Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) constitutes a major global public health threat, causing substantial disease burdens such as liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, thus representing high unmet medical needs. Currently available therapies are safe, well tolerated, and highly effective in decreasing viremia and improving measured clinical outcomes with low rates of antiviral resistance. However, long-term management remains a clinical challenge, mainly due to the slow kinetics of HBV surface antigen clearance. In this article, we review emerging antivirals directed at novel targets derived from mechanisms of viral cellular entry, viral replication, viral assembly, and the host immune response, leading to preclinical and clinical trials for possible future therapeutic intervention. The recent therapeutic advances in the development of all categories of HBV inhibitors may pave the way for regimens of finite duration that result in long-lasting control of chronic hepatitis B infection.
Hepatitis B; Antiviral; Nucleoside analogue; Nucleotide analogue; Non-nucleoside antivirals
Trials on sling exercise (SE), commonly performed to manage chronic low back pain (LBP), yield conflicting results. This study aimed to review the effects of SE on chronic LBP.
The randomized controlled trials comparing SE with other treatments or no treatment, published up to August 2013, were identified by electronic searches. Primary outcomes were pain, function, and return to work. The weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated, using a random-effects model.
Risk of bias was rated as high in 9 included trials, where some important quality components such as blinding were absent and sample sizes were generally small. We found no clinically relevant differences in pain or function between SE and other forms of exercise, traditional Chinese medical therapy, or in addition to acupuncture. Based on two trials, SE was more effective than thermomagnetic therapy at reducing pain (short-term: WMD –13.90, 95% CI –22.19 to –5.62; long-term: WMD –26.20, 95% CI –31.32 to –21.08) and improving function (short-term: WMD –10.54, 95% CI –14.32 to –6.75; long-term: WMD –25.75, 95% CI –30.79 to –20.71). In one trial we found statistically significant differences between SE and physical agents combined with drug therapy (meloxicam combined with eperisone hydrochloride) but of borderline clinical relevance for pain (short-term: WMD –15.00, 95% CI –19.64 to −10.36) and function (short-term: WMD −10.00; 95% CI −13.70 to −6.30). There was substantial heterogeneity among the two trials comparing SE and thermomagnetic therapy; both these trials and the trial comparing SE with physical agents combined with drug therapy had serious methodological limitations.
Based on limited evidence from 2 trials, SE was more effective for LBP than thermomagnetic therapy. Clinically relevant differences in effects between SE and other forms of exercise, physical agents combined with drug therapy, traditional Chinese medical therapy, or in addition to acupuncture could not be found. More high-quality randomized trials on the topic are warranted.
Epidermal growth factor (EGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), the AA and BB isoforms of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are involved in the pathogenesis of airway inflammation in asthma. In the present study, the associations between asthmatic phenotypes and the expression levels of these mediators in induced sputum and serum were investigated. A total of 62 asthmatic patients were divided into eosinophilic or neutrophilic phenotypes by cytological classification of the induced sputum. In addition, patients were classified according to lung function (FEV1/FVC >70% or FEV1/FVC <70%) and asthma severity (mild, moderate or severe). The concentrations of EGF, bFGF, PDGF-AA, PDGF-BB and VEGF in the serum and induced sputum were measured using sandwich enzyme immunoassays. VEGF levels in the serum and induced sputum were higher in patients with an eosinophilic phenotype compared with those with a neutrophilic phenotype. In addition, VEGF expression was higher in patients with an FEV1/FVC value of <70% as compared with patients with an FEV1/FVC value of >70%. Furthermore, the levels of VEGF were higher in patients with severe asthma compared with the patients with mild and moderate asthma. There were no statistically significant differences observed with regard to EGF, bFGF, PDGF-AA and PDGF-BB levels among the various phenotypes. Therefore, the observations of the present study indicated that increased VEGF expression in the serum and induced sputum of patients may be associated with eosinophilic airway inflammation, severe airflow limitation and the severity of asthma.
asthma; phenotype; epidermal growth factor; basic fibroblast growth factor; platelet-derived growth factor; vascular endothelial growth factor
C-terminally truncated hepatitis B virus (HBV) middle size surface proteins (MHBst) has been shown to be a transcriptional activator and may be relevant to hepatocarcinogenesis by transactivating gene expression. In the present study, a pcDNA3.1(−)-MHBst167 vector coding for MHBst truncated at amino acid 167 (MHBst167) was constructed and transfected into the HepG2 hepatoma cell line. mRNA and protein expression of MHBst167 in the cells was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analysis. A cDNA library of genes transactivated by the truncated protein in HepG2 cells was made in pGEM-T Easy using suppression subtractive hybridization. The cDNAs were sequenced and analyzed with BLAST searching against the sequences in GenBank. The results showed that certain sequences, such as that of human proto-oncogene c-Myc, may be involved in tumor development. An expression vector pCAT3/c-Myc containing the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene under the control of a c-Myc promoter was generated, and the transcriptional transactivating effect of MHBst167 on the c-Myc promoter was investigated by RT-PCR and western blotting. MHBst167 was found to upregulate the transcriptional activity of the promoter, as well as transcription and translation of c-Myc. MHBst167 was also shown to transactivate SV40 immediate early promoter, and transcriptionally transactivate the expression of human c-Myc. These findings provide new directions for studying the biological functions of MHBst167, and for a better understanding of the tumor development mechanisms of HBV infection.
MHBst167; transactivation; SV40 early promoter; suppression subtractive hybridization; proto-oncogene c-Myc
This study aims to evaluate the radiosensitization effect of nedaplatin on nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell lines with different Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) status. Human NPC cell lines CNE-2 (EBV-negative) and C666 (EBV-positive) were treated with 0–100 μg/mL nedaplatin, and inhibitory effects on cell viability and IC50 were calculated by MTS assay. We assessed changes in radiosensitivity of cells by MTS and colony formation assays, and detected the apoptosis index and changes in cell cycle by flow cytometry. MTS assay showed that nedaplatin caused significant cytotoxicity in CNE-2 and C666 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. After 24 h, nedaplatin inhibited growth of CNE-2 and C666 cells with IC50 values of 34.32 and 63.69 μg/mL, respectively. Compared with radiation alone, nedaplatin enhanced the radiation effect on both cell lines. Nedaplatin markedly increased apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase. Nedaplatin radiosensitized human NPC cells CNE-2 and C666, with a significantly greater effect on the former. The mechanisms of radiosensitization include induction of apoptosis and enhancement of cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase.
Rh blood group system is the most complex and immunogenetic blood group system. Prevalent RHD alleles vary in different populations. We conducted the present study to examine the genotype of DEL individuals and to elucidate whether novel alleles exist in the Chinese population.
DEL phenotype was identified by a serologic adsorption-elution method. The nucleotide sequences of ten RHD exons and exon-intron boundary regions were evaluated by RHD gene-specific PCR-SSP and sequencing.
Of 42306 samples from individual donors and patients, 165 samples were typed as D-negative. Among these D-negative samples, 41 DEL individuals were observed. Thirty-seven DELs were confirmed to have the RHD1227A allele. Two DELs seemed to have RHD-CE-D hybrid alleles, including one RHD-CE (4–7)-D and one RHD-CE (2–5)-D. Two novel RHD alleles were found among the rest of the DEL samples, including one RHD93T > A and one RHD838G > A.
In this study, about 24.85% (41/165) of the apparent D-negative Chinese individuals were DEL. RHD1227G > A is the most frequent allele in Chinese DEL phenotypes, accounting for 90.24% (37/41). The RHD-CE-D hybrid allele might be the second most frequent DEL allele in the Chinese population. Our study would contribute to the understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying D antigen expression of DEL individuals and provide useful information for designing suitable genotyping strategies in RhD-negative individuals in Asia.
Rh blood type; DEL phenotype; RHD allele; Chinese population
Leifsonia aquatica is an aquatic bacterium that is typically found in environmental water habitats. Infections due to L. aquatica are rare and commonly catheter associated in immunocompromised patients. We report the first case of an acute septicemia caused by L. aquatica in a healthy immunocompetent host after cryopexy in the absence of a catheter.
Although genetic or epigenetic alterations have been shown to affect the three-dimensional organization of genomes, the utility of chromatin conformation in the classification of human disease has never been addressed.
Here, we explore whether chromatin conformation can be used to classify human leukemia. We map the conformation of the HOXA gene cluster in a panel of cell lines with 5C chromosome conformation capture technology, and use the data to train and test a support vector machine classifier named 3D-SP. We show that 3D-SP is able to accurately distinguish leukemias expressing MLL-fusion proteins from those expressing only wild-type MLL, and that it can also classify leukemia subtypes according to MLL fusion partner, based solely on 5C data.
Our study provides the first proof-of-principle demonstration that chromatin conformation contains the information value necessary for classification of leukemia subtypes.
Spontaneous emission lifetime orientation distributions of a two-level quantum emitter in metallic nanorod structures are theoretically investigated by the rigorous electromagnetic Green function method. It was found that spontaneous emission lifetime strongly depended on the transition dipole orientation and the position of the emitter. The anisotropic factor defined as the ratio between the maximum and minimum values of the lifetimes along different dipole orientations can reach up to 103. It is much larger than those in dielectric structures which are only several times usually. Our results show that the localized plasmonic resonance effect provides a new degree of freedom to effectively control spontaneous emission by the dipole orientation of the quantum emitters.
Surface plasmons; Spontaneous emission; Lifetime distribution; Nanorod; 78.67.Qa; 73.20.Mf; 42.50.-p
Nowadays many MRI scans can give 3D volume data with different contrasts, but the observers may want to view various contrasts in the same 3D volume. The conventional 2D medical fusion methods can only fuse the 3D volume data layer by layer, which may lead to the loss of interframe correlative information. In this paper, a novel 3D medical volume fusion method based on 3D band limited shearlet transform (3D BLST) is proposed. And this method is evaluated upon MRI T2* and quantitative susceptibility mapping data of 4 human brains. Both the perspective impression and the quality indices indicate that the proposed method has a better performance than conventional 2D wavelet, DT CWT, and 3D wavelet, DT CWT based fusion methods.
Discovering critical nodes in social networks has many important applications. For finding out the critical nodes and considering the widespread community structure in social networks, we obtain each node's marginal contribution by Owen value. And then we can give a method for the solution of the critical node problem. We validate the feasibility and effectiveness of our method on two synthetic datasets and six real datasets. At the same time, the result obtained by using our method to analyze the terrorist network is in line with the actual situation.
Highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus has been shown to infect organs other than the lung, and this is likely to be mediated by systemic spread resulting from viremia which has been detected in blood in severe cases of infection with avian H5N1 viruses. The infectivity of virus in blood and the potential for virus transmission by transfusion has not been investigated.
Using a susceptible ferret animal model, we evaluated viremia and transmission by blood transfusion. Blood was collected on day 2, 4, 6, and 10 post-infection (or before death) from donor ferrets infected with either low dose (1.0 × 102.6 EID50/ml) or high dose (1.0 × 103.6 EID50/ml) of H5N1 virus, A/VN/1203/04 and transfused to recipient animals.
Viremia was observed in 2/12 (16.67%) recipients that received blood from donor ferrets infected with low dose and 7/12 (58.33%) recipients who received blood from high dose infected donors. 1/12 (8.3%) low dose recipients and 6/12 (50%) high dose recipients died within 11 days after transfusion. Increased changes in body weight and temperatures were observed in high dose recipients, and high levels of viral RNA were detected in recipient ferrets after transfusion of blood from the early viremic phase, which also correlated with adverse impact on their survival.
These data suggest that highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus, H5N1, is transmissible by blood transfusion in ferrets. Low levels of viremia were detected around the time of onset of symptoms and later in ferrets infected with highly pathogenic H5N1 virus. These findings may have implication for pathogenesis and transmissibility of H5N1.
H5N1; Transfusion; Viremia; Ferrets
Highly selective four-component domino multi-cyclizations for the synthesis of new fused acridines and azaheterocyclic skeletons have been established by mixing common reactants in isobutyric acid under microwave irradiation. The reactions proceeded at fast rates, and were conducted to completion within 20–30 min. Up to seven new chemical bonds, four rings and four stereocenters were assembled in a convenient one-pot operation. The resulting hexacyclic and pentacyclic fused acridines and their stereochemistry have been fully characterized and determined by X-ray structural analysis.
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) can cause lysis of target bacteria by directly inserting themselves into the lipid bilayer. This killing mechanism confounds the identification of the intracellular targets of AMPs. To circumvent this, we used a shuttle vector containing the inducible expression of a human cathelicidin-related AMP, LL-37, to examine its effect on Escherichia coli TOP10 under aerobic and anaerobic growth conditions. Induction of LL-37 caused growth inhibition and alteration in cell morphology to a filamentous phenotype. Further examination of the E. coli cell division protein FtsZ revealed that LL-37 did not interact with FtsZ. Moreover, intracellular expression of LL-37 results in the enhanced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), causing lethal membrane depolarization under aerobic conditions. Additionally, the membrane permeability was increased after intracellular expression of LL37 under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that intracellular LL-37 mainly affected the expression of genes related to energy production and carbohydrate metabolism. More specifically, genes related to oxidative phosphorylation under both aerobic and anaerobic growth conditions were affected. Collectively, our current study demonstrates that intracellular expression of LL-37 in E. coli can inhibit growth under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. While we confirmed that the generation of ROS is a bactericidal mechanism for LL-37 under aerobic growth conditions, we also found that the intracellular accumulation of cationic LL-37 influences the redox and ion status of the cells under both growth conditions. These data suggest that there is a new AMP-mediated bacterial killing mechanism that targets energy metabolism.
Despite the introduction of anti-D prophylaxis into clinical practice, RhD alloimmunisation remains a problem, particularly in the context of transfusions and pregnancy-induced alloimmunisation. The incidence of RhD alloimmunisation among phenotypically RhD-negative individuals is unknown in most countries. We investigated RhD alloimmmunisation in RhD-negative pregnant women and transfusion recipients in south-east China in order to optimise the prevention of this phenomenon.
We analysed the RhD alloimmunisation status of RhD-negative pregnant women and transfusion recipients in south-east China. The RhD blood types of the study population were identified by standard serological methods. The D antigen was further tested with the indirect antiglobulin test to exclude or confirm weak D or partial D types. RhC, c, E and e antigens were typed in all subjects. If anti-D antibody screening was positive, the specificity and titre of the antibody were determined. The Del phenotype was investigated by the polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific primer method.
An anti-D antibody was found in 61 of 416 RhD-negative pregnant women (14.66%), and in 11 of 227 RhD-negative transfusion recipients (4.85%). None of the 72 RhD-negative pregnant women or transfusion recipients with anti-D had the Del phenotype. Anti-D antibodies were not detected among Del phenotype individuals and Del phenotypes were not found in anti-D antibody producing individuals.
Our study suggests that the risk of alloimmunity-induced neonatal haemolysis increases in true RhD-negative multipara. Perinatal protection would be necessary in these patients, while antenatal anti-D testing and Rh immune globulin prophylaxis would be unnecessary for RhDel pregnant women. Pregnant women and transfusion recipients with the Del type seldom produce anti-D antibody. RhD-negative recipients are not at risk of alloimmunisation after transfusion with Del red blood cells.
RhD negative; pregnancy; transfusion recipient; alloimmunisation; Del phenotype
The characteristics of the D antigen are important as they influence the immunogenicity of D variant cells. Several studies on antigenic sites have been reported in normal D positive, weak D and partial D cases, including a comprehensive analysis of DEL types in Caucasians. The aim of this study was to assess D antigen density and epitopes on the erythrocyte surface of Asian type DEL phenotypic individuals carrying the RHD1227A allele in the Chinese population.
Materials and methods
A total of 154 DEL phenotypic individuals carrying the RHD1227A allele were identified through adsorption and elution tests and polymerase chain reaction analysis with sequence-specific primers in the Chinese population. D antigen density on the erythrocyte surface of these individuals was detected using a flow cytometric method. An erythrocyte sample with known D antigen density was used as a standard. Blood samples from D-negative and D-positive individuals were used as controls. In addition, D antigen epitopes on the erythrocyte surface of DEL individuals carrying the RHD1227A allele were investigated with 18 monoclonal anti-D antibodies specific for different D antigen epitopes.
The means of the median fluorescence intensity of D antigen on the erythrocyte membrane surface of D-negative, D-positive and DEL individuals were 2.14±0.25, 193.61±11.43 and 2.45±0.82, respectively. The DEL samples were estimated to have approximately 22 D antigens per cell. The samples from all 154 DEL individuals reacted positively with 18 monoclonal anti-D antibodies specific for different D antigen epitopes.
In this study, D antigen density on the erythrocyte surface of DEL individuals carrying the RHD1227A allele was extremely low, there being only very few antigenic molecules per cell, but the D antigen epitopes were grossly complete.
Rh blood type; D antigen; DEL individual; antigen density; antigen epitope
Catechins are the most important bioactive compounds in tea, and have been demonstrated to possess a wide variety of pharmacological activities. To characterize quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for catechins content in the tender shoots of tea plant, we constructed a moderately saturated genetic map using 406 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, based on a pseudo-testcross population of 183 individuals derived from an intraspecific cross of two Camellia sinensis varieties with diverse catechins composition. The map consisted of fifteen linkage groups (LGs), corresponding to the haploid chromosome number of tea plant (2n = 2x = 30). The total map length was 1,143.5 cM, with an average locus spacing of 2.9 cM. A total of 25 QTLs associated with catechins content were identified over two measurement years. Of these, nine stable QTLs were validated across years, and clustered into four main chromosome regions on LG03, LG11, LG12 and LG15. The population variability explained by each QTL was predominantly at moderate-to-high levels and ranged from 2.4% to 71.0%, with an average of 17.7%. The total number of QTL for each trait varied from four to eight, while the total population variability explained by all QTLs for a trait ranged between 38.4% and 79.7%. This is the first report on the identification of QTL for catechins content in tea plant. The results of this study provide a foundation for further cloning and functional characterization of catechin QTLs for utilization in improvement of tea plant.
To improve the understanding of the enriched functions of proteins and to identify potential biomarkers in human breast cancer, the present study constructed a differentially expressed protein profile by screening immunohistochemistry maps of human breast cancer proteins. A total of 1,688 proteins were found to be differentially expressed in human breast cancer, including 773 upregulated and 915 downregulated proteins. Of these proteins, secreted and membrane proteins were screened and clustered, and more enriched biological functions and pathways were presented in the upregulated protein profiles. Furthermore, altered serum levels of peroxiredoxin (PRDX)2, PRDX6, cathepsin (CTS)B and CTSD were detected by ELISA assay. The present study provides a novel global mapping of potential breast cancer biomarkers that could be used as background to identify the altered pathways in human breast cancer, as well as potential cancer targets.
breast cancer; proteome; immunohistochemistry; bioinformatics; biomarker
One of the main focuses in Chinese Medicine research is the identification of efficacious components in Chinese herbal medicine (CHM). Studies in such area are difficult due to the complexity and the synergistic characteristics of CHM. Current methods to track and separate active components are not adequate to meet the needs of revealing effects and identify substances and pharmacological mechanisms, which directly restrict the modernization and globalization of CHM. In this paper, a new methodology to deplete a single active component via immunoassay was introduced. The specific active component in a CHM mixture can then be identified and studied through comparative analyses of the pharmacological effects before and after immune depletion. With this new methodology, degree of contribution of a particular component to the whole complex herbal mixture can be elucidated, and its synergistic property with other components can be determined. The new method can reflect not only the overall combined pharmacological effects of CHM but also the effect of individual component. It is an effective way to explain the degree of contribution of one specific component to the overall activity of a CHM prescription.
Qingkailing injection (QKLI), a modern traditional Chinese medicine preparation, has been widely used in clinics due to its fast and significant efficacy in treatment of high fever. The free amino acids (AAs) were considered to be the most abundant active ingredients indisputably. So developing an accurate and simple determination method to measure the contents of total free AAs in QKLI is very crucial. In current study, the accurate and simple method of using one single standard AA for simultaneous quantification of multiple AAs (One for M) in QKLI was developed. Particularly, the calculation methods and the robustness of relative correction factors (RCFs) were investigated systematically. No statistically significant difference between these two quantification methods of One for M and classic regression equation was found by the t-test (P = 95%, P > 0.05). The results showed that the precision (RSD < 4.88%), the robustness (RSD < 4.04%), and the average recoveries (94.11%–107.94%) of this newly proposed method all met the requirements for content determination. This One for M method will provide a scientific reference for the quantitative determination of AAs in other traditional Chinese medicines and their preparations owing to its accuracy and simplicity.
The effect of trientine hydrochloride (TRIEN), a copper-selective chelating agent, on retinal inflammation induced by photocoagulation laser treatment was studied. Nine Long-Evans rats were treated with TRIEN (0.5 mmol/kg per day, intraperitoneal injection) for 9 days. On day 8, each animal underwent unilateral photocoagulation laser treatment with an argon dye laser. On day 9, animals were killed and the eyes processed for immunohistochemistry and light microscopy. In the TRIEN-treated group, retinal thickness and number of macrophages (ED-1) were both significantly lower than in the saline-treated, control group exposed to laser photocoagulation. The results support the hypothesis that selective copper chelation prior to laser treatment may inhibit ocular inflammation. The results suggest that pretreatment with a selective copper-chelating compound can minimize retinal inflammation secondary to laser photocoagulation treatment, which may improve overall outcome of photocoagulation treatment for diabetic retinopathy.
PMID: 18566852 CAMSID: cams4168
Inflammation; Trientine; Immunohistochemistry; Laser therapy; Retinal edema; Diabetic retinopathy
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common type of presenile and senile dementia. The human β-amyloid precursor cleavage enzyme (BACE-1) is a key enzyme responsible for amyloid plaque production, which implicates the progress and symptoms of AD. Here we assessed the anti-BACE-1 and behavioral activities of curcuminoids from rhizomes of Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae), diarylalkyls curcumin (CCN), demethoxycurcumin (DMCCN), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMCCN) against AD Drosophila melanogaster models.
Neuro-protective ability of the curcuminoids was assessed using Drosophila melanogaster model system overexpressing BACE-1 and its substrate APP in compound eyes and entire neurons. Feeding and climbing activity, lifespan, and morphostructural changes in fly eyes also were evaluated.
BDMCCN has the strongest inhibitory activity toward BACE-1 with 17 μM IC50, which was 20 and 13 times lower than those of CCN and DMCCN respectively. Overexpression of APP/BACE-1 resulted in the progressive and measurable defects in morphology of eyes and locomotion. Remarkably, supplementing diet with either 1 mM BDMCCN or 1 mM CCN rescued APP/BACE1-expressing flies and kept them from developing both morphological and behavioral defects. Our results suggest that structural characteristics, such as degrees of saturation, types of carbon skeleton and functional group, and hydrophobicity appear to play a role in determining inhibitory potency of curcuminoids on BACE-1.
Further studies will warrant possible applications of curcuminoids as therapeutic BACE-1 blockers.
Alzheimer’s disease; Drosophila melanogaster; Curcuma longa; Curcuminoids; BACE-1; Structure–activity relationship
Cryptorchidism is a common congenital birth defect in human beings with the possible complication of infertility. An in vitro model of cryptorchidism might be valuable due to the inaccessibility of human embryos for research purposes. In this study, we reprogrammed urine cells containing genetic variations in insulin-like factor 3, zinc finger (ZNF) 214, and ZNF215 from a cryptorchid patient by introducing human OCT4, SOX2, C-MYC, and KLF4 with lentivirus. The cells were then replated on irradiated mouse embryonic fibroblasts and cultured with the human embryonic stem (ES) cell medium. The compact colonies with well-defined borders were manually picked, and 2 induced pluripotent cell lines were fully characterized. Our results demonstrated that these 2 cell lines were similar to human ES cells in morphological appearance, marker expression, and epigenetic status of the pluripotent cell-specific gene, OCT4. These cells could be differentiated into cells of all 3 germ layers in teratomas and in vitro, including into the VASA-positive germ cell lineage. Both parental urine cells and the reprogrammed cells possessed the normal karyotype and the same short tandem repeat loci, indicating that these 2 cell population share the same genetic identity. This establishment and characterization of human urine-derived cryptorchid-specific induced pluripotent stem cells could present a good human genetic system for future studies investigating the molecular mechanism of cryptorchidism.
PLGA microparticles loaded with three different fluorescent model drugs, fluorescein sodium (hydrophilic), sulforhodamine (amphoteric), and boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY® 493/503, lipophilic), were prepared by the solvent evaporation technique. Due to varying hydrophilicity, the diameters of the microparticles ranged between 4.1 and 4.7 μm. According to fluorimetric analysis, the loading varied from 0.06 to 2.25 μg of the model drug per mg PLGA. In terms of the release profile, the fluorescein sodium-entrapped formulation exhibited thermo-responsive release kinetics. In the case of sulforhodamine- and BODIPY® 493/503-loaded particles, almost no release was observed, neither at 4°C nor 37°C during the first 50 hours. Furthermore, to estimate the bioadhesive properties of such drug delivery systems, the surface of the loaded particles was grafted with wheat germ agglutinin by applying the carbodiimide method. Cytoadhesion studies with Caco-2 monolayers revealed an up to 1.9-fold and 3.6-fold increase in the bioadhesion of the lectin-functionalized, model drug-loaded particles as compared to the albumin- and non-grafted microcarriers, respectively. All in all, the results clearly indicated that the lipophilicity of the polymer matching that of the drug favored entrapment, whereas mismatching impeded loading into the PLGA-microparticles. Even in the case of low loading, these delivery systems might be useful for the fluorescent detections and microscopic imaging of cellular interactions due to their fluorescent properties and lack of dye leakage. Moreover, lectin grafting can mediate bioadhesive properties to such particulate drug carriers which could be a promising approach to improve drug delivery.
Caco-2; Cytoadhesion; Microparticles; PLGA; Wheat Germ Agglutinin (WGA)
Programmed death-1 (PD-1) expression was investigated in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients at the chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection, liver cirrhosis (LC), and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) stages.
PD-1 expression in circulating CD4+ and CD8+ T cells was detected by flow cytometry. The correlations between PD-1 expression and HBV viral load, alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) levels and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were analyzed using GraphPad Prism 5.0.
PD-1 expression in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells was significantly increased in both the CHB group and advanced-stage group (LC plus HCC). In the CHB group, PD-1 expression in both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells was positively correlated with the HBV viral load, ALT, and AST levels. However, in the LC plus HCC group, significant correlations between PD-1 expression and the clinical parameters were nearly absent.
PD-1 expression in peripheral CD4+ and CD8+ T cells is dynamic, changes with HBV infection progression, and is related to HBV viral load and liver function, especially in CHB. PD-1 expression could be utilized as a potential clinical indicator to determine the extent of virus replication and liver injury.
Programmed death-1; Hepatitis B virus; Hepatitis B, chronic; Liver cirrhosis; Carcinoma, hepatocellular