantly higher than that in those without LV failure [519.2 (179.1–1409.8) ng/L, p<0.001] and stable controls [207.5 (186.5–318.2) ng/L, p<0.001]. LV failure, renal function, atrial fibrillation and systolic pulmonary artery pressure were independent predictors of NT-proBNP levels (all p<0.05). The area under ROC curve (AUC) of NT-proBNP for identifying LV failure was 0.884, significantly superior to clinical judgment alone (AUC 0.835, p = 0.0294). At the optimal cutoff value of 935.0 ng/L, NT-proBNP yielded sensitivity 94.4%, specificity 68.2%, accuracy 74.3% and negative predictive value 97.6%. Adding the results of NT-proBNP to those of clinical judgment improved the diagnostic accuracy for LV failure.
As a tool for diagnosis or exclusion of HF, NT-proBNP can help physicians identify LV failure in patients with AECB.
AIM: To investigate the role of inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α) in gut development of Xenopus lavies embryos.
METHODS: Xenopus embryos were obtained with in vitro fertilization and cultured in 0.1 × MBSH. One and half nanogram of IRE1α, 1 ng of IRE1α-GR mRNA, 1 ng of IRE1αΔC-GR mRNA, and 50 ng of IRE1α morpholino oligonucleotide (MO) or XBP1(C)MO were injected into four blastomeres at 4-cell stage for scoring the phenotype and marker gene analysis. To rescue the effect of IRE1α MO, 1 ng of IRE1α-GR mRNA was co-injected with 50 ng of MO. For the activation of the GR-fusion proteins, dexamethasone was prepared as 5 mmol/L stock solutions in 100% ethanol and applied to the mRNA injected embryos at desired stages in a concentration of 10 μmol/L in 0.1 × MBSH. Embryos were kept in dexamethasone up to stage 41. Whole-mount in situ hybridization was used to determine specific gene expression, such as IRE1α, IRE1β, Xbra and Xsox17α. IRE1α protein expression during Xenopus embryogenesis was detected by Western blotting.
RESULTS: In the whole-mount in situ hybridization analysis, xenopus IRE1α and IRE1β showed quite different expression pattern during tadpole stage. The relatively higher expression of IRE1α was observed in the pancreas, and significant transcription of IRE1β was found in the liver. IRE1α protein could be detected at all developmental stages analyzed, from stage 1 to stage 42. Gain-of-function assay showed that IRE1α mRNA injected embryos at tailbud stage were nearly normal and the expression of the pan-mesodermal marker gene Xbra and the endodermal gene Xsox17α at stage 10.5 was not significantly changed in embryos injected with IRE1α mRNA as compared to uninjected control embryos. And at tadpole stage, the embryos injected with IRE1α-GR mRNA did not display overt phenotype, such as gut-coiling defect. Loss-of-function assay demonstrated that the IRE1α MO injected embryos were morphologically normal before the tailbud stages. We did not observe a significant change of mesodermal and endodermal marker gene expression, while after stage 40, about 80% of the MO injected embryos exhibited dramatic gut defects in which the guts did not coil, but other structures outside the gastrointestinal tract were relatively normal. To test if the phenotypes were specifically caused by the knockdown of IRE1α, a rescue experiment was performed by co-injection of IRE1α-GR mRMA with IRE1α MO. The data obtained demonstrated that the gut coiling defect was rescued. The deletion mutant of IRE1α was constructed, consisting of the N-terminal part without the C-terminal kinase and RNase domains named IRE1αΔC, to investigate the functional domain of IRE1α. Injection of IRE1αΔC-GR mRNA caused similar morphological alterations with gut malformation by interfering with the function of endogenous xIRE1α. In order to investigate if IRE1α/XBP1 pathway was involved in gut development, 50 ng of XBP1 MO was injected and the results showed that knockdown of XBP1 resulted in similar morphological alterations with gut-coiling defect at tadpole stage.
CONCLUSION: IRE1α is not required for germ layer formation but for gut development in Xenopus lavies and it may function via XBP1-dependent pathway.
Inositol-requiring enzyme 1α; XBP1; Xenopus lavies; Gut; Development
Successful cannulation of the common bile duct may be difficult in patients in whom the papilla is located entirely within a diverticulum. In this study, we report successful biliary cannulation in three patients following intubation of the distal tip of the duodenoscope into the duodenal diverticulum and locating the major papilla. No complications occurred during the operation or during the postoperative period. This method didn’t need second incubation an endoscope and might lower the burden of patients. So this skill is useful to deal with the papilla hidden inside the large diverticulum because of its safety and convenience.
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; Intradiverticular papilla; Duodenoscope
Background. Tai Chi is a traditional Chinese medicine exercise used for improving neuromuscular function. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Tai Chi versus proprioception exercise program on neuromuscular function of the ankle in elderly people. Methods. Sixty elderly subjects were randomly allocated into three groups of 20 subjects per group. For 16 consecutive weeks, subjects participated in Tai Chi, proprioception exercise, or no structured exercise. Primary outcome measures included joint position sense and muscle strength of ankle. Subjects completed a satisfaction questionnaire upon study completion in Tai Chi and proprioception groups. Results. (1) Both Tai Chi group and proprioception exercise group were significantly better than control group in joint position sense of ankle, and there were no significant differences in joint position sense of ankle between TC group and PE group. (2) There were no significant differences in muscle strength of ankle among groups. (3) Subjects expressed more satisfaction with Tai Chi than with proprioception exercise program. Conclusions. None of the outcome measures on neuromuscular function at the ankle showed significant change posttraining in the two structured exercise groups. However, the subjects expressed more interest in and satisfaction with Tai Chi than proprioception exercise.
This case reports an application of conventional duodenoscope in a post pancreaticoduodenectomy patient with the help of retrieval balloon assisted enterography. The 56-year-old woman had pancreaticoduodenectomy with Child reconstruction 9 mo ago because of pancreatic adenocarcinoma and now there are recurrent enlarged lymph nodes in the anastomotic stoma of hepaticojejunostomy. Considering the patient’s late-stage cancer, a plastic stent was then successfully placed there to drainage. The main challenge in this case was the extremely long afferent loop and blind cannulation through the anastomotic stoma of hepaticojejunostomy. Retrieval balloon assisted enterography is very helpful for duodenoscope going through the reconstructed intestinal tract and for the cannulation. After two weeks, the patient remained free of painful symptoms and free of fever. Liver function improved well. Four months after the placement of stent, the patient died of cachexia without jaundice, fever and abdominal pain according to her daughter’s statement.
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; Pancreaticoduodenectomy; Duodenoscope; Retrieval-balloon-assisted enterography
Hemobilia is a rare biliary complication of liver transplantation. The predominant cause of hemobilia is iatrogenic, and it is often associated with traumatic operations, such as percutaneous liver intervention, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, cholecystectomy, biliary tract surgery, and liver transplantation. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography and liver biopsy are two major causes of hemobilia in liver transplant recipients. Hemobilia may also be caused by coagulation defects. It can form intracholedochal hematomas, causing obstructive jaundice. Herein we describe a patient with an intracholedochal hematoma resulting in significant obstructive jaundice after liver transplantation for fulminant hepatic failure. Previous studies have shown that percutaneous transhepatic manipulation is a major cause of hemobilia after liver transplantation, but in our case, percutaneous transhepatic intervention was used to relieve the biliary obstruction and dissolve the biliary clot, with a good outcome.
Hemobilia; Biliary clot; Fulminant hepatic failure; Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage
To investigate the effects of Hu Qisan (HQS) on apoptosis in diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a Solt-Farber two-step test model of precancerous liver lesions was established in rats using a previously described method. HQS (4 and 8 g/kg body weight/day) was administered for 4 weeks, after the majority of the liver was removed. HepG2 cells were used to detect the HtrA serine peptidase 2 (HtrA2/Omi) release from mitochondria and caspase-3 activation promoted by HQS. Exposure of the rats to DEN for 6 weeks induced hepatic carcinogenesis. HQS (4 and 8 g/kg body weight/day) markedly induced cell apoptosis. The protective effects against hepatic carcinogenesis were mediated by multiple mechanisms, including the reduction of DEN-induced γ-GT-positive cell proliferation, mitochondrial morphological changes, HtrA2/Omi release from mitochondria and the activation of caspase-3. In conclusion, HQS is a potential anti-carcinogenic agent that may induce apoptosis by reducing the inhibitory effects of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) on caspase-3. Thus, HQS should be further explored as a potentially promising new therapeutic agent against human hepatic cancer.
Hu Qisan; hepatocellular carcinoma; HtrA serine peptidase 2; apoptosis
To review the effects of core stability exercise or general exercise for patients with chronic low back pain (LBP).
Summary of Background Data
Exercise therapy appears to be effective at decreasing pain and improving function for patients with chronic LBP in practice guidelines. Core stability exercise is becoming increasingly popular for LBP. However, it is currently unknown whether core stability exercise produces more beneficial effects than general exercise in patients with chronic LBP.
Published articles from 1970 to October 2011 were identified using electronic searches. For this meta-analysis, two reviewers independently selected relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating core stability exercise versus general exercise for the treatment of patients with chronic LBP. Data were extracted independently by the same two individuals who selected the studies.
From the 28 potentially relevant trials, a total of 5 trials involving 414 participants were included in the current analysis. The pooling revealed that core stability exercise was better than general exercise for reducing pain [mean difference (−1.29); 95% confidence interval (−2.47, −0.11); P = 0.003] and disability [mean difference (−7.14); 95% confidence interval (−11.64, −2.65); P = 0.002] at the time of the short-term follow-up. However, no significant differences were observed between core stability exercise and general exercise in reducing pain at 6 months [mean difference (−0.50); 95% confidence interval (−1.36, 0.36); P = 0.26] and 12 months [mean difference (−0.32); 95% confidence interval (−0.87, 0.23); P = 0.25].
Compared to general exercise, core stability exercise is more effective in decreasing pain and may improve physical function in patients with chronic LBP in the short term. However, no significant long-term differences in pain severity were observed between patients who engaged in core stability exercise versus those who engaged in general exercise.
Systematic Review Registration
http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO PROSPERO registration number: CRD42011001717.
To investigate the characteristics of ectopic automaticity and cation current (If) of cardiac myocytes from pulmonary vein sleeves (PVs) in canines with atrial fibrillation.
The canines (8–10 years old) were subjected to long-term, rapid atrial pacing (RAP) for 10 weeks, which induced the atrial fibrillation model. Disassociation of PVs of canines yielded single cardiac myocytes from a Landengorff column. Action potential, If and hyperpolarisation activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) currents were measured with the patch-clamp technique.
Compared with the control group, cardiac myocytes from the RAP canine PVs had spontaneous diastolic depolarization, shorter action potential duration, and larger If densities. In the group of RAP cells, the half maximal activation potential (V1/2) was found to be less negative (−105.5 ± 5.2 mV) compared to control cells (−87.3 ± 4.9 mV). Current densities of If were increased significantly by β-adrenergic receptor stimulation with isoproterenol and caused an acceleration of current activation. In contrast, If currents in the RAP were reduced by carvedilol, a selective beta-adrenergic receptor. Another important finding is that HCN4-based channels may make a significant contribution to If in PVs cells, but not HCN2. Meanwhile, HCN4 current significantly increases in canine PVs cardiac myocytes with RAP.
The spontaneous action potential and larger If current were observed in the PVs cardiac myocytes using RAP, which may contribute to more ectopic activity events to trigger and maintain atrial fibrillation.
Cation current; Cardiac myocytes; Canine; Atrial fibrillation; β-receptor
The aim of the study was to evaluate the correlation between BDNF and oocyte maturation and to verify whether BDNF could predict in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcome.
The follicle fluid (FF) for BDNF, E2 and P assay were obtained from 59 patients undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The women were divided into two groups by pregnancy outcome and their clinical and lab data were compared. And the correlation of BDNF with E2, P, age, and IVF data were analyzed.
Positive correlation was observed between BDNF and E2 concentration in FF. BDNF was positively correlated with the rate of mature oocytes collected and cleavage rate.
The BDNF in FF could not predict IVF outcome, but BDNF in FF might play an important role in the maturation of oocyte and development of oocyte into preimplantation embryo.
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor; Oocyte; Follicle fluid; Rate of mature oocytes collected; Cleavage rate
We previously developed a rapid and simple gold nanoparticle(NP)-based genomic microarray assay for identification of the avian H5N1 virus and its discrimination from other influenza A virus strains (H1N1, H3N2). In this study, we expanded the platform to detect the 2009 swine-origin influenza A virus (H1N1/2009). Multiple specific capture and intermediate oligonucleotides were designed for the matrix (M), hemagglutinin (HA), and neuraminidase (NA) genes of the H1N1/2009 virus. The H1N1/2009 microarrays were printed in the same format as those of the seasonal influenza H1N1 and H3N2 for the HA, NA, and M genes. Viral RNA was tested using capture-target-intermediate oligonucleotide hybridization and gold NP-mediated silver staining. The signal from the 4 capture-target-intermediates of the HA and NA genes was specific for H1N1/2009 virus and showed no cross hybridization with viral RNA from other influenza strains H1N1, H3N2, and H5N1. All of the 3 M gene captures showed strong affinity with H1N1/2009 viral RNA, with 2 out of the 3 M gene captures showing cross hybridization with the H1N1, H3N2, and H5N1 samples tested. The current assay was able to detect H1N1/2009 and distinguish it from other influenza A viruses. This new method may be useful for simultaneous detection and subtyping of influenza A viruses and can be rapidly modified to detect other emerging influenza strains in public health settings.
nanoparticle; H5N1; swine influenza A virus; nanomicroarray
Increasingly, clinical trials based on brain imaging are adopting multiple sites/centers to increase their subject pool and to expedite the studies, and more longitudinal studies are using multiple imaging methods to assess structural and functional changes. Careful investigation of the test-retest reliability and image quality of inter- or intra- scanner neuroimaging measurements are critical in the design, statistical analysis and interpretation of results. We propose a framework and specific metrics to quantify the reproducibility and image quality for neuroimaging studies (structural, BOLD and Diffusion Tensor Imaging) collected across identical scanners and following a major hardware repair (gradient coil replacement). We achieved consistent measures for the proposed metrics: structural (mean volume in specific regions and stretch factor), functional (temporal Signal-to-Noise ratio), diffusion (mean Fractional Anisotropy and Mean Diffusivity in multiple regions). The proposed frame work of imaging metrics should be used to perform daily quality assurance testing and incorporated into multi-center studies.
We have developed genetically encoded fluorescent sensors for reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), which manifest a large change in fluorescence upon NADH binding. We demonstrate the utility of these sensors in mammalian cells by monitoring the dynamic changes in NADH levels in subcellular organelles as affected by NADH transport, glucose metabolism, electron transport chain function, and redox environment, and we demonstrate the temporal separation of changes in mitochondrial and cytosolic NADH levels with perturbation. These results support the view that cytosolic NADH is sensitive to environmental changes, while mitochondria have a strong tendency to maintain physiological NADH homeostasis. These sensors provide a very good alternative to existing techniques that measure endogenous fluorescence of intracellular NAD(P)H and, owing to their superior sensitivity and specificity, allow for the selective monitoring of total cellular and compartmental responses of this essential cofactor.
Nanomaterials can enhance the delivery and treatment efficiency of anti-cancer drugs, but the mechanisms of the tumor-reducing activity of Fe3O4 nanoparticles with daunorubicin have not been established. Here we investigate the synergistic effects of Fe3O4 nanoparticles with daunorubicin on the induction of apoptosis using K562 leukemia cells. Fe3O4 nanoparticles increased the ability of daunorubicin to induce apoptosis in both adriamycin-sensitive and adriamycin-resistant K562 cells through Caspase-8/Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase pathway. Fe3O4 nanoparticles combined with daunorubicin also effectively inhibited the tumor growth induced by the inoculation of K562 cells into nude mice. The increased cell apoptotic rate was closely correlated with the enhanced inhibition of tumor growth. Biodistribution studies in xenograft tumors indicated that Fe3O4 nanoparticles could be potentially excreted from the body via the gastrointestinal system. In conclusion, our study suggests that Fe3O4 nanoparticles combined with anti-cancer drugs could serve as a better alternative for the targeted therapeutic approaches to cancer treatments.
Nanoparticles; Apoptosis; Leukemia K562 cells; Biodistribution; Caspase-8
Osteoarthritis (OA) is an important subtype of temporomandibular disorders. A simple and reproducible animal model that mimics the histopathologic changes, both in the cartilage and subchondral bone, and clinical symptoms of temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJOA) would help in our understanding of its process and underlying mechanism.
To explore whether injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) into the upper compartment of rat TMJ could induce OA-like lesions.
Female rats were injected with varied doses of MIA into the upper compartment and observed for up to 12 weeks. Histologic, radiographic, behavioral, and molecular changes in the TMJ were evaluated by light and electron microscopy, MicroCT scanning, head withdrawal threshold test, real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry, and TUNEL assay.
The intermediate zone of the disc loosened by 1 day post-MIA injection and thinned thereafter. Injection of an MIA dose of 0.5 mg or higher induced typical OA-like lesions in the TMJ within 4 weeks. Condylar destruction presented in a time-dependent manner, including chondrocyte apoptosis in the early stages, subsequent cartilage matrix disorganization and subchondral bone erosion, fibrosis, subchondral bone sclerosis, and osteophyte formation in the late stages. Nociceptive responses increased in the early stages, corresponding to severe synovitis. Furthermore, chondrocyte apoptosis and an imbalance between anabolism and catabolism of cartilage and subchondral bone might account for the condylar destruction.
Multi-level data demonstrated a reliable and convenient rat model of TMJOA could be induced by MIA injection into the upper compartment. The model might facilitate TMJOA related researches.
BACKGROUND & AIMS
The reason that women have a lower prevalence of duodenal ulcer is not clear. We investigated whether estrogen regulates human duodenal bicarbonate secretion (DBS) and whether this process accounts for sex differences in the prevalence of duodenal ulcer.
We performed an epidemiological study to correlate duodenal ulcer prevalence with sex and age. Proximal DBS was measured from healthy subjects. Estrogen receptor expression was examined in human duodenal mucosa by immunoblot and immunohistochemical analyses.
Among women, the prevalence of duodenal ulcer was significantly lower than among men. The reduced prevalence was greatest among premenopausal women (20–49 years), who were 3.91–5.09-fold less likely to develop duodenal ulcers than age-matched men; the difference was reduced to ≤1.32-fold among subjects 60 years or older. Premenopausal (20–29 years), but not post-menopausal (60–69 years) women, had significantly higher basal and acid-stimulated DBS than the age-matched men. Basal and acid-stimulated DBS in premenopausal women (20–29 years) were significantly higher than in post-menopausal women (60–69 years), whereas there were no significant differences in basal or acid-stimulated DBS between men that were 20–29 years old or 60–69 years old. Serum levels of estradiol changed in parallel with basal and acid-stimulated DBS during the physiological menstrual cycle in premenopausal women. 17β-estradiol-stimulated DBS was independent of age or sex. Estrogen receptors- and - were detected on plasma membrane and in cytosol of human duodenal epithelial cells.
Estrogen regulates human DBS, which could reduce the risk for duodenal ulcer in women and contribute to sex differences in prevalence of duodenal ulcer.
intestine; intetsinal ER; menopause; sex hormone