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1.  Multiple modes of phase locking between sniffing and whisking during active exploration 
Sense organs are often actively controlled by motor processes and such active sensing profoundly shapes the timing of sensory information flow. The temporal coordination between different active sensing processes is less well understood but is essential for multisensory integration, coordination between brain regions, and energetically optimal sampling strategies. Here we studied the coordination between sniffing and whisking, the motor processes in rodents that control the acquisition of smell and touch information, respectively. Sniffing, high frequency respiratory bouts, and whisking, rapid back and forth movements of mystacial whiskers, occur in the same theta frequency range (4-12 Hz) leading to a hypothesis that these sensorimotor rhythms are phase-locked. To test this, we monitored sniffing using a thermocouple in the nasal cavity and whisking with an electromyogram (EMG) of the mystacial pad in rats engaged in an open field reward foraging behavior. During bouts of exploration, sniffing and whisking showed strong one-to-one phase-locking within the theta frequency range (4-12 Hz). Interestingly, we also observed multi-mode phase-locking with multiple whisks within a sniff cycle or multiple sniffs within a whisk cycle – always at the same preferred phase. This specific phase relationship coupled the acquisition phases of the two sensorimotor rhythms, inhalation and whisker protraction. Our results suggest that sniffing and whisking may be under the control of interdependent rhythm generators that dynamically coordinate active acquisition of olfactory and somatosensory information.
PMCID: PMC3785235  PMID: 23658164
sensorimotor rhythms; active sensing; theta; coherence; multisensory; foraging
2.  The Population Decline of Gyps Vultures in India and Nepal Has Slowed since Veterinary Use of Diclofenac was Banned 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(11):e49118.
Populations of oriental white-backed vulture (Gyps bengalensis), long-billed vulture (Gyps indicus) and slender-billed vulture (Gyps tenuirostris) crashed during the mid-1990s throughout the Indian subcontinent. Surveys in India, initially conducted in 1991–1993 and repeated in 2000, 2002, 2003 and 2007, revealed that the population of Gyps bengalensis had fallen by 2007 to 0.1% of its numbers in the early 1990s, with the population of Gyps indicus and G. tenuirostris combined having fallen to 3.2% of its earlier level. A survey of G. bengalensis in western Nepal indicated that the size of the population in 2009 was 25% of that in 2002. In this paper, repeat surveys conducted in 2011 were analysed to estimate recent population trends. Populations of all three species of vulture remained at a low level, but the decline had slowed and may even have reversed for G. bengalensis, both in India and Nepal. However, estimates of the most recent population trends are imprecise, so it is possible that declines may be continuing, though at a significantly slower rate. The degree to which the decline of G. bengalensis in India has slowed is consistent with the expected effects on population trend of a measured change in the level of contamination of ungulate carcasses with the drug diclofenac, which is toxic to vultures, following a ban on its veterinary use in 2006. The most recent available information indicates that the elimination of diclofenac from the vultures’ food supply is incomplete, so further efforts are required to fully implement the ban.
PMCID: PMC3492300  PMID: 23145090
3.  Sparse optical microstimulation in barrel cortex drives learned behaviour in freely moving mice 
Nature  2008;451(7174):61-64.
Electrical microstimulation can establish causal links between the activity of groups of neurons and perceptual and cognitive functions 1–6. However, the number and identities of neurons microstimulated, as well as the number of action potentials evoked, are difficult to ascertain 7, 8. To address these issues we introduced the light-gated algal channel channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) 9 specifically into a small fraction of layer 2/3 neurons of the mouse primary somatosensory cortex. ChR2 photostimulation in vivo reliably generated stimulus-locked action potentials 10–13 at frequencies up to 50 Hz. Naïve mice readily learned to detect brief trains of action potentials (5 light pulses, 1ms, 20 Hz). After training, mice could detect a photostimulus firing a single action potential in approximately 300 neurons. Even fewer neurons (approximately 60) were required for longer stimuli (5 action potentials, 250 ms). Our results show that perceptual decisions and learning can be driven by extremely brief epochs of cortical activity in a sparse subset of supragranular cortical pyramidal neurons.
PMCID: PMC3425380  PMID: 18094685
4.  Patterns in abundance and diversity of faecally dispersed parasites of tiger in Tadoba National Park, central India 
BMC Ecology  2002;2:6.
Importance of parasites in ecological and evolutionary interactions is being increasingly recognized. However, ecological data on parasites of important host species is still scanty. We analyze the patterns seen in the faecal parasites of tigers in the Tadoba National Park, India, and speculate on the factors and processes shaping the parasite community and the possible implications for tiger ecology.
The prevalence and intensities were high and the parasite community was dominated by indirect life cycle parasites. Across all genera of parasites variance scaled with the square of the mean and there was a significant positive correlation between prevalence and abundance. There was no significant association between different types of parasites.
The 70 samples analyzed formed 14 distinct clusters. If we assume each of the clusters to represent individual tigers that were sampled repeatedly and that resident tigers are more likely to be sampled repeatedly, the presumed transient tigers had significantly greater parasite loads than the presumed resident ones.
PMCID: PMC111199  PMID: 12000685

Results 1-4 (4)