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1.  Analysis of Heritability and Shared Heritability Based on Genome-Wide Association Studies for 13 Cancer Types 
Sampson, Joshua N. | Wheeler, William A. | Yeager, Meredith | Panagiotou, Orestis | Wang, Zhaoming | Berndt, Sonja I. | Lan, Qing | Abnet, Christian C. | Amundadottir, Laufey T. | Figueroa, Jonine D. | Landi, Maria Teresa | Mirabello, Lisa | Savage, Sharon A. | Taylor, Philip R. | Vivo, Immaculata De | McGlynn, Katherine A. | Purdue, Mark P. | Rajaraman, Preetha | Adami, Hans-Olov | Ahlbom, Anders | Albanes, Demetrius | Amary, Maria Fernanda | An, She-Juan | Andersson, Ulrika | Andriole, Gerald | Andrulis, Irene L. | Angelucci, Emanuele | Ansell, Stephen M. | Arici, Cecilia | Armstrong, Bruce K. | Arslan, Alan A. | Austin, Melissa A. | Baris, Dalsu | Barkauskas, Donald A. | Bassig, Bryan A. | Becker, Nikolaus | Benavente, Yolanda | Benhamou, Simone | Berg, Christine | Van Den Berg, David | Bernstein, Leslie | Bertrand, Kimberly A. | Birmann, Brenda M. | Black, Amanda | Boeing, Heiner | Boffetta, Paolo | Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine | Bracci, Paige M. | Brinton, Louise | Brooks-Wilson, Angela R. | Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas | Burdett, Laurie | Buring, Julie | Butler, Mary Ann | Cai, Qiuyin | Cancel-Tassin, Geraldine | Canzian, Federico | Carrato, Alfredo | Carreon, Tania | Carta, Angela | Chan, John K. C. | Chang, Ellen T. | Chang, Gee-Chen | Chang, I-Shou | Chang, Jiang | Chang-Claude, Jenny | Chen, Chien-Jen | Chen, Chih-Yi | Chen, Chu | Chen, Chung-Hsing | Chen, Constance | Chen, Hongyan | Chen, Kexin | Chen, Kuan-Yu | Chen, Kun-Chieh | Chen, Ying | Chen, Ying-Hsiang | Chen, Yi-Song | Chen, Yuh-Min | Chien, Li-Hsin | Chirlaque, María-Dolores | Choi, Jin Eun | Choi, Yi Young | Chow, Wong-Ho | Chung, Charles C. | Clavel, Jacqueline | Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise | Cocco, Pierluigi | Colt, Joanne S. | Comperat, Eva | Conde, Lucia | Connors, Joseph M. | Conti, David | Cortessis, Victoria K. | Cotterchio, Michelle | Cozen, Wendy | Crouch, Simon | Crous-Bou, Marta | Cussenot, Olivier | Davis, Faith G. | Ding, Ti | Diver, W. Ryan | Dorronsoro, Miren | Dossus, Laure | Duell, Eric J. | Ennas, Maria Grazia | Erickson, Ralph L. | Feychting, Maria | Flanagan, Adrienne M. | Foretova, Lenka | Fraumeni, Joseph F. | Freedman, Neal D. | Beane Freeman, Laura E. | Fuchs, Charles | Gago-Dominguez, Manuela | Gallinger, Steven | Gao, Yu-Tang | Gapstur, Susan M. | Garcia-Closas, Montserrat | García-Closas, Reina | Gascoyne, Randy D. | Gastier-Foster, Julie | Gaudet, Mia M. | Gaziano, J. Michael | Giffen, Carol | Giles, Graham G. | Giovannucci, Edward | Glimelius, Bengt | Goggins, Michael | Gokgoz, Nalan | Goldstein, Alisa M. | Gorlick, Richard | Gross, Myron | Grubb, Robert | Gu, Jian | Guan, Peng | Gunter, Marc | Guo, Huan | Habermann, Thomas M. | Haiman, Christopher A. | Halai, Dina | Hallmans, Goran | Hassan, Manal | Hattinger, Claudia | He, Qincheng | He, Xingzhou | Helzlsouer, Kathy | Henderson, Brian | Henriksson, Roger | Hjalgrim, Henrik | Hoffman-Bolton, Judith | Hohensee, Chancellor | Holford, Theodore R. | Holly, Elizabeth A. | Hong, Yun-Chul | Hoover, Robert N. | Horn-Ross, Pamela L. | Hosain, G. M. Monawar | Hosgood, H. Dean | Hsiao, Chin-Fu | Hu, Nan | Hu, Wei | Hu, Zhibin | Huang, Ming-Shyan | Huerta, Jose-Maria | Hung, Jen-Yu | Hutchinson, Amy | Inskip, Peter D. | Jackson, Rebecca D. | Jacobs, Eric J. | Jenab, Mazda | Jeon, Hyo-Sung | Ji, Bu-Tian | Jin, Guangfu | Jin, Li | Johansen, Christoffer | Johnson, Alison | Jung, Yoo Jin | Kaaks, Rudolph | Kamineni, Aruna | Kane, Eleanor | Kang, Chang Hyun | Karagas, Margaret R. | Kelly, Rachel S. | Khaw, Kay-Tee | Kim, Christopher | Kim, Hee Nam | Kim, Jin Hee | Kim, Jun Suk | Kim, Yeul Hong | Kim, Young Tae | Kim, Young-Chul | Kitahara, Cari M. | Klein, Alison P. | Klein, Robert J. | Kogevinas, Manolis | Kohno, Takashi | Kolonel, Laurence N. | Kooperberg, Charles | Kricker, Anne | Krogh, Vittorio | Kunitoh, Hideo | Kurtz, Robert C. | Kweon, Sun-Seog | LaCroix, Andrea | Lawrence, Charles | Lecanda, Fernando | Lee, Victor Ho Fun | Li, Donghui | Li, Haixin | Li, Jihua | Li, Yao-Jen | Li, Yuqing | Liao, Linda M. | Liebow, Mark | Lightfoot, Tracy | Lim, Wei-Yen | Lin, Chien-Chung | Lin, Dongxin | Lindstrom, Sara | Linet, Martha S. | Link, Brian K. | Liu, Chenwei | Liu, Jianjun | Liu, Li | Ljungberg, Börje | Lloreta, Josep | Lollo, Simonetta Di | Lu, Daru | Lund, Eiluv | Malats, Nuria | Mannisto, Satu | Marchand, Loic Le | Marina, Neyssa | Masala, Giovanna | Mastrangelo, Giuseppe | Matsuo, Keitaro | Maynadie, Marc | McKay, James | McKean-Cowdin, Roberta | Melbye, Mads | Melin, Beatrice S. | Michaud, Dominique S. | Mitsudomi, Tetsuya | Monnereau, Alain | Montalvan, Rebecca | Moore, Lee E. | Mortensen, Lotte Maxild | Nieters, Alexandra | North, Kari E. | Novak, Anne J. | Oberg, Ann L. | Offit, Kenneth | Oh, In-Jae | Olson, Sara H. | Palli, Domenico | Pao, William | Park, In Kyu | Park, Jae Yong | Park, Kyong Hwa | Patiño-Garcia, Ana | Pavanello, Sofia | Peeters, Petra H. M. | Perng, Reury-Perng | Peters, Ulrike | Petersen, Gloria M. | Picci, Piero | Pike, Malcolm C. | Porru, Stefano | Prescott, Jennifer | Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila | Qian, Biyun | Qiao, You-Lin | Rais, Marco | Riboli, Elio | Riby, Jacques | Risch, Harvey A. | Rizzato, Cosmeri | Rodabough, Rebecca | Roman, Eve | Roupret, Morgan | Ruder, Avima M. | de Sanjose, Silvia | Scelo, Ghislaine | Schned, Alan | Schumacher, Fredrick | Schwartz, Kendra | Schwenn, Molly | Scotlandi, Katia | Seow, Adeline | Serra, Consol | Serra, Massimo | Sesso, Howard D. | Setiawan, Veronica Wendy | Severi, Gianluca | Severson, Richard K. | Shanafelt, Tait D. | Shen, Hongbing | Shen, Wei | Shin, Min-Ho | Shiraishi, Kouya | Shu, Xiao-Ou | Siddiq, Afshan | Sierrasesúmaga, Luis | Sihoe, Alan Dart Loon | Skibola, Christine F. | Smith, Alex | Smith, Martyn T. | Southey, Melissa C. | Spinelli, John J. | Staines, Anthony | Stampfer, Meir | Stern, Marianna C. | Stevens, Victoria L. | Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael S. | Su, Jian | Su, Wu-Chou | Sund, Malin | Sung, Jae Sook | Sung, Sook Whan | Tan, Wen | Tang, Wei | Tardón, Adonina | Thomas, David | Thompson, Carrie A. | Tinker, Lesley F. | Tirabosco, Roberto | Tjønneland, Anne | Travis, Ruth C. | Trichopoulos, Dimitrios | Tsai, Fang-Yu | Tsai, Ying-Huang | Tucker, Margaret | Turner, Jenny | Vajdic, Claire M. | Vermeulen, Roel C. H. | Villano, Danylo J. | Vineis, Paolo | Virtamo, Jarmo | Visvanathan, Kala | Wactawski-Wende, Jean | Wang, Chaoyu | Wang, Chih-Liang | Wang, Jiu-Cun | Wang, Junwen | Wei, Fusheng | Weiderpass, Elisabete | Weiner, George J. | Weinstein, Stephanie | Wentzensen, Nicolas | White, Emily | Witzig, Thomas E. | Wolpin, Brian M. | Wong, Maria Pik | Wu, Chen | Wu, Guoping | Wu, Junjie | Wu, Tangchun | Wu, Wei | Wu, Xifeng | Wu, Yi-Long | Wunder, Jay S. | Xiang, Yong-Bing | Xu, Jun | Xu, Ping | Yang, Pan-Chyr | Yang, Tsung-Ying | Ye, Yuanqing | Yin, Zhihua | Yokota, Jun | Yoon, Ho-Il | Yu, Chong-Jen | Yu, Herbert | Yu, Kai | Yuan, Jian-Min | Zelenetz, Andrew | Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne | Zhang, Xu-Chao | Zhang, Yawei | Zhao, Xueying | Zhao, Zhenhong | Zheng, Hong | Zheng, Tongzhang | Zheng, Wei | Zhou, Baosen | Zhu, Meng | Zucca, Mariagrazia | Boca, Simina M. | Cerhan, James R. | Ferri, Giovanni M. | Hartge, Patricia | Hsiung, Chao Agnes | Magnani, Corrado | Miligi, Lucia | Morton, Lindsay M. | Smedby, Karin E. | Teras, Lauren R. | Vijai, Joseph | Wang, Sophia S. | Brennan, Paul | Caporaso, Neil E. | Hunter, David J. | Kraft, Peter | Rothman, Nathaniel | Silverman, Debra T. | Slager, Susan L. | Chanock, Stephen J. | Chatterjee, Nilanjan
Background:
Studies of related individuals have consistently demonstrated notable familial aggregation of cancer. We aim to estimate the heritability and genetic correlation attributable to the additive effects of common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for cancer at 13 anatomical sites.
Methods:
Between 2007 and 2014, the US National Cancer Institute has generated data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for 49 492 cancer case patients and 34 131 control patients. We apply novel mixed model methodology (GCTA) to this GWAS data to estimate the heritability of individual cancers, as well as the proportion of heritability attributable to cigarette smoking in smoking-related cancers, and the genetic correlation between pairs of cancers.
Results:
GWAS heritability was statistically significant at nearly all sites, with the estimates of array-based heritability, hl 2, on the liability threshold (LT) scale ranging from 0.05 to 0.38. Estimating the combined heritability of multiple smoking characteristics, we calculate that at least 24% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 14% to 37%) and 7% (95% CI = 4% to 11%) of the heritability for lung and bladder cancer, respectively, can be attributed to genetic determinants of smoking. Most pairs of cancers studied did not show evidence of strong genetic correlation. We found only four pairs of cancers with marginally statistically significant correlations, specifically kidney and testes (ρ = 0.73, SE = 0.28), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and pediatric osteosarcoma (ρ = 0.53, SE = 0.21), DLBCL and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) (ρ = 0.51, SE =0.18), and bladder and lung (ρ = 0.35, SE = 0.14). Correlation analysis also indicates that the genetic architecture of lung cancer differs between a smoking population of European ancestry and a nonsmoking Asian population, allowing for the possibility that the genetic etiology for the same disease can vary by population and environmental exposures.
Conclusion:
Our results provide important insights into the genetic architecture of cancers and suggest new avenues for investigation.
doi:10.1093/jnci/djv279
PMCID: PMC4806328  PMID: 26464424
2.  Soluble levels of CD27 and CD30 are associated with risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in three Chinese prospective cohorts 
International journal of cancer  2015;137(11):2688-2695.
Prospective studies conducted in Western populations have suggested that alterations in soluble CD27 (sCD27) and soluble CD30 (sCD30), two markers indicative of B-cell activation, are associated with risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Given that the characteristics of NHL in East Asia differ from the West, and mechanistic commonalities between these populations with respect to the role of intermediate endpoint biomarkers in lymphomagenesis have not been explored, we conducted a pooled nested case-control study from three prospective studies of Chinese men and women including 218 NHL cases and 218 individually matched controls. Compared to the lowest quartile, ORs (95% CIs) for the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th quartiles of sCD27 were 1.60 (0.83-3.09), 1.94 (0.98-3.83), and 4.45 (2.25-8.81), respectively (ptrend = 0.000005). The corresponding ORs for sCD30 were 1.74 (0.85-3.58), 1.86 (0.94-3.67), and 5.15 (2.62-10.12) (ptrend = 0.0000002). These associations remained statistically significant in individuals diagnosed with NHL 10 or more years after blood draw. Notably, the magnitude of the associations with NHL risk was very similar to those in Western populations in previous studies. These findings of the similar association between sCD27 or sCD30 and NHL risk across different populations support an important underlying mechanism of B-cell activation in lymphomagenesis.
doi:10.1002/ijc.29637
PMCID: PMC4898881  PMID: 26095604
CD27; CD30; immune markers; non-Hodgkin lymphoma; East Asians; prospective study
3.  Prenatal exposure to lead in relation to risk of preterm low birth weight: a matched case-control study in China 
We investigated the association between prenatal exposure to lead (Pb) and the risk of preterm low birth weight (PLBW). Pb concentrations in maternal urine collected at birth from 408 subjects (102 cases and 306 matched controls) were analyzed and adjusted by creatinine. The median Pb concentration in the PLBW cases (10.60 μg Pb/g creatinine) was higher than that of the controls (7.28 μg Pb/g creatinine). An adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 2.96 (95% CI = 1.49-5.87) for PLBW was observed when the highest tertile was compared to the lowest tertile of Pb levels. The association was more pronounced among female infants (adjusted OR = 3.67 for the highest tertile; 95% CI = 1.35-9.93) than male infants (adjusted OR = 1.91 for the highest tertile; 95% CI = 0.74-4.95). Our study suggests that prenatal exposure to levels of Pb encountered today in China is associated with an elevated risk of PLBW.
doi:10.1016/j.reprotox.2015.06.051
PMCID: PMC4843791  PMID: 26122562
Lead; Preterm birth; Prenatal exposure; Maternal urine
4.  Ozone and Other Air Pollutants and the Risk of Congenital Heart Defects 
Scientific Reports  2016;6:34852.
The objective of this study was to evaluate whether high levels of maternal exposure to O3, SO2, NO2, CO are related to increased risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs) in Wuhan, China. The study included mothers living in the central districts of Wuhan during pregnancy over the two-year period from June 10, 2011 to June 9, 2013. For each study participant, we assigned 1-month averages of O3, SO2, NO2 and CO exposure based on measurements obtained from the nearest exposure monitor to the living residence of mothers during their early pregnancy period. In one-pollutant model, we observed an increased risk of CHDs, ventricular septal defect (VSD), and tetralogy of fallot (TF) with increasing O3 exposure. In two-pollutant model, associations with all CHDs, VSD, and TF for O3 were generally consistent compared to the models that included only O3, with the strongest aORs observed for exposures during the third month of pregnancy. We also observed a positive association between CO exposures during the third month of pregnancy and VSD in two pollution model.Our results contribute to the small body of evidence regarding air pollution exposure and CHDs, but confirmation of these associations will be needed in future studies.
doi:10.1038/srep34852
PMCID: PMC5067649  PMID: 27752048
5.  PIWI-interacting RNA 021285 is involved in breast tumorigenesis possibly by remodeling the cancer epigenome 
Carcinogenesis  2015;36(10):1094-1102.
Summary
The study presents the first evidence for a role of piRNA in breast tumorigenesis utilizing multidisciplinary approaches. This finding may advance our understanding of the biological mechanism involved in piRNA gene regulation and breast cancer development.
Although PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) account for the largest class of the small non-coding RNA superfamily, virtually nothing is known of their function in human carcinogenesis. Once thought to be expressed solely in the germ line where they safeguard the genome against transposon-induced insertional mutations, piRNAs are now believed to play an active role in somatic gene regulation through sequence-specific histone modification and DNA methylation. In the current study, we investigate the role of piRNA-021285 (piR-021285) in the regulation of the breast cancer methylome. Genotypic screening of a panel of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-containing piRNAs revealed a significant association between SNP rs1326306 G>T in piR-021285 and increased likelihood for breast cancer in a Connecticut-based population (441 cases and 479 controls). Given nascent but compelling evidence of piRNA-mediated gene-specific methylation in the soma, a genome-wide methylation screen was then carried out using wild type (WT) and variant piR-021285 mimic-transfected MCF7 cells to explore whether the observed association could be attributed in part to piR-021285-induced methylation at cancer-relevant genes. We found significant methylation differences at a number of experimentally implicated breast cancer-related genes, including attenuated 5′ untranslated region (UTR)/first exon methylation at the proinvasive ARHGAP11A gene in variant mimic-transfected cells. Follow-up functional analyses revealed both concurrent increased ARHGAP11A mRNA expression and enhanced invasiveness in variant versus WT piR-021285 mimic-transfected breast cancer cell lines. Taken together, our findings demonstrate the first evidence supporting a role of piRNAs, a novel group of non-coding RNA, in human tumorigenesis via a piRNA-mediated epigenetic mechanism, which warrants further confirmation and investigation.
doi:10.1093/carcin/bgv105
PMCID: PMC5006152  PMID: 26210741
6.  Dietary Pattern and Risk of Hodgkin Lymphoma in a Population-Based Case-Control Study 
American Journal of Epidemiology  2015;182(5):405-416.
Classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) has few known modifiable risk factors, and the relationship between diet and cHL risk is unclear. We performed the first investigation of an association between dietary pattern and cHL risk in 435 cHL cases and 563 population-based controls from Massachusetts and Connecticut (1997–2000) who completed baseline diet questionnaires. We identified 4 major dietary patterns (“vegetable,” “high meat,” “fruit/low-fat dairy,” “desserts/sweets”) using principal components analysis. We computed multivariable odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for associations of dietary pattern score (quartiles) with younger-adult (age <50 years), older-adult (age ≥50 years), and overall cHL risk. Secondary analyses examined associations by histological subtype and tumor Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) status. A diet high in desserts/sweets was associated with younger-adult (odds ratio(quartile 4 vs. quartile 1) = 1.60, 95% confidence interval: 1.05, 2.45; Ptrend = 0.008) and EBV-negative, younger-adult (odds ratio = 2.11, 95% confidence interval: 1.31, 3.41; Ptrend = 0.007) cHL risk. A high meat diet was associated with older-adult (odds ratio = 3.34, 95% confidence interval: 1.02, 10.91; Ptrend = 0.04) and EBV-negative, older-adult (odds ratio = 4.64, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 20.86; Ptrend = 0.04) cHL risk. Other dietary patterns were not clearly associated with cHL. We report the first evidence for a role of dietary pattern in cHL etiology. Diets featuring high intake of meat or desserts and sweets may increase cHL risk.
doi:10.1093/aje/kwv072
PMCID: PMC4552267  PMID: 26182945
case-control study; diet; Hodgkin lymphoma; principal components analysis
7.  Methylation Alterations at Imprinted Genes Detected Among Long Term Shiftworkers 
Exposure to light at night through shiftwork has been linked to alterations in DNA methylation and increased risk of cancer development. Using an Illumina Infinium Methylation Assay, we analyzed methylation levels of 397 CpG sites in the promoter regions of 56 normally imprinted genes to investigate whether shiftwork is associated with alteration of methylation patterns. Methylation was significantly higher at 20 CpG sites and significantly lower at 30 CpG sites (P < 0.05) in 10 female long-term shiftworkers as compared to 10 female age- and folate intake-matched day workers. The strongest evidence for altered methylation patterns in shiftworkers was observed for DLX5, IGF2AS, and TP73 based on the magnitude of methylation change and consistency in the direction of change across multiple CpG sites, and consistent results were observed using quantitative DNA methylation analysis. We conclude that long-term shiftwork may alter methylation patterns at imprinted genes, which may be an important mechanism by which shiftwork has carcinogenic potential and warrants further investigation.
doi:10.1002/em.21752
PMCID: PMC4993623  PMID: 23193016
Loss of imprinting; shiftwork; differential methylation
8.  Distributions of Heavy Metals in Maternal and Cord Blood and the Association with Infant Birth Weight in China 
OBJECTIVE
To measure serum levels of heavy metals in Chinese pregnant women and their newborns, and to evaluate the association of these metals with infant birth weight
STUDY DESIGN
We measured serum concentrations of lead (Pb), thallium (Tl), cadmium (Cd), selenium (Se), arsenic (As), nickle (Ni), vanadium (V), cobalt (Co), and mercury (Hg) in 81 mother-infant pairs using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the associations of these heavy metals with infant birth weight.
RESULTS
Se, Pb, As, and Cd showed the highest detection rates (98.8%) in both the maternal and cord blood, followed by Tl, which was detected in 79.0% and 71.6% of the maternal and cord blood samples, respectively. Pb had the highest concentrations in both the maternal and cord blood samples of all toxic metals detected, with concentrations of 23.1 ng/g and 22.0 ng/g, respectively. No significant associations were observed between any heavy metals and birth weight. However, Tl in the maternal and cord blood was most notably inversely associated with birth weight.
CONCLUSION
Se intake was low in Chinese women and their newborns, whereas Pb had the highest concentrations in both the maternal and cord blood samples of all toxic metals detected. Tl was a unique pollution source in this population, and Tl levels were shown to have the largest effect on decreasing infant birth weight in this pilot study. Further research incorporating larger sample sizes is needed to investigate the effects of prenatal exposure to heavy metals—especially Tl and Pb—on birth outcomes in Chinese infants.
PMCID: PMC4961246  PMID: 25745747
birth weight; heavy metals; environmental pollution; heavy metal poisoning; infant; newborn; intrauterine growth retardation; maternal exposure; maternal-fetal exchange; neonate; newborn; prenatal exposure delayed effects; selenium
9.  Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, body mass index and cytokine polymorphisms: a pooled analysis from the InterLymph consortium 
Background
Excess adiposity has been associated with lymphomagenesis, possibly mediated by increased cytokine production causing a chronic inflammatory state. The relationship between obesity, cytokine polymorphisms and selected mature B-cell neoplasms is reported.
Method
Data on 4979 cases and 4752 controls from nine American/European studies from the InterLymph consortium (1988–2008) were pooled. For diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), follicular lymphoma (FL) and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL), joint associations of body mass index (from self-reported height and weight) and 12 polymorphisms in cytokines IL1A (rs1800587), IL1B (rs16944, rs1143627), IL1RN (rs454078), IL2 (rs2069762), IL6 (rs1800795, rs1800797), IL10 (rs1800890, rs1800896), TNF (rs1800629), LTA (rs909253), and CARD15 (rs2066847) were investigated using unconditional logistic regression. BMI-polymorphism interaction effects were estimated using the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI).
Results
Obesity (BMI≥30kg m−2) was associated with DLBCL risk (OR=1.33, 95%CI 1.02–1.73), as was TNF-308GA+AA (OR=1.24, 95%CI 1.07–1.44). Together, being obese and TNF-308GA+AA increased DLBCL risk almost two-fold relative to those of normal weight and TNF-308GG (OR=1.93 95%CI 1.27–2.94), with a RERI of 0.41 (95%CI −0.05,0.84, P(interaction)=0.13). For FL and CLL/SLL, no associations with obesity or TNF-308GA+AA, either singly or jointly, were observed. No evidence of interactions between obesity and the other polymorphisms were detected.
Conclusions
Our results suggest that cytokine polymorphisms do not generally interact with BMI to increase lymphoma risk but obesity and TNF-308GA+AA may interact to increase DLBCL risk.
Impact
Studies using better measures of adiposity are needed to further investigate the interactions between obesity and TNF-308G>A in the pathogenesis of lymphoma.
doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-14-1355
PMCID: PMC4490950  PMID: 25962811
Body mass index; genotype; polymorphism; non-Hodgkin lymphoma
10.  Maternal exposure to air pollutant PM2.5 and PM10 during pregnancy and risk of congenital heart defects 
Maternal exposure to ambient air pollution has increasingly been linked to congenital heart defects (CHDs). The objective of this study was to evaluate whether high levels of maternal exposure to PM2.5 and PM10 are related to increased risk of CHDs in Wuhan, China. We conducted a cohort study with a total of 105,988 live-born infants, stillbirths, and fetal deaths. The study included mothers living in the urban district of Wuhan during pregnancy over the 2-year period from 10 June 2011 to 9 June 2013. For each study participant, we assigned 1-month and 1-week averages of PM10 and PM2.5 exposure based on measurements obtained from the nearest exposure monitor to the living residence of mothers during their early pregnancy period. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to calculate the adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between exposure to these ambient air pollutants during early pregnancy and CHDs. We observed an increased risk of CHDs, particularly ventricular septal defect (VSD), with increasing PM2.5 exposure. Using 1-week averages, we also observed significant monotonically increasing associations between PM2.5 exposure during weeks 7–10 of pregnancy and risk of VSD, with aORs ranging from 1.11 to 1.17 (95% CI: 1.02–1.20, 1.03–1.22, 1.05–1.24, and 1.08–1.26 separately) per a 10 μg/m3 change in PM2.5 concentration. Our study contributes to the small body of knowledge regarding the association between in utero exposure to air pollution and CHDs, but confirmation of these associations will be needed in future studies.
doi:10.1038/jes.2016.1
PMCID: PMC4913168  PMID: 26883477
air pollution; congenital heart defects; PM2.5; PM10
11.  A birth cohort analysis of the incidence of adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix in the United States 
Objectives
We investigated the incidence trends for adenocarcinoma (AC) of the cervix among the 20-44 age group in the United States and compared the observed birth cohort incidence patterns with the changing patterns of exposure to potential risk factors associated with AC of the cervix, such as infection with human papillomavirus (HPV), use of diethylstilbestrol (DES), obesity, and use of oral contraceptives.
Methods
Using data from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program for 1973-2010, we conducted age–period–cohort modeling to evaluate birth cohort patterns on incidence trends of AC of the cervix over time.
Results
The increase in incidence of AC of the cervix started among those born around the mid 1940s and accelerated up until around the mid 1960s birth cohort in both whites and in all races combined, regardless of the assumed period slope. There was a suggestion that the incidence rates of AC of the cervix slowed down after the 1975 birth cohort in both whites and all races combined.
Conclusion
DES was used by millions of women in the United States as a synthetic estrogen between the years 1940-1971. This time period of DES use among pregnant women parallels the observed birth cohort trends in our study, whereby a notable acceleration of AC of the cervix incidence rates was observed for those born in the mid 1940s through the mid 1975s. Thus, our results appear to suggest that in utero exposure to DES might be at least partly responsible for the observed incidence pattern of AC of the cervix as observed in this study.
doi:10.1097/CEJ.0000000000000062
PMCID: PMC4295009  PMID: 25025585
Adenocarcinoma; cervical cancer; incidence rate; age-period-cohort effect; Diethylstilbestrol use
12.  A Prospective Follow-up Study of the Relationship between C-Reactive Protein and Human Cancer Risk in the Chinese Kailuan Female Cohort 
Background
C-reactive protein (CRP) has been associated with cancer risk in some prospective studies. However, the associations have not been entirely consistent and have not been evaluated in Chinese females. We conducted a large population-based cohort study to investigate whether elevated levels of CRP at baseline are associated with an increased risk of cancer among Chinese females.
Methods
A total of 19,437 women from the Chinese Kailuan Female Cohort were enrolled in the study in July 2006. Levels of high-sensitivity CRP (hsCRP) were tested at baseline for all subjects. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate the association between levels of hsCRP and risk of all cancers, including breast cancer, lung cancer, colorectal cancer, and other cancers.
Results
By December 31, 2011, a total of 322 incident cancer cases accrued. Compared with women with lower hsCRP levels (<1 mg/L), women with higher hsCRP (>3 mg/L) had a significantly increased risk of all incident cancers [HR, 1.62; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.23–2.14; Ptrend = 0.001] and breast cancer (HR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.01–2.97; Ptrend = 0.047). The significant association between hsCRP levels and breast cancer risk was apparent among younger women (<50 years; HR, 2.76; 95% CI, 1.18–6.48).
Conclusion
Elevated levels of hsCRP at baseline may be associated with an increased risk of cancer, especially breast cancer, and particularly in younger Chinese women.
Impact
Our findings provide additional evidence for a role of inflammation in carcinogenesis and suggest that CRP may be a potentially useful biomarker of cancer risk in this population.
doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-14-1112
PMCID: PMC4843781  PMID: 25490990
13.  Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes, hair dye use, and the risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma 
Cancer causes & control : CCC  2014;25(10):1261-1270.
Purpose
Genetic polymorphisms in DNA repair genes and hair dye use may both have a role in the development of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). We aimed to examine the interaction between variants in DNA repair genes and hair dye use with risk of NHL in a population-based case– control study of Connecticut women.
Methods
We examined 24 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 16 DNA repair genes among 518 NHL cases and 597 controls and evaluated the associations between hair dye use and risk of overall NHL and common NHL subtypes, stratified by genotype, using unconditional logistic regression.
Results
Women who used hair dye before 1980 had a significantly increased risk of NHL, particularly for the follicular lymphoma (FL) subtype, but not for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The following genotypes in combination with hair dye use before 1980 were associated with FL risk: BRCA2 rs144848 AC+CC [odds ratio (OR) (95 % confidence interval (CI)) 3.28(1.27–8.50)], WRN rs1346044 TT [OR(95 % CI) 2.70(1.30–5.65)], XRCC3 rs861539 CT+TT [OR(95 % CI) 2.76(1.32–5.77)], XRCC4 rs1805377 GG [OR(95 % CI) 2.07(1.10–3.90)] and rs1056503 TT [OR(95 % CI) 2.17(1.16–4.07)], ERCC1 rs3212961 CC [OR(95 % CI) 1.93(1.00–3.72)], RAD23B rs1805329 CC [OR(95 % CI) 2.28(1.12–4.64)], and MGMT rs12917 CC, rs2308321 AA, and rs2308327 AA genotypes [OR(95 % CI) 1.96(1.06–3.63), 2.02(1.09–3.75), and 2.23(1.16–4.29), respectively]. In addition, a significant interaction with risk of overall NHL was observed between WRN rs1346044 and hair dye use before 1980 (pinteraction = 0.032).
Conclusions
Our results indicated that genetic variation in DNA repair genes modifies susceptibility to NHL in relation to hair dye use, particularly for the FL subtype and in women who began using hair dye before 1980. Further studies are needed to confirm these observations.
doi:10.1007/s10552-014-0423-1
PMCID: PMC4843788  PMID: 25178586
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma; Hair dye use; DNA repair; Genetic polymorphism; Interaction
14.  Association of green tea consumption with risk of coronary heart disease in Chinese population 
doi:10.1016/j.ijcard.2014.11.093
PMCID: PMC4843789  PMID: 25464464
Green tea; Coronary heart disease; Chinese
15.  Different time trends by gender for the incidence of Hodgkin’s lymphoma among young adults in the USA: a birth cohort phenomenon 
Cancer causes & control : CCC  2014;25(8):923-931.
Objectives
Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL) is one of the most common cancers among young adults. We investigated the time trends for HL among the 20–44 age group in the USA by gender to identify the potential factors accounting for the incidence trends.
Methods
Using data from the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program for 1973–2010, we conducted age–period–cohort modeling to evaluate birth cohort patterns on incidence trends of HL over time.
Results
For all races combined, the age-adjusted incidence patterns were similar to that of whites. The birth cohort patterns for whites and all races were similar, but the patterns differed according to gender. Specifically, except for the 1970–1975 birth cohort, all other birth cohorts showed an increasing birth cohort trend for females. Conversely, there was a decreasing cohort trend in males beginning in the 1960 birth cohort regardless of the assumptions of the period effect.
Conclusion
The established risk factors for HL can seemingly not explain the gender disparities of the cohort pattern, which necessitates further analytical epidemiological studies to explore the risk factors for this disease with respect to potential differences by gender and by histological subtype.
doi:10.1007/s10552-014-0391-5
PMCID: PMC4843794  PMID: 24879043
Hodgkin’s lymphoma; Incidence rate; Age–period–cohort effect; Descriptive epidemiology
16.  Occupation and Risk of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma and Its Subtypes: A Pooled Analysis from the InterLymph Consortium 
Environmental Health Perspectives  2015;124(4):396-405.
Background:
Various occupations have been associated with an elevated risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), but results have been inconsistent across studies.
Objectives:
We investigated occupational risk of NHL and of four common NHL subtypes with particular focus on occupations of a priori interest.
Methods:
We conducted a pooled analysis of 10,046 cases and 12,025 controls from 10 NHL studies participating in the InterLymph Consortium. We harmonized the occupational coding using the 1968 International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO-1968) and grouped occupations previously associated with NHL into 25 a priori groups. Odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for center, age, and sex were determined for NHL overall and for the following four subtypes: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), follicular lymphoma (FL), chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL), and peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL).
Results:
We confirmed previously reported positive associations between NHL and farming occupations [field crop/vegetable farm workers OR = 1.26; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05, 1.51; general farm workers OR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.37]; we also confirmed associations of NHL with specific occupations such as women’s hairdressers (OR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.74), charworkers/cleaners (OR = 1.17; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.36), spray-painters (OR = 2.07; 95% CI: 1.30, 3.29), electrical wiremen (OR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.54), and carpenters (OR = 1.42; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.93). We observed subtype-specific associations for DLBCL and CLL/SLL in women’s hairdressers and for DLBCL and PTCL in textile workers.
Conclusions:
Our pooled analysis of 10 international studies adds to evidence suggesting that farming, hairdressing, and textile industry–related exposures may contribute to NHL risk. Associations with women’s hairdresser and textile occupations may be specific for certain NHL subtypes.
Citation:
‘t Mannetje A, De Roos AJ, Boffetta P, Vermeulen R, Benke G, Fritschi L, Brennan P, Foretova L, Maynadié M, Becker N, Nieters A, Staines A, Campagna M, Chiu B, Clavel J, de Sanjose S, Hartge P, Holly EA, Bracci P, Linet MS, Monnereau A, Orsi L, Purdue MP, Rothman N, Lan Q, Kane E, Seniori Costantini A, Miligi L, Spinelli JJ, Zheng T, Cocco P, Kricker A. 2016. Occupation and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and its subtypes: a pooled analysis from the InterLymph Consortium. Environ Health Perspect 124:396–405; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409294
doi:10.1289/ehp.1409294
PMCID: PMC4829988  PMID: 26340796
17.  Associations of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) Risk With Autoimmune Conditions According to Putative NHL Loci 
American Journal of Epidemiology  2015;181(6):406-421.
Autoimmune conditions and immune system–related genetic variations are associated with risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). In a pooled analysis of 8,692 NHL cases and 9,260 controls from 14 studies (1988–2007) within the International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium, we evaluated the interaction between immune system genetic variants and autoimmune conditions in NHL risk. We evaluated the immunity-related single nucleotide polymorphisms rs1800629 (tumor necrosis factor gene (TNF) G308A), rs1800890 (interleukin-10 gene (IL10) T3575A), rs6457327 (human leukocyte antigen gene (HLA) class I), rs10484561 (HLA class II), and rs2647012 (HLA class II)) and categorized autoimmune conditions as primarily mediated by B-cell or T-cell responses. We constructed unconditional logistic regression models to measure associations between autoimmune conditions and NHL with stratification by genotype. Autoimmune conditions mediated by B-cell responses were associated with increased NHL risk, specifically diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (odds ratio (OR) = 3.11, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.25, 4.30) and marginal zone lymphoma (OR = 5.80, 95% CI: 3.82, 8.80); those mediated by T-cell responses were associated with peripheral T-cell lymphoma (OR = 2.14, 95% CI: 1.35, 3.38). In the presence of the rs1800629 AG/AA genotype, B-cell-mediated autoimmune conditions increased NHL risk (OR = 3.27, 95% CI: 2.07, 5.16; P-interaction = 0.03) in comparison with the GG genotype (OR = 1.82, 95% CI: 1.31, 2.53). This interaction was consistent across major B-cell NHL subtypes, including marginal zone lymphoma (P-interaction = 0.02) and follicular lymphoma (P-interaction = 0.04).
doi:10.1093/aje/kwu290
PMCID: PMC4402340  PMID: 25713336
autoimmune conditions; environment; genetics; interaction; human leukocyte antigen; lymphoma, non-Hodgkin; tumor necrosis factor
18.  Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies discovers multiple loci for chronic lymphocytic leukemia 
Berndt, Sonja I. | Camp, Nicola J. | Skibola, Christine F. | Vijai, Joseph | Wang, Zhaoming | Gu, Jian | Nieters, Alexandra | Kelly, Rachel S. | Smedby, Karin E. | Monnereau, Alain | Cozen, Wendy | Cox, Angela | Wang, Sophia S. | Lan, Qing | Teras, Lauren R. | Machado, Moara | Yeager, Meredith | Brooks-Wilson, Angela R. | Hartge, Patricia | Purdue, Mark P. | Birmann, Brenda M. | Vajdic, Claire M. | Cocco, Pierluigi | Zhang, Yawei | Giles, Graham G. | Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne | Lawrence, Charles | Montalvan, Rebecca | Burdett, Laurie | Hutchinson, Amy | Ye, Yuanqing | Call, Timothy G. | Shanafelt, Tait D. | Novak, Anne J. | Kay, Neil E. | Liebow, Mark | Cunningham, Julie M. | Allmer, Cristine | Hjalgrim, Henrik | Adami, Hans-Olov | Melbye, Mads | Glimelius, Bengt | Chang, Ellen T. | Glenn, Martha | Curtin, Karen | Cannon-Albright, Lisa A. | Diver, W Ryan | Link, Brian K. | Weiner, George J. | Conde, Lucia | Bracci, Paige M. | Riby, Jacques | Arnett, Donna K. | Zhi, Degui | Leach, Justin M. | Holly, Elizabeth A. | Jackson, Rebecca D. | Tinker, Lesley F. | Benavente, Yolanda | Sala, Núria | Casabonne, Delphine | Becker, Nikolaus | Boffetta, Paolo | Brennan, Paul | Foretova, Lenka | Maynadie, Marc | McKay, James | Staines, Anthony | Chaffee, Kari G. | Achenbach, Sara J. | Vachon, Celine M. | Goldin, Lynn R. | Strom, Sara S. | Leis, Jose F. | Weinberg, J. Brice | Caporaso, Neil E. | Norman, Aaron D. | De Roos, Anneclaire J. | Morton, Lindsay M. | Severson, Richard K. | Riboli, Elio | Vineis, Paolo | Kaaks, Rudolph | Masala, Giovanna | Weiderpass, Elisabete | Chirlaque, María- Dolores | Vermeulen, Roel C. H. | Travis, Ruth C. | Southey, Melissa C. | Milne, Roger L. | Albanes, Demetrius | Virtamo, Jarmo | Weinstein, Stephanie | Clavel, Jacqueline | Zheng, Tongzhang | Holford, Theodore R. | Villano, Danylo J. | Maria, Ann | Spinelli, John J. | Gascoyne, Randy D. | Connors, Joseph M. | Bertrand, Kimberly A. | Giovannucci, Edward | Kraft, Peter | Kricker, Anne | Turner, Jenny | Ennas, Maria Grazia | Ferri, Giovanni M. | Miligi, Lucia | Liang, Liming | Ma, Baoshan | Huang, Jinyan | Crouch, Simon | Park, Ju-Hyun | Chatterjee, Nilanjan | North, Kari E. | Snowden, John A. | Wright, Josh | Fraumeni, Joseph F. | Offit, Kenneth | Wu, Xifeng | de Sanjose, Silvia | Cerhan, James R. | Chanock, Stephen J. | Rothman, Nathaniel | Slager, Susan L.
Nature Communications  2016;7:10933.
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a common lymphoid malignancy with strong heritability. To further understand the genetic susceptibility for CLL and identify common loci associated with risk, we conducted a meta-analysis of four genome-wide association studies (GWAS) composed of 3,100 cases and 7,667 controls with follow-up replication in 1,958 cases and 5,530 controls. Here we report three new loci at 3p24.1 (rs9880772, EOMES, P=2.55 × 10−11), 6p25.2 (rs73718779, SERPINB6, P=1.97 × 10−8) and 3q28 (rs9815073, LPP, P=3.62 × 10−8), as well as a new independent SNP at the known 2q13 locus (rs9308731, BCL2L11, P=1.00 × 10−11) in the combined analysis. We find suggestive evidence (P<5 × 10−7) for two additional new loci at 4q24 (rs10028805, BANK1, P=7.19 × 10−8) and 3p22.2 (rs1274963, CSRNP1, P=2.12 × 10−7). Pathway analyses of new and known CLL loci consistently show a strong role for apoptosis, providing further evidence for the importance of this biological pathway in CLL susceptibility.
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is a highly inheritable cancer. Here the authors conduct a metaanalysis of four genome-wide association studies and identify three novel loci located near EOMES, SERPINB6 and LPP associated with risk of this disease.
doi:10.1038/ncomms10933
PMCID: PMC4786871  PMID: 26956414
19.  A Pooled Analysis of Cigarette Smoking and Risk of Multiple Myeloma from the International Multiple Myeloma Consortium 
Background
Past investigations of cigarette smoking and multiple myeloma have been underpowered to detect moderate associations, particularly within subgroups. To clarify this association we conducted a pooled analysis of nine case-control studies in the International Multiple Myeloma Consortium, with individual-level questionnaire data on cigarette smoking history and other covariates.
Methods
Using a pooled population of 2,670 cases and 11,913 controls, we computed odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) relating smoking to multiple myeloma risk using unconditional logistic regression adjusting for gender, age group, race, education, body mass index, alcohol consumption, and study center.
Results
Neither ever smokers (OR=0.95, 95% CI 0.87-1.05), current smokers (OR=0.82, 95% CI 0.73-0.93), nor former smokers (OR=1.03, 95% CI 0.92-1.14) had increased risks of multiple myeloma compared to never smokers. Analyses of smoking frequency, pack-years, and duration did not reveal significant or consistent patterns, and there was no significant effect modification by subgroups.
Conclusion
Findings from this large pooled analysis do not support the hypothesis of cigarette smoking as a causal factor for multiple myeloma.
Impact
Cigarette smoking is one of the most important risk factors for cancer, but the association with multiple myeloma was inconclusive. This study had excellent power to detect modest associations, and had individual-level data to evaluate confounding and effect modification by potentially important factors that were not evaluated in previous studies. Our findings confirm that smoking is not a risk factor for multiple myeloma.
doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-14-1145
PMCID: PMC4355157  PMID: 25538226
20.  Maternal urinary manganese and risk of low birth weight: a case–control study 
BMC Public Health  2016;16:142.
Background
Manganese (Mn) is an essential element for humans, but exposure to high levels has been associated with adverse developmental outcomes. Early epidemiological studies evaluating the effect of Mn on fetal growth are inconsistent.
Methods
We investigated the association between maternal urinary Mn during pregnancy and the risk of low birth weight (LBW). Mn concentrations in maternal urine samples collected before delivery were measured in 816 subjects (204 LBW cases and 612 matched controls) recruited between 2012 and 2014 in Hubei Province, China.
Results
The median Mn concentration in maternal urine was 0.69 μg/g creatinine. Compared to the medium tertile of Mn levels, an increased risk of LBW was observed for the lowest tertile (≤0.30 μg/g creatinine) [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.28; 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 0.67, 2.45], and a significantly increased risk of LBW was observed for the highest tertile (≥1.16 μg/g creatinine) [adjusted OR = 2.04; 95 % CI = 1.12, 3.72]. A curvilinear relationship between maternal urinary Mn and risk of LBW was observed, showing that the concentration at 0.43 μg/g creatinine was the point of inflection. Similar associations were observed among the mothers with female infants and among the younger mothers < 28 years old. However, among the mothers with male infants or the older mothers ≥ 28 years old, only higher levels of Mn were positively associated with LBW.
Conclusions
Lower or higher levels of maternal urinary Mn are associated with LBW, though only the association of LBW risk and higher levels of Mn was statistically significant. The findings also show that the associations may vary by maternal age and infant sex, but require confirmation in other populations.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12889-016-2816-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12889-016-2816-4
PMCID: PMC4751650  PMID: 26869268
Manganese; Low birth weight; Maternal urine; Fetal
21.  A Case–Control Study of Prenatal Thallium Exposure and Low Birth Weight in China 
Environmental Health Perspectives  2015;124(1):164-169.
Background
Thallium (Tl) is a highly toxic heavy metal widely present in the environment. Case reports have suggested that maternal exposure to high levels of Tl during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight (LBW), but epidemiological data are limited.
Objectives
This study was designed to evaluate whether prenatal Tl exposure is associated with an increased risk of LBW.
Methods
This case–control study involving 816 study participants (204 LBW cases and 612 matched controls) was conducted in Hubei Province, China, in 2012–2014. Tl concentrations were measured in maternal urine collected at delivery, and associations with LBW were evaluated using conditional logistic regression.
Results
Higher maternal urinary Tl levels were significantly associated with increased risk of LBW [crude odds ratio (OR) = 1.52; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.30 for the highest vs. lowest tertile], and the association was similarly elevated after adjustment for potential confounders (adjusted OR = 1.90; 95% CI: 1.01, 3.58 for the highest vs. lowest tertile). Stratified analyses showed slightly higher risk estimates for LBW associated with higher Tl levels for mothers < 28 years old and for mothers with lower household income; however, there was no statistical evidence of heterogeneity in risk according to maternal age (p for heterogeneity = 0.18) or household income (p for heterogeneity = 0.28).
Conclusion
To our knowledge, ours is the first case–control study to investigate the association between prenatal Tl exposure and LBW. The results suggest that prenatal exposure to high levels of Tl may be associated with an increased risk of LBW.
Citation
Xia W, Du X, Zheng T, Zhang B, Li Y, Bassig BA, Zhou A, Wang Y, Xiong C, Li Z, Yao Y, Hu J, Zhou Y, Liu J, Xue W, Ma Y, Pan X, Peng Y, Xu S. 2016. A case–control study of prenatal thallium exposure and low birth weight in China. Environ Health Perspect 124:164–169; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409202
doi:10.1289/ehp.1409202
PMCID: PMC4710601  PMID: 26009470
22.  Histone Methylation in Nickel-Smelting Industrial Workers 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(10):e0140339.
Background
Nickel is an essential trace metal naturally found in the environment. It is also common in occupational settings, where it associates with various levels of both occupational and nonoccupational exposure In vitro studies have shown that nickel exposure can lead to intracellular accumulation of Ni2+, which has been associated with global decreases in DNA methylation, increases in chromatin condensation, reductions in H3K9me2, and elevated levels of H3K4me3. Histone modifications play an important role in modulating chromatin structure and gene expression. For example, tri-methylation of histone H3k4 has been found to be associated with transcriptional activation, and tri-methylation of H3k27 has been found to be associated with transcriptional repression. Aberrant histone modifications have been found to be associated with various human diseases, including cancer. The purpose of this work was to identify biomarkers for populations with occupational nickel exposure and to examine the relationship between histone methylation and nickel exposure. This may provide a scientific indicator of early health impairment and facilitate exploration of the molecular mechanism underlying cancer pathogenesis.
Methods
One hundred and forty subjects with occupational exposure to Ni and 140 referents were recruited. H3K4 and H3K27 trimethylation levels were measured in subjects’ blood cells.
Results
H3K4me3 levels were found to be higher in nickel smelting workers (47.24±20.85) than in office workers (22.65±8.81; P = 0.000), while the opposite was found for levels of H3K27me3(nickel smelting workers, 13.88± 4.23; office workers, 20.67± 5.96; P = 0.000). H3K4me3 was positively (r = 0.267, P = 0.001) and H3K27 was negatively (r = -0.684, P = 0.000) associated with age and length of service in smelting workers.
Conclusion
This study indicated that occupational exposure to Ni is associated with alterations in levels of histone modification.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0140339
PMCID: PMC4608576  PMID: 26474320
23.  Worldwide Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus and Relative Risk of Prostate Cancer: A Meta-analysis 
Scientific Reports  2015;5:14667.
Despite the increasing number of studies conducted recently to evaluate the association between HPV infections and the risk of prostate cancer, the results remain inconclusive. Furthermore, the prevalence and distribution of overall and individual HPV types worldwide in prostate cancer has not been reported until now. Therefore, we estimated the prevalence of HPV in prostate cancer by pooling data of 46 studies with 4919 prostate cancer cases, taking into account the heterogeneity of major related parameters, including study region, specimen type, HPV DNA source, detection method, publication calendar period and Gleason score. Moreover, we tested the association of HPV infections with prostate cancer risks by a meta-analysis of 26 tissue-based case-control studies. We found that the prevalence of HPV infection was 18.93% (95% CI = 17.84–20.05%) in prostate cancer cases, and most of which were high-risk HPV types (17.73%, 95% CI = 16.52–18.99%). The prevalence varied by region, PCR primers used, publication calendar period and Gleason score. Our study also showed a significantly increased risk of prostate cancer with the positivity of overall HPV detected in prostate tissues (OR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.29–2.49) and revealed the geographic variation of association strength (P < 0.001). In conclusion, HPV infections may contribute to the risk of prostate cancer.
doi:10.1038/srep14667
PMCID: PMC4594101  PMID: 26441160
24.  Occupational Exposure to Benzene and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma in a Population-Based Cohort: The Shanghai Women’s Health Study 
Environmental Health Perspectives  2015;123(10):971-977.
Background
The association between benzene exposure and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) has been the subject of debate as a result of inconsistent epidemiologic evidence. An International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) working group evaluated benzene in 2009 and noted evidence for a positive association between benzene exposure and NHL risk.
Objective
We evaluated the association between occupational benzene exposure and NHL among 73,087 women enrolled in the prospective population-based Shanghai Women’s Health Study.
Methods
Benzene exposure estimates were derived using a previously developed exposure assessment framework that combined ordinal job-exposure matrix intensity ratings with quantitative benzene exposure measurements from an inspection database of Shanghai factories collected between 1954 and 2000. Associations between benzene exposure metrics and NHL (n = 102 cases) were assessed using Cox proportional hazard models, with study follow-up occurring from December 1996 through December 2009.
Results
Women ever exposed to benzene had a significantly higher risk of NHL [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.87, 95% CI: 1.19, 2.96]. Compared with unexposed women, significant trends in NHL risk were observed for increasing years of benzene exposure (ptrend = 0.006) and increasing cumulative exposure levels (ptrend = 0.005), with the highest duration and cumulative exposure tertiles having a significantly higher association with NHL (HR = 2.07, 95% CI: 1.07, 4.01 and HR = 2.16, 95% CI: 1.17, 3.98, respectively).
Conclusions
Our findings, using a population-based prospective cohort of women with diverse occupational histories, provide additional evidence that occupational exposure to benzene is associated with NHL risk.
Citation
Bassig BA, Friesen MC, Vermeulen R, Shu XO, Purdue MP, Stewart PA, Xiang YB, Chow WH, Zheng T, Ji BT, Yang G, Linet MS, Hu W, Zhang H, Zheng W, Gao YT, Rothman N, Lan Q. 2015. Occupational exposure to benzene and non-Hodgkin lymphoma in a population-based cohort: the Shanghai Women’s Health Study. Environ Health Perspect 123:971–977; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408307
doi:10.1289/ehp.1408307
PMCID: PMC4590744  PMID: 25748391
25.  Prenatal exposure to organochlorine pesticides and infant birth weight in China 
Chemosphere  2014;110:1-7.
In utero exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) is thought to be potentially harmful to fetal development. We aimed to investigate the associations of maternal and cord serum OCPs levels with infant birth weight in China. In this study, we measured serum levels of 18 OCPs in 81 mother-infant pairs, including DDT, hexachlorocyclohexanes (BHC), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), heptachlors, chlordanes, endosulfan-I, and mirex using a high-resolution-gas-chromatography with high-resolution-mass-spectrometry method. We found that p,p’-DDE and β-BHC had the highest detection rate in both maternal and cord blood serum (97.2% and 96.7%, respectively), followed by HCB (93.0%, 51.7%), p,p’-DDT (88.7%, 36.7%), and p,p’-DDD (83.1%, 60.0%). Among all OCPs, the concentration of p,p’-DDE was the highest (mothers geometric mean (GM): 203.54 ng/g, newborns GM: 116.14 ng/g), followed by HCB (70.62 ng/g, 65.16 ng/g), and β-BHC (67.67 ng/g, 33.39 ng/g). Multiple linear regression analyses showed that each 1 ng/g increment of cord serum p,p’-DDE, total DDT, and β-BHC was associated with a 0.10g, 0.10g, and 0.92g decrease in infant birth weight, respectively, and as the cord serum concentrations of p,p'-DDT, p,p’-DDD, HCB and mirex increased, the infant birth weight was also decreased, although the associations were not statistically significant due to the relatively small sample size. These results suggest that p,p’-DDE, β-BHC, and HCB were the predominant OCPs in the serum of Chinese pregnant women and cord blood of their newborns. Prenatal exposure to DDT, β-BHC, HCB, and mirex were associated with a decrease in birth weight, but these results need validation in larger sample-sized studies.
doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.02.017
PMCID: PMC4097106  PMID: 24880592
prenatal exposure; organochlorine pesticides; dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane; β-hexachlorocyclohexane; hexachlorobenzene; birth weight

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