Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been observed in adults and children with mood and anxiety disorders and is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of these disorders. We recently studied a diverse community sample of boys and found associations of behavioral problems, including symptoms of depression and anxiety, with basal and stress-induced cortisol concentrations. Here we examine cortisol-emotional/behavioral associations at a two-year follow-up and test whether initial cortisol is predictive of worsening of emotional/behavioral problems two years later.
Seventy-eight 10–14 year-old boys and their mothers completed a battery of psychosocial assessments, provided morning and afternoon saliva samples, and participated in a home visit involving mildly stressful tasks and saliva collection for cortisol assay during a two-year follow-up assessment.
Consistent with the findings from our time 1 assessment, greater declines in cortisol across the home-visit challenge task were significantly associated with internalizing and externalizing behaviors as well as attention problems and social problems at the two-year follow-up. In addition, morning and afternoon cortisol concentrations at the initial assessment were significant positive predictors of the later development of child depressive symptoms at follow-up after controlling for initial depressive symptoms.
These findings demonstrate that children in the community with internalizing and externalizing behavior problems have altered patterns of HPA axis stress reactivity. In addition, our prospective findings suggest that elevated cortisol concentrations may influence the later development of emotional/behavioral problems in boys.
children; adolescents; boys; depression; cortisol; anxiety; HPA axis; stress reactivity; longitudinal; prospective
Although a critical role for caveolae-mediated albumin transcytosis in pulmonary endothelium is well established, considerably less is known about caveolae-independent pathways. In this current study, we confirmed that cultured rat pulmonary microvascular (RPMEC) and pulmonary artery (RPAEC) endothelium endocytosed Alexa488-labeled albumin in a saturable, temperature-sensitive mode and internalization resulted in co-localization by fluorescence microscopy with cholera B toxin and caveolin-1. Although siRNA to caveolin-1 (cav-1) in RPAEC significantly inhibited albumin uptake, a remnant portion of albumin uptake was cav-1-independent, suggesting alternative pathways for albumin uptake. Thus, we isolated and cultured mouse lung endothelial cells (MLEC) from wild type and cav-1-/- mice and noted that ~ 65% of albumin uptake, as determined by confocal imaging or live cell total internal reflectance fluorescence microscopy (TIRF), persisted in total absence of cav-1. Uptake of colloidal gold labeled albumin was evaluated by electron microscopy and demonstrated that albumin uptake in MLEC from cav-1-/- mice was through caveolae-independent pathway(s) including clathrin-coated pits that resulted in endosomal accumulation of albumin. Finally, we noted that albumin uptake in RPMEC was in part sensitive to pharmacological agents (amiloride [sodium transport inhibitor], Gö6976 [protein kinase C inhibitor], and cytochalasin D [inhibitor of actin polymerization]) consistent with a macropinocytosis-like process. The amiloride sensitivity accounting for macropinocytosis also exists in albumin uptake by both wild type and cav-1-/- MLEC. We conclude from these studies that in addition to the well described caveolar-dependent pulmonary endothelial cell endocytosis of albumin, a portion of overall uptake in pulmonary endothelial cells is cav-1 insensitive and appears to involve clathrin-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis-like process.
Purpose. Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in the basal ganglia and thalamus have a more aggressive natural history with a higher morbidity and mortality than AVMs in other locations. Optimal treatment—complete obliteration without new neurological deficits—is often challenging. We present a patient with a large bilateral basal ganglia and thalamic AVM successfully treated with hypofractionated stereotactic radiosurgery (HFSRS) with intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods. The patient was treated with hypofractionated stereotactic radiosurgery to 30 Gy at margin in 5 fractions of 9 static fields with a minimultileaf collimator and intensity modulated radiotherapy. Results. At 10 months following treatment, digital subtraction angiography showed complete obliteration of the AVM. Conclusions. Large bilateral thalamic and basal ganglia AVMs can be successfully treated with complete obliteration by HFSRS with IMRT with relatively limited toxicity. Appropriate caution is recommended.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a disease defined by an aberrant inflammatory response to inhaled cigarette smoke and other noxious particles. The factors triggered in the lungs that drive inflammation and lung tissue destruction are not fully understood, but mononuclear phagocytes play a central role by releasing mediators that promote both inflammation and tissue destructive emphysema. Although conflicting studies in alveolar macrophages exist regarding chronic cigarette smoke exposure and its effects on macrophage polarization patterns, we have recently identified a cell-type in mice defined by CX3CR1 expression whose population expands in the lungs and elaborates M1 signature cytokines in response to cigarette smoke exposure in vivo. In addition, the absence of functional CX3CR1 provides protection from tissue-destructive emphysema in a murine model of chronic cigarette smoke exposure. The heterogeneity and plasticity of discrete macrophage subsets, in terms of immuno-phenotype and function, may explain the seemingly disparate findings showing a suppressed inflammatory profile on the one hand and heightened inflammatory response on the other. This review proposes to examine the evidence that discrete mononuclear phagocyte subsets develop in response to cigarette smoke exposure, and the spatial cues provided by the lung tissue microenvironment in which the mononuclear phagocyte resides may influence the distribution and function of these subsets.
chemokines; macrophages; pattern recognition receptors
Eight-Section Brocades and Yijin Jing consist of some routine movements that are too difficult for frail elders. A novel health qigong protocol was developed and its effectiveness for frail elders was examined using a randomized clinical trial (RCT). An expert panel performed functional anatomy analysis and safety field test prior to the RCT. The experimental group (n = 61, 83 ± 6 yr) was given a 12-week qigong exercise program, while the comparison group (n = 55, 84 ± 6 yr) participated in a newspaper reading program with the same duration and frequency. Pre-, mid-, post-, and follow-up assessments were conducted. At 12 weeks, the qigong group had significant improvements in thinking operations (F = 4.05, P = .02) and significant reduction of resting heart rate (F = 3.14, P = .045) as compared to the newspaper reading group. A trend of improvements in grip strength and a decreasing trend of depression levels were observed among the qigong group. Significant perceived improvements in physical health (F = 13.01, P = .001), activities of daily living (F = 5.32, P = .03), and overall health status (F = 15.26, P = .0001) were found. There are improvements in some aspects of psychosocial, cognitive, physical, and physiological domains. Clinical applications and possibilities for further research are discussed.
The chemokine sink hypothesis pertaining to erythrocyte Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (DARC) during inflammation has received considerable attention, but lacks direct in vivo evidence. Here we demonstrate, using mice with a targeted deletion in CXCL5, that CXCL5 bound erythrocyte DARC and impaired its chemokine scavenging in blood. CXCL5 increased the plasma concentrations of CXCL1 and CXCL2 in part through inhibiting chemokine scavenging, impairing chemokine gradients and desensitizing CXCR2, which led to decreased neutrophil influx to the lung, increased lung bacterial burden and mortality in an Escherichia coli pneumonia model. In contrast, CXCL5 exerted a predominant role in mediating neutrophil influx to the lung during inflammation after LPS inhalation. Platelets and lung resident cells were the sources of homeostatic CXCL5 in blood and inflammatory CXCL5 in the lung respectively. This study presents a paradigm whereby platelets and red cells alter chemokine scavenging and neutrophil-chemokine interaction during inflammation.
AIM: To compare quality of life (QoL) outcomes in Chinese patients after curative laparoscopic vs open surgery for rectal cancer.
METHODS: Eligible Chinese patients with rectal cancer undergoing curative laparoscopic or open sphincter-preserving resection between July 2006 and July 2008 were enrolled in this prospective study. The QoL outcomes were assessed longitudinally using the validated Chinese versions of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 and QLQ-CR38 questionnaires before surgery and at 4, 8, and 12 mo after surgery. The QoL scores at the different time points were compared between the laparoscopic and open groups. A higher score on a functional scale indicated better functioning, whereas a higher score on a symptom scale indicated a higher degree of symptoms.
RESULTS: Seventy-four patients (49 laparoscopic and 25 open) were enrolled. The two groups of patients were comparable in terms of sociodemographic data, types of surgery, tumor staging, and baseline mean QoL scores. There was no significant decrease from baseline in global QoL for the laparoscopic group at different time points, whereas the global QoL was worse compared to baseline beginning at 4 mo but returned to baseline by 12 mo for the open group (P = 0.019, Friedman test). Compared to the open group, the laparoscopic group had significantly better physical (89.9 ± 1.4 vs 79.2 ± 3.7, P = 0.016), role (85.0 ± 3.4 vs 63.3 ± 6.9, P = 0.005), and cognitive (73.5 ± 3.4 vs 50.7 ± 6.2, P = 0.002) functioning at 8 mo, fewer micturition problems at 4-8 mo (4 mo: 32.3 ± 4.7 vs 54.7 ± 7.1, P = 0.011; 8 mo: 22.8 ± 4.0 vs 40.7 ± 6.9, P = 0.020), and fewer male sexual problems from 8 mo onward (20.0 ± 8.5 vs 76.7 ± 14.5, P = 0.013). At 12 mo after surgery, no significant differences were observed in any functional or symptom scale between the two groups, with the exception of male sexual problems, which remained worse in the open group (29.2 ± 11.3 vs 80.0 ± 9.7, P = 0.026).
CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic sphincter-preserving resection for rectal cancer is associated with better preservation of QoL and fewer male sexual problems when compared with open surgery in Chinese patients. These findings, however, should be interpreted with caution because of the small sample size of the study.
Quality of life; Rectal cancer; Laparoscopic surgery; Sphincter-preserving surgery; European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30; European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-CR38
Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) has a heritable component that remains to be fully characterized. Most identified common susceptibility variants lie in non-protein-coding sequences. We hypothesized that variants in the 3′ untranslated region at putative microRNA (miRNA) binding sites represent functional targets that influence EOC susceptibility. Here, we evaluate the association between 767 miRNA binding site single nucleotide polymorphisms (miRSNPs) and EOC risk in 18,174 EOC cases and 26,134 controls from 43 studies genotyped through the Collaborative Oncological Gene-environment Study. We identify several miRSNPs associated with invasive serous EOC risk (OR=1.12, P=10−8) mapping to an inversion polymorphism at 17q21.31. Additional genotyping of non-miRSNPs at 17q21.31 reveals stronger signals outside the inversion (P=10−10). Variation at 17q21.31 associates with neurological diseases, and our collaboration is the first to report an association with EOC susceptibility. An integrated molecular analysis in this region provides evidence for ARHGAP27 and PLEKHM1 as candidate EOC susceptibility genes.
Bacterial pneumonia remains a significant burden worldwide. Although an inflammatory response in the lung is required to fight the causative agent, persistent tissue-resident neutrophils in non-resolving pneumonia can induce collateral tissue damage and precipitate acute lung injury. However, little is known about mechanisms orchestrated in the lung tissue that remove apoptotic neutrophils to restore tissue homeostasis. In mice infected with Klebsiella pneumoniae, a bacterium commonly associated with hospital-acquired pneumonia, we show that interleukin-10 is essential for resolution of lung inflammation and recovery of mice after infection. Although IL-10−/− mice cleared bacteria, they displayed increased morbidity with progressive weight loss and persistent lung inflammation in the later phase after infection. A source of tissue IL-10 was found to be resident CD11b+Gr1intF4/80+ cells resembling myeloid-derived suppressor cells that appeared with a delayed kinetics after infection. These cells efficiently efferocytosed apoptotic neutrophils, which was aided by IL-10. The lung neutrophil burden was attenuated in infected STAT1−/− mice with concomitant increase in the frequency of the MDSC-like cells and lung IL-10 levels. Thus, inhibiting STAT1 in combination with antibiotics may be a novel therapeutic strategy to address inefficient resolution of bacterial pneumonia.
Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is associated with alterations in systemic concentrations of IL-8/CXCL8 functional homologues in a murine model. Whether RBC transfusion alters systemic neutrophil chemokine concentrations in individuals sustaining traumatic injury is not known. We conducted a retrospective, single-center study of severely injured trauma patients presenting within 12 h of injury with a base deficit > 6 and hypotension in the field. Plasma concentrations of twenty-five chemokines, cytokines, and growth factors were obtained from both transfused (N=22) and non-transfused (N=33) groups in the first 48 h following admission. The transfused group (mean RBC units ± SD: 2.7 ±1.7) tended to be older (49.9 ±21.1 versus 40.4 ±19.9 years, p=0.10), with a higher percentage of females (40.9% versus 18.2%, p=0.06), and a higher injury severity score (ISS) (27.1 ±12.7 versus 21.4 ±10.2, p=0.07). In univariate and multivariate analyses, transfusion was associated with increased hospital and ICU length of stay but not ventilator-free days. Plasma CXCL8 concentrations were higher in the transfused (mean ±SD: 84 ±88 pg/mL) than the non-transfused group (31 ±21 pg/mL, p=0.003). Using a linear prediction model to calculate bioanalyte concentrations standardized for age, gender, ISS, and admission SBP, we observed that CXCL8 concentrations diverged within 12 hours following injury, with the transfused group showing persistently elevated CXCL8 concentrations by contrast to the decay observed in the non-transfused group. Other bioanalytes showed no differences across time. RBC transfusion is associated with persistently elevated neutrophil chemokine CXCL8 concentrations following traumatic injury.
Chemokines; RBC transfusion; Inflammation; trauma
Red cell transfusion is associated with lung injury in susceptible hosts, although many cases do not meet criteria for transfusion related acute lung injury. Patients with underlying pulmonary fibrosis can exhibit precipitous deteriorations in respiratory status of unknown etiology defined as acute exacerbations due to superimposed lung injury syndrome. It is unclear whether red cell transfusion is associated with acute exacerbation of underlying pulmonary fibrosis.
We describe a patient who underwent an uneventful elective left total hip replacement but developed anemia post-operatively. Twenty-four hours following transfusion of her fifth non-leukoreduced AS-5 red cell unit, she developed new bilateral airspace infiltrates associated with progressive hypoxemia. These RBC units were 35-38 days old. Despite supportive care and diuresis, patient remained profoundly hypoxemic with infiltrates that progressed to fibrosis.
The patient had mild sub-clinical lower-lobe predominant interstitial pulmonary fibrosis but developed diffuse bilateral ground glass opacities with areas of consolidation 24 h after receiving her last RBC unit. Transbronchial biopsy of the right lower lobe showed active organizing pneumonia and underlying interstitial fibrosis, supporting the clinical diagnosis of acute exacerbation of pulmonary fibrosis. The bronchoalveolar lavage showed progressive bloody effluent, consistent with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, a marker of lung injury. There was no evidence of viral inclusions, fungal elements, pneumocystis, or bacterial organisms.
Transfusion of multiple units of aged RBCs was temporally associated with an acute exacerbation and rapid progression of underlying sub-clinical pulmonary fibrosis.
transfusion; acute exacerbation; pulmonary fibrosis; lung injury; red blood cells
AIM: To explore the effectiveness of acupuncture transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (Acu-TENS), a non-invasive modality in reduction of rectal discomfort during barostat-induced rectal distension.
METHODS: Forty healthy subjects were randomized to receive 45 min of either Acu-TENS or placebo-TENS (no electrical output) over acupuncture points Hegu (large-intestine 4), Neiguan (pericardium 6) and Zusanli (stomach 36). A balloon catheter attached to a dual-drive barostat machine was then inserted into the subjects’ rectum. A step-wise (4 mmHg) increase in balloon pressure was induced until maximal tolerable or 48 mmHg. Visual analogue scale and a 5-point subjective discomfort scale (no perception, first perception of distension, urge to defecate, discomfort/pain and extreme pain) were used to assess rectal discomfort at each distension pressure. Blood beta-endorphin levels were measured before, immediately after intervention, at 24 mmHg and at maximal tolerable distension pressure.
RESULTS: There was no difference in the demographic data and baseline plasma beta-endorphin levels between the two groups. Perception threshold levels were higher in the Acu-TENS group when compared to the placebo group, but the difference reached statistical significance only at the sensations “urge to defecate” and “pain”. The distension pressures recorded at the “urge to defecate” sensation for the Acu-TENS and placebo-TENS groups were 28.0 ± 4.5 mmHg and 24.6 ± 5.7 mmHg, respectively (P = 0.043); and the pressures recorded for the “pain” sensation for these two groups were 36.0 ± 4.2 mmHg and 30.5 ± 4.3 mmHg respectively (P = 0.002). Compared to the placebo group, a higher number of participants in the Acu-TENS group tolerated higher distension pressures (> 40 mmHg) (65% in Acu-TENS vs 25% in placebo, P = 0.02). The plasma beta-endorphin levels of the Acu-TENS group were significantly higher than that of the placebo group at barostat inflation pressure of 24 mmHg (1.31 ± 0.40 ng/mL vs 1.04 ± 0.43 ng/mL, P = 0.044) and at maximal inflation pressure (1.46 ± 0.53 ng/mL vs 0.95 ± 0.38 ng/mL, P = 0.003).
CONCLUSION: Acu-TENS reduced rectal discomfort during barostat-induced rectal distension and concurrently associated with a rise in beta-endorphin level.
Colonoscopy; Rectal discomfort; Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation; Acupuncture; Visceral pain
The SNRNP200 gene encodes hBrr2, a helicase essential for pre-mRNA splicing. Six mutations in SNRNP200 have recently been discovered to be associated with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP). In this work, we analyzed a Chinese family with adRP and identified a novel missense mutation in SNRNP200. To identify the genetic defect in this family, exome of the proband was captured and sequencing analysis was performed to exclude known genetic defects and find possible pathogenic mutations. Subsequently, candidate mutations were validated in affected family members using Sanger sequencing. A novel missense mutation, c.2653C>G transition (p.Q885E), in exon 20 of SNRNP200 was identified. The mutation co-segregated with the disease phenotype over four generations and was absent in 100 normal unaffected individuals. This mutation occurs at highly conserved position in hBrr2 and is predicted to have a functional impact, suggesting that hBrr2-dependent small nuclear riboproteins (snRNPs) unwinding and spliceosome activation is important in the pathogenesis of some variants of RP.
Mice with outer retinal degeneration lacking cryptochromes show reduced nonvisual responses to light. This effect is not specific to cryptochromes, but is common to multiple mutations that eliminate free-running circadian rhythms. The pupillary light response is under circadian regulation.
Mice lacking rods and cones retain pupillary light reflexes that are mediated by intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs). Melanopsin is necessary and sufficient for this nonvisual photoreception. The mammalian inner retina also expresses the potential blue light photopigments cryptochromes 1 and 2. Previous studies have shown that outer retinal degenerate mice lacking cryptochromes have lower nonvisual photic sensitivity than retinal degenerate mice, suggesting a role for cryptochrome in inner retinal photoreception.
Nonvisual photoreception (pupillary light responses, circadian entrainment, and in vitro sensitivity of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells) were studied in wild-type, rd/rd, and circadian clock-mutant mice with and without rd/rd mutation.
Loss of cryptochrome in retinal degenerate mice reduces the sensitivity of the pupillary light response at all wavelengths but does not alter the form of the action spectrum, suggesting that cryptochrome does not function as a photopigment in the inner retina. The authors compounded the rd/rd retinal degeneration mutation with mutations in other essential circadian clock genes, mPeriod and Bmal1. Both mPeriod1−/−; mPeriod2−/−;rd/rd and Bmal1−/−;rd/rd mice showed significantly lower pupillary light sensitivity than rd/rd mice alone. A moderate amplitude (0.5 log) circadian rhythm of pupillary light responsiveness was observed in rd/rd mice. Multielectrode array recordings of ipRGC responses of mCryptochrome1−/−;mCryptochrome2−/− and mPeriod1−/−;mPeriod2−/− mice showed minimal sensitivity decrement compared with wild-type animals. mCryptochrome1−/−;mCryptochrome2−/−;rd/rd, mPeriod1−/−;mPeriod2−/−;rd/rd and Bmal1−/−;rd/rd mice all showed comparable weak behavioral synchronization to a 12-hour light/12-hour dark cycle.
The effect of cryptochrome loss on nonvisual photoreception is due to loss of the circadian clock nonspecifically. The circadian clock modulates the sensitivity of nonvisual photoreception.
As stored blood ages intraerythrocytic energy sources are depleted resulting in reduced structural integrity of the membrane. Thus, stored red cells become less deformable and more fragile as they age. This fragility leads to release of cell-free hemoglobin and formation of microparticles, sub-micron hemoglobin-containing vesicles. Upon transfusion, it is likely that additional hemolysis and microparticle formation occurs due to breakdown of fragile red blood cells. Release of cell-free hemoglobin and microparticles leads to increased consumption of nitric oxide (NO), an important signaling molecule that modulates blood flow, and may promote inflammation. Stored blood may also be deficient in recently discovered blood nitric oxide synthase activity. We hypothesize that these factors play a potential role in the blood storage lesion.
The Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC) shows high affinity binding to multiple inflammatory CC and CXC chemokines and is expressed by erythrocytes and endothelial cells. Recent evidence suggests that endothelial DARC facilitates chemokine transcytosis to promote neutrophil recruitment. However, the mechanism of chemokine endocytosis by DARC remains unclear.
We investigated the role of several endocytic pathways in DARC-mediated ligand internalization. Here we report that, although DARC co-localizes with caveolin-1 in endothelial cells, caveolin-1 is dispensable for DARC-mediated 125I-CXCL1 endocytosis as knockdown of caveolin-1 failed to inhibit ligand internalization. 125I-CXCL1 endocytosis by DARC was also independent of clathrin and flotillin-1 but required cholesterol and was, in part, inhibited by silencing Dynamin II expression. 125I-CXCL1 endocytosis was inhibited by amiloride, cytochalasin D, and the PKC inhibitor Gö6976 whereas Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF) enhanced ligand internalization through DARC. The majority of DARC-ligand interactions occurred on the endothelial surface, with DARC identified along plasma membrane extensions with the appearance of ruffles, supporting the concept that DARC provides a high affinity scaffolding function for surface retention of chemokines on endothelial cells.
These results show DARC-mediated chemokine endocytosis occurs through a macropinocytosis-like process in endothelial cells and caveolin-1 is dispensable for CXCL1 internalization.
Increased production of peripheral cytokines and other pro-inflammatory markers has been linked to psychiatric disorders such as major depressive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder. Recent research has pointed to early-life stress, particularly childhood maltreatment, as an independent and preventable risk factor for systemic inflammation in adulthood. Some data suggest that adults with a history of childhood maltreatment exhibit a heightened inflammatory response to acute stress challenge. To further elucidate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and pro-inflammatory cytokine production, we examined plasma IL-6 response to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in 69 healthy adult subjects without depression or post-traumatic stress disorder. Serial plasma IL-6 concentrations were measured during a standardized psychosocial stressor in n=19 subjects with moderate–severe childhood maltreatment (MAL), and n=50 controls without maltreatment (CTL), as indicated by self-ratings on the childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ). CTQ total scores were positively correlated with overall change in IL-6 response, as well as the maximum IL-6 concentration during the TSST. Greater acute IL-6 release and higher IL-6 concentrations over time were observed for the MAL group relative to the CTL group. Inflammation may be an important developmental mediator linking adverse experiences in early life to poor adult physical and mental health. The results of this preliminary study warrant further investigation in a larger sample.
Trier Social Stress Test; stress; cytokines; childhood; maltreatment; IL-6; mood; anxiety; stress disorders; biological psychiatry; neuroendocrinology; development; developmental disorders; early-life stress; psychoneuroimmunology; childhood abuse; interleukin-6
Recent evidence suggests that storage induced alterations of the red blood cell (RBC) are associated with adverse consequences in susceptible hosts. As RBCs have been shown to form Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs) following increased oxidative stress and under pathologic conditions, we examined whether stored RBCs undergo modification with the specific AGE, N-(Carboxymethyl)lysine (Nε-CML) during standard blood banking conditions.
Study Design and Methods
Purified, fresh RBCs from volunteers were compared to stored RBCs (d 35–42 old) obtained from the Blood Bank. Nε-CML formation was quantified using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) was detected in human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells by real-time PCR, western blotting, and flow cytometry. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was measured by the use of 5-(and 6-)chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, acetyl ester based assays.
Stored RBCs showed increased surface Nε-CML formation when compared with fresh RBCs. Human Pulmonary Microvascular Endothelial Cells (HMVEC-L) showed detectable surface RAGE expression constitutively. When compared to fresh RBCs, stored RBCs triggered increased intracellular ROS generation in both Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC) and Human Pulmonary Microvascular Endothelial Cells (HMVEC-L). RBC-induced endothelial ROS generation was attenuated in the presence of soluble RAGE (sRAGE) or RAGE blocking antibody.
The formation of the AGE Nε-CML on the surface of stored RBCs is one functional consequence of the storage lesion. AGE-RAGE interactions may be one mechanism by which transfused RBCs cause endothelial cell damage.
AGE (advanced glycation endproducts); Nε-CML (N-Carboxymethyl-lysine); RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation endproducts)
Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been observed in association with internalizing symptoms and is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of depression and some anxiety disorders. This study examined basal and stress-induced cortisol concentrations in relation to internalizing and externalizing symptoms in a racially mixed community sample of 102 8–11 year-old boys. Afternoon basal cortisol concentrations were positively correlated with measures of internalizing behavior problems, social problems, and emotionality. Greater change in cortisol across a home-visit challenge task was also significantly associated with internalizing behaviors and social problems, as well as attention and thought problems. The implications of these findings and how they may relate to the pathogenesis of emotional and behavioral problems are discussed.
children; depression; anxiety; internalizing; HPA axis; stress reactivity
Persistent down-regulation in the expression of the hyperpolarization-activated HCN1 cation channel, a key determinant of intrinsic neuronal excitability, has been observed in febrile seizure, temporal lobe epilepsy and generalized epilepsy animal models, as well as patients with epilepsy. However, the role and importance of HCN1 downregulation for seizure activity is unclear. To address this question we determined the susceptibility of mice with either a general or forebrain-restricted deletion of HCN1 to limbic seizure induction by amygdala kindling or pilocarpine administration. Loss of HCN1 expression in both mouse lines is associated with higher seizure severity and higher seizure-related mortality, independent of the seizure induction method used. Thus, downregulation of HCN1 associated with human epilepsy and rodent models may be a contributing factor to seizure behavior.
intrinsic excitability; Ih conductance; HCN channels; limbic seizures; kindling; pilocarpine
Increased production of peripheral cytokines and other pro-inflammatory markers has been linked to psychiatric disorders such as major depressive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Recent research has pointed to early life stress, particularly childhood maltreatment, as an independent and preventable risk factor for systemic inflammation in adulthood. Some data suggest that adults with a history of childhood maltreatment exhibit a heightened inflammatory response to acute stress challenge. To further elucidate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and pro-inflammatory cytokine production, we examined plasma IL-6 response to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in 69 healthy adult subjects without depression or PTSD. Serial plasma IL-6 concentrations were measured during a standardized psychosocial stressor in n=19 subjects with moderate-severe childhood maltreatment (MAL) and n=50 controls without maltreatment (CTL), as indicated by self-ratings on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). CTQ total scores were positively correlated with change in overall change in IL-6 response, as well as the maximum IL-6 concentration during the TSST. Greater acute IL-6 release and higher IL-6 concentrations over time were observed for the MAL group relative to the CTL group. Inflammation may be an important developmental mediator linking adverse experiences in early life to poor adult physical and mental health. The results of this preliminary study warrant further investigation in a larger sample.
Trier Social Stress Test; stress; cortisol; cytokines; Childhood; Maltreatment; CTQ; IL-6
Insulin deficiency in type 1 diabetes and in rodent autoimmune diabetes models is caused by β-cell–specific killing by autoreactive T-cells. Less is known about β-cell numbers and phenotype remaining at diabetes onset and the fate of other pancreatic endocrine cellular constituents.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
We applied multicolor flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, and immunohistochemistry, supported by quantitative RT-PCR, to simultaneously track pancreatic endocrine cell frequencies and phenotypes during a T-cell–mediated β-cell–destructive process using two independent autoimmune diabetes models, an inducible autoantigen-specific model and the spontaneously diabetic NOD mouse.
The proportion of pancreatic insulin-positive β-cells to glucagon-positive α-cells was about 4:1 in nondiabetic mice. Islets isolated from newly diabetic mice exhibited the expected severe β-cell depletion accompanied by phenotypic β-cell changes (i.e., hypertrophy and degranulation), but they also revealed a substantial loss of α-cells, which was further confirmed by quantitative immunohistochemisty. While maintaining normal randomly timed serum glucagon levels, newly diabetic mice displayed an impaired glucagon secretory response to non–insulin-induced hypoglycemia.
Systematically applying multicolor flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry to track declining β-cell numbers in recently diabetic mice revealed an altered endocrine cell composition that is consistent with a prominent and unexpected islet α-cell loss. These alterations were observed in induced and spontaneous autoimmune diabetes models, became apparent at diabetes onset, and differed markedly within islets compared with sub–islet-sized endocrine cell clusters and among pancreatic lobes. We propose that these changes are adaptive in nature, possibly fueled by worsening glycemia and regenerative processes.
BubR1 mitotic checkpoint kinase monitors attachment of microtubules to kinetochores and links regulation of the chromosome-spindle attachment to mitotic checkpoint signaling. Defects in BubR1-mediated signaling severely perturb checkpoint control and are linked to diseases such as cancer. Studies using BubR1 mouse models suggest that BubR1 activities prevent premature aging and infertility. In this study, we show that BubR1 depletion in human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) precedes loss of the differentiation potential and induction of replicative senescence. These effects occur independently of p16INK4A expression and may involve DNA methylation. Our results reveal a new and unsuspected feature of BubR1 expression in regulation of adult stem cell differentiation.
adult stem cell; BubR1 protein; cell aging; cell differentiation; DNA methylation
To gauge the sensitivity of the female zebra finch song system to estradiol (E2), we used subcutaneous implants to administer various doses of E2 to hatchling female zebra finches. Four different doses of E2 were administered: 50, 15, 5 and 0 μg via subcutaneous silicon “ropes” at hatching, and the brains were examined in adulthood. Further, we examined whether masculinization was all-or-none once a threshold was reached or if the morphology of the song system would show a graded response to the various doses of E2. Finally, we asked if the various dependent measures—volume of song nuclei, neuron size, and neuron number—would show differential sensitivity to E2.
Fifteen micrograms was sufficient to masculinize many aspects of the song system and was often as effective as 50 μg, causing a dramatic difference relative to the 0 μg group. Different aspects of the song system seemed differentially sensitive to the effects of E2: volumes of song control nuclei, the size of RA neurons, and the number of HVC neurons were significantly masculinized by 15 μg E2, but the number of RA neurons and HVC and lMAN soma sizes required 50 μg. The results suggest that several developmental processes are influenced by E2, possibly because of multiple sites of action or multiple processes that respond to E2.
Estradiol; songbird; dose-response; zebra finch; masculinization; steroid hormone
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by both airway remodeling and parenchymal destruction. The identification of unique biomarker patterns associated with airway dominant versus parenchymal dominant patterns would support the existence of unique phenotypes representing independent biologic processes. A cross-sectional study was performed to examine the association of serum biomarkers with radiographic airway and parenchymal phenotypes of COPD.
Serum from 234 subjects enrolled in a CT screening cohort was analyzed for 33 cytokines and growth factors using a multiplex protein array. The association of serum markers with forced expiratory volume in one second percent predicted (FEV1%) and quantitative CT measurements of airway thickening and emphysema was assessed with and without stratification for current smoking status. Significant associations were found with several serum inflammatory proteins and measurements of FEV1%, airway thickening, and parenchymal emphysema independent of smoking status. The association of select analytes with airway thickening and emphysema was independent of FEV1%. Furthermore, the relationship between other inflammatory markers and measurements of physiologic obstruction or airway thickening was dependent on current smoking status.
Airway and parenchymal phenotypes of COPD are associated with unique systemic serum biomarker profiles. Serum biomarker patterns may provide a more precise classification of the COPD syndrome, provide insights into disease pathogenesis and identify targets for novel patient-specific biological therapies.