Researchers have suggested that certain individuals may show a self-positivity bias, rating themselves as possessing more positive personality traits than others. Previous evidence has shown that people evaluate self-related information in such a way as to maintain or enhance self-esteem. However, whether self-esteem would modulate the time course of self-positivity bias in explicit self-evaluation has never been explored. In the present study, 21 participants completed the Rosenberg self-esteem scale and then completed a task where they were instructed to indicate to what extent positive/negative traits described themselves. Behavioral data showed that participants endorsed positive traits as higher in self-relevance compared to the negative traits. Further, participants’ self-esteem levels were positively correlated with their self-positivity bias. Electrophysiological data revealed smaller N1 amplitude and larger late positive component (LPC) amplitude to stimuli consistent with the self-positivity bias (positive-high self-relevant stimuli) when compared to stimuli that were inconsistent with the self-positivity bias (positive-low self-relevant stimuli). Moreover, only in individuals with low self-esteem, the latency of P2 was more pronounced in processing stimuli that were consistent with the self-positivity bias (negative-low self-relevant stimuli) than to stimuli that were inconsistent with the self-positivity bias (positive-low self-relevant stimuli). Overall, the present study provides additional support for the view that low self-esteem as a personality variable would affect the early attentional processing.
Two new Neoperla species (Neoperla mesospina, Neoperla latispina) are described from the adult male stage from the Jinhuacha Nature Reserve, Guangxi of China. The new species are compared with similar taxa. Taxonomic remarks are also provided for N. transversprojecta Du & Sivec and N. yao Stark. The latter species is newly recorded for Guangxi.
Plecoptera; Perlidae; Neoperla mesospina; Neoperla latispina; new species; China
Background. Cancer/testis antigens (CTAs) are ideal targets for cancer immunotherapy in virtue of their restricted expression profile in normal tissues. However, CTA-targeted immunotherapy has been rather disappointing clinical setting for CTAs are downregulated by cytosine-phosphate-guanosine (CpG) methylation in their promoter regions, so that tumor cells have low immunogenicity. Methods. We reinduced mouse CTA P1A through demethylation process and generated P1A-specific cytotoxic lymphocytes (CTLs) by immunizing BALB/c (H-2d) mice with dendritic cells pulsed with a P1A-specific peptide and CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) immune adjuvant. Results. We found that demethylation and CpG ODN immune adjuvant stimulation facilitated DC maturation and enhanced the allogenic capacity of P1A-specific CTLs against target cells both in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions. Our results suggested that CTA induction and immune adjuvant stimulation is a feasible strategy in cancer immunotherapy.
Dexamethasone (DEX), a ligand for glucocorticoid receptor (GR), has long been used in the clinical practice due to its anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties. Given that ischemia/reperfusion (IR)-induced renal injury is featured by the excessive immune response; the current study is therefore designed to address the impact of dexamethasone on IR-induced renal injury, a common disorder in the clinical settings. Precondition of mice with 4 mg/kg of dexamethasone significantly attenuated IR-induced injury as manifested by the improved renal function along with ameliorated pathological changes and suppressed inflammatory infiltration. Mechanistic studies revealed that dexamethasone promotes GR activation, and by which it attenuates the signals for PI3K/AKT activation. Attenuated PI3K/AKT signaling thus suppresses inflammatory response which then protects kidneys from IR-induced injury. All together, our data support that dexamethasone could be a good alternative therapy for prevention and treatment of IR-induced renal injury in the clinical practice.
Inflammatory response; dexamethasone; ischemia/reperfusion injury; glucocorticoid receptor; PI3K/AKT signaling
Excess mesangial extracellular matrix (ECM) and mesangial cell proliferation is the major pathologic feature of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Fenofibrate, a PPARα agonist, has been shown to attenuate extracellular matrix formation in diabetic nephropathy. However, the mechanisms underlying this effect remain to be elucidated. In this study, the effect of fenofibrate on high-glucose induced cell proliferation and extracellular matrix exertion and its mechanisms were investigated in cultured rat mesangial cells by the methylthiazoletetrazolium (MTT) assay, flow cytometry and western blot. The results showed that treatment of mesangial cells (MCs) with fenofibrate repressed high-glucose induced up-regulation of extracellular matrix Collagen-IV, and inhibited entry of cell cycle into the S phase. This G1 arrest and ECM inhibition was caused by the reduction of phosphorylation and activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and AKT. On the contrary, PPARα siRNA accelerated high glucose-induced cell cycle progression by ERK1/2 and AKT activation. Taken together, fenofibrate ameliorated glucose-induced mesangial cell proliferation and matrix production via its inhibition of PI3K/AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. Such mechanisms may contribute to the favorable effects of treatment using fenofibrate in diabetic nephropathy.
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of stress hyperglycemia and its association with mortality among hepatopancreatobiliary postoperative patients admitted. Methods: Retrospectively analysis was made on 706 cases of the hepatopancreatobiliary postoperative patients from three Grade A hospitals in Hunan province from November 2011 to June 2012, including the incidence and risk factors of patients with stress hyperglycemia. Results: The incidence of stress hyperglycemia of pancreatic postoperative patients was 34.28%. The incidence of pancreatic surgery, simple cholecystectomy and biliary tract and liver surgery in patients with stress hyperglycemia was 63.08%, 20.83% and 32.21%, respectively. Stress hyperglycemia was associated with the first postoperative glucose values, duration of surgery, whether the anemia and the presence or absence of hypoproteinemia (P<0.05), but was no related with sex, weight and previous history (P>0.05). Conclusion: Stress hyperglycemia is common among emergency admissions and these patients have significantly higher mortality rate compared to other patients (P=0.001). Postoperative first blood glucose levels, duration of surgery, whether the anemia and the presence or absence of hypoproteinemia were stress hyperglycemia risk factors for patients.
Hepatopancreatobiliary postoperative patients; postoperative; stress hyperglycemia; prevalence
Background and Purpose
Persons who perceive their risk for stroke can promote the intervention of stroke risk factors and reduce the risk of stroke occurrence. Our purpose was to assess the knowledge of stroke risk factors and the level of perceived risk for stroke.
In 2011, a population-based face-to-face interview survey was conducted in Yuzhong district, Chongqing. A total of 1500 potential participants aged ≥18 years old were selected using a multi-stage sampling method. The knowledge of stroke risk factors and perceived risk for stroke was surveyed.
A total of 941 participants completed the questionnaire survey. The respondents’ awareness rate of stroke risk factors ranged between 53.3% and 87.2%. The community residents’ perceived risk for stroke was only 17.7%. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that 45–64 years age group, a history of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, heart disease, and stroke were independent predictors of perceived risk for stroke. Perceived risk for stroke increased as the number of risk factors increased (P<0.001). However, even for respondents with three or more risk factors, only 41% perceived themselves to be at risk for stroke.
In this population-based survey, few community residents perceived risk for stroke, even among those with multiple stroke risk factors, most did not perceive themselves to be at risk for stroke. Persons with 45–64 years old, a history of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, heart disease or stroke were more likely to perceive risk for stroke. The awareness of the risk for stroke has yet to be enhanced among community residents.
A long-term high-fat diet may result in a fatty liver. However, whether or not high-fat diets affect the hepatic circadian clock is controversial. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of timed high-fat diet on the hepatic circadian clock and clock-controlled peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α-mediated lipogenic gene expressions. Mice were orally administered high-fat milk in the evening for 4 weeks. The results showed that some hepatic clock genes, such as Clock, brain-muscle-Arnt-like 1 (Bmal1), Period 2 (Per2), and Cryptochrome 2 (Cry2) exhibited obvious changes in rhythms and/or amplitudes. Alterations in the expression of clock genes, in turn, further altered the circadian rhythm of PPARα expression. Among the PPARα target genes, cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, low-density lipoprotein receptor, lipoprotein lipase, and diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) showed marked changes in rhythms and/or amplitudes. In particular, significant changes in the expressions of DGAT and CYP7A1 were observed. The effects of a high-fat diet on the expression of lipogenic genes in the liver were accompanied by increased hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride levels. These results suggest that timed high-fat diets at night could change the hepatic circadian expressions of clock genes Clock, Bmal1, Per2, and Cry2 and subsequently alter the circadian expression of PPARα-mediated lipogenic genes, resulting in hepatic lipid accumulation.
High-fat diet; Clock genes; Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α; Lipid metabolism; Mice
Post treatment minimal residual disease (MRD) determination contributes to impending relapse prediction, chemotherapy response and clinical outcomes assessment, guiding clinicians to develop reasonable and effective individual chemotherapy options after induction/consolidation. This study was to identify serum candidate peptides for monitoring adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) MRD.
47 statistically different expressed peptide peaks were obtained in the molecular weight range of 700-10000 Da. Quick classifier (QC) model had optimal distinction efficiency, in the training set with a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 93.33%. Peptides were identified as ubiquitin-like modifier activating enzyme 1(UBA1), isoform 1 of fibrinogen alpha chain precursor and platelet factor 4(PF4). The peptide up-regulated in newly diagnosed AML patients were decreased to the normal level after CR. When refractory & relapsed, relative intensity was elevated again. Results were contrary to down-regulated peptide peaks. Western blot demonstrated that levels of the UBA1 protein did not differ between the leukemia and normal cells. Levels of isoform 1 of fibrinogen alpha chain precursor protein and PF4 protein were both decreased in leukemia cells comparing with normal cells. The serum levels of the PF4 in the newly diagnosed AML patients and healthy controls were significantly different. Further correlation analysis did not indicate the correlated relation between platelet counts and PF4 content, the correlation coefficient was 0.097. Kaplan–Meier analyses of overall survival showed that relative intensity of peptides was correlated with patient’s clinical outcome.
We speculate the peptides can be used as potential markers for monitoring minimal residual disease and clinical outcome assessment.
Weak cation exchange magnetic beads; MALDI-TOF-MS; Serum peptidome profiling; Adult acute myeloid leukemia; Minimal residual disease
Background Breast cancer incidence is higher among black women than white women before age 40 years, but higher among white women than black women after age 40 years (black–white crossover). We used newly available population-based data to examine whether the age-specific incidences of breast cancer subtypes vary by race and ethnicity.
Methods We classified 91908 invasive breast cancers diagnosed in California between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2009, by subtype based on tumor expression of estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR)—together referred to as hormone receptor (HR)—and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Breast cancer subtypes were classified as ER or PR positive and HER2 negative (HR+/HER2−), ER or PR positive and HER2 positive (HR+/HER2+), ER and PR negative and HER2 positive (HR−/HER2+), and ER, PR, and HER2 negative (triple-negative). We calculated and compared age-specific incidence rates, incidence rate ratios, and 95% confidence intervals by subtype and race (black, white, Hispanic, and Asian). All P values are two-sided.
Results We did not observe an age-related black–white crossover in incidence for any molecular subtype of breast cancer. Compared with white women, black women had statistically significantly higher rates of triple-negative breast cancer at all ages but statistically significantly lower rates of HR+/HER2− breast cancers after age 35 years (all P < .05). The age-specific incidence of HR+/HER2+ and HR−/HER2+ subtypes did not vary markedly between white and black women.
Conclusions The black–white crossover in breast cancer incidence occurs only when all breast cancer subtypes are combined and relates largely to higher rates of triple-negative breast cancers and lower rates of HR+/HER2− breast cancers in black vs white women.
conventional wisdom suggests that increased socioeconomic resources should be related to better health. Considering the body of evidence demonstrating the significant association between racial discrimination and depression, we examined whether exposure to racial discrimination could attenuate the positive effects of increased levels of socioeconomic position (SEP) among African Americans. Specifically, this paper investigated the joint interactive effects of SEP and racial discrimination on the odds of depression among African Americans.
racial discrimination was measured using two measures, major and everyday discrimination. Study objectives were achieved using data from the National Survey of American Life, which included a nationally representative sample of African Americans (n =3570). Logistic regression models were used to estimate the effects of SEP and racial discrimination on the odds of depression.
reports of racial discrimination were associated with increased risk of depression among American African men who possessed greater levels of education and income. Among African American men, significant, positive interactions were observed between education and experiences of major discrimination, which were associated with greater odds of depression (P = 0.02). Additionally, there were positive interactions between income and both measures of racial discrimination (income x everyday discrimination, P = 0.013; income x major discrimination, P = 0.02), which were associated with increased odds of depression (P = 0.02).
it is possible that experiences of racial discrimination could, in part, diminish the effects of increased SEP among African American men.
African Americans; Racial discrimination; Socioeconomic position; Depression
Very preterm birth (VPTB) is a leading cause of infant mortality, morbidity and racial disparity in the U.S. The underlying causes of VPTB are multiple and poorly understood. The California Very Preterm Birth Study was conducted to discover maternal and infant genetic and environmental factors associated with VPTB. This paper describes the study design, population, data and specimen collection, laboratory methods and characteristics of the study population. Using a large, population-based cohort created through record linkage of livebirths delivered from 2000 to 2007 in five counties of southern California, and existing data and banked specimens from state-wide prenatal and newborn screening, 1100 VPTB cases and 796 control mother-infant pairs were selected for study (385/200 White, 385/253 Hispanic and 330/343 Black cases/controls, respectively). Medical record abstraction of cases was conducted at over 50 hospitals to identify spontaneous VPTB, improve accuracy of gestational age, obtain relevant clinical data and exclude cases that did not meet eligibility criteria. VPTB was defined as birth at <32 weeks in Whites and Hispanics and <34 weeks in Blacks. Approximately 55% of all VPTBs were spontaneous and 45% had medical indications or other exclusions. Of the spontaneous VPTBs, approximately 41% were reported to have chorioamnionitis. While the current focus of the California Very Preterm Birth Study is to assess the role of candidate genetic markers on spontaneous VPTB, its design enables the pursuit of other research opportunities to identify social, clinical and biological determinants of different types of VPTB with the ultimate aim of reducing infant mortality, morbidity and racial disparities in these health outcomes in the US and elsewhere.
Study design; California Very Preterm Birth Study
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of actin depolymerizing factor (ADF)/destrin and position changes of kinetosomes in the development of hair cells following Atoh1-induced ectopic regeneration in the basilar membrane of mice. We observed through immunofluorescence at various time-points the expression of ADF/destrin and the specific kinetosome marker, γ-tubulin, in hair cells following ectopic regeneration induced by adenovirus transfection, overexpression of Atoh1 and in vitro culture. Changes of ADF/destrin distribution and kinetosome position during in vitro culture of new hair cells [Myo7a(+)] following Atoh1-induced ectopic regeneration are consistent with the changes in ADF/destrin expression and the polar migration of kinetosomes in hair cells of the cochlear sensory epithelium in normal development. ADF/destrin is involved in the development of the auditory epithelium and the development and structural rearrangement of ectopically regenerated hair cells in mammals. The kinetosomes of hair cells following Atoh1-induced ectopic regeneration show positional changes in vitro at different time-points.
actin depolymerizing factor/destrin; hair cell; kinocilium; planar cell polarity
Previous studies suggested that β-blockers with adjunctive α1-blocking activities warrant renoprotective function other than the therapeutic effect on hypertension. The current report is designed to dissect the role of TJ0711, a novel β-blocker with a 1:1 ratio for the β1/α1 blocking activities, in renoprotection in SHR rats. It was noted that TJ0711 possesses similar potency for control of blood pressure as that of Carvedilol. However, TJ0711 is much more potent in terms of protecting SHR rats against hypertension induced renal injury. Specifically, SHR rats treated with 20mg/kg/day of TJ0711 manifested significantly lower levels for urine albumin and total protein. In line with these result, TJ0711 treated rats displayed much less severe pathological changes in the kidneys. Mechanistic studies revealed that TJ0711 improves kidney perfusion during the course of hypertensive insult by enhancing eNOS expression through suppressing inflammatory cytokine secretion. TJ0711 also attenuates Vasohibin-1 expression to prevent HIF-1α from signal-induced degradation, and by which it promotes HO-1 expression to protect SHR rats against oxidative stress induced by hypertension in the kidneys. Together, our data suggest that TJ0711 possesses higher potency for renoprotection while manifesting the similar effect on hypertension therapy as Carvedilol.
TJ0711; carvedilol; hypertension; renal injury; renoprotection
Chemical industry parks in China are considered high-risk areas because they present numerous risks that can damage the environment, such as pollution incidents. In order to identify the environmental risks and the principal risk factors in these areas, we have developed a simple physical model of a regional environmental risk field (ERF) using existing dispersal patterns and migration models. The regional ERF zoning was also conducted and a reference value for diagnostic methods was developed to determine risk-acceptable, risk-warning, and risk-mitigation zones, which can provide a risk source layout for chemical industry parks. In accordance with the environmental risk control requirements, this study focused on the three stages of control and management of environmental risk and established an environmental risk management system including risk source identification and assessment, environmental safety planning, early risk warning, emergency management, assessment of environmental effects, and environmental remediation of pollution accidents. By using this model, the environmental risks in Tianjin Binhai New Area, the largest chemical industry park in China, were assessed and the environmental risk zoning map was drawn, which suggested the existence of many unacceptable environmental risks in this area. Thus, relevant suggestions have been proposed from the perspective of the adjustment of risk source layout, intensified management of environmental risk control and so on.
environmental risk assessment; risk zoning; environmental risk management; chemical industry parks; Tianjin Binhai New Area
Large-scale analysis of the transmission, mutation characteristics and the relationship between the reading frame and phenotype of the DMD gene has previously been performed in several countries, however, analogous studies have yet to be performed in Chinese populations.
Clinical data from 1053 Chinese patients with DMD/BMD were collected, and the DMD gene was tested by MLPA in all patients and 400 proband mothers. In 20 patients with negative MLPA, sequencing was also performed.
We found that 27.50% of cases had a family medical history of DMD/BMD, and large rearrangements were identified in 70.56% of the probands, of which 59.35% and 11.21% were deletions or duplications, respectively. The carrier status of the mothers in the study was determined to be 50.75%, and it was established that the DMD mutation was inherited from the mother in 51.72% of the probands. Exons 45–54 and 3–22 were the most frequently deleted regions, and exons 3–11 and 21–37 were the most prevalently duplicated regions of the gene. Breakpoints mainly occurred in introns 43–55 for deletion mutations and in introns 2 and 7 for duplication mutations. No breakpoints were found at the 5′ or 3′ end of introns 31, 35, 36, 40, 65, 68, and 74–78 in any of the deletion or duplication mutations. The reading frame rule held true for 86.4% of the DMD patients and 74.55% of the BMD patients.
It is essential to increase physicians’ understanding of DMD/BMD, to promote scientific information, and to increase awareness in regards to genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis in pedigrees with a family history of the disease, particularly in families with small DMD lesions in China. In addition, such a large-scale analysis will prove to be instructive for leading translational studies between basic science and clinical medicine.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy; Becker muscular dystrophy; DMD gene; MLPA
Various studies have been searching for new tumor biomarkers for breast cancer for years. However, so far, few markers have been proved clinically useful except CA153. Based on knowledge that most adenocarcinomas including breast carcinoma expressed Cytokeratin19, the authors studied CK19-2G2,a novel fragment of cytokeratin19 shedding into serum in breast cancer patients.
Patients and Methods
The serum samples of four hundred and seventeen patients including three hundred and three (fifty-four DCIS and two hundred and forty-nine stage I-III) PBC patients and one hundred and fourteen MBC patients, eighty-one healthy controls and twenty-one breast benign disease patients were provided for measurement of CK19-2G2, CEA and CA153.The correlation between clinicopathological characters, prognosis and CK19-2G2 levels was further studied.
The serum CK19-2G2 levels in breast cancer patients were significantly higher than that in healthy and benign controls. For breast cancer patients, CK19-2G2 levels in MBC were significantly higher than that in PBC patients. The sensitivities of CK19-2G2 for breast carcinoma are as high as CEA and CA153, and up to 71% in MBC patients. Serum CK19-2G2 levels (≥2 mU/mL) were associated with pathological stages, tumor size (≥2 cm), lymph node involvement, and HER2 status. Multivariate analysis revealed that high serum CK19-2G2 level was an independent factor for relapse (P = 0.029) and death (P = 0.040) in breast cancer patients.
Serum CK19-2G2 may be an independent indicator for prognosis and a candidate marker for monitoring metastasis in breast cancer.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the predictive significance of preoperative serum level of cytokeratin 19 fragments (Cyfra21-1) and squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-Ag) after complete resection in patients with stage II esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).
Between 1995 and 2006, a total of 379 patients in stage II ESCC who underwent complete resection were consecutively recruited. Statistical analyses were applied to test the associations between preoperative serum titers of Cyfra21-1 and SCC-Ag, clinicopathological factors and prognoses.
Preoperative high and normal serum level of Cyfra21-1 and SCC-Ag were found in 47.8%, 52.2% and 72.8%, 27.2%, respectively. The 1-, 3-, 5-year overall survival rate for the entire cohort of patients was 95%, 78%, and 56%, respectively. Median overall survival (OS) was 45.3 months longer in patients with low preoperative serum level of Cyfra21-1 (91.9 months) than those with high preoperative serum level of Cyfra21-1 (46.6 months) (P < 0.001). Median OS among patients with SCC-Ag-low level was also longer than those with SCC-Ag-high level (89.7 vs. 63.7 months, P < 0.001), especially for those with stage IIB (P < 0.001). After multivariate analysis, along with pTNM stage, preoperative serum level of Cyfra21-1 and SCC-Ag were independently and significantly predictive factors (P < 0.001, P < 0.001). Furthermore, the five-year survival rate in double-low subset, either-low subset and double-high subset was 100%, 83% and 27%, respectively (P < 0.001).
The preoperative serum level of Cyfra21-1 and SCC-Ag are independently significant predictors which negatively affected the survivals of patients with stage II ESCC.
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; Cyfra21-1; SCC-Ag; Prognosis
Increase of Serum amyloid A (SAA) level has been observed in patients with a variety of cancers. The objective of this study was to determined whether SAA level could be used as a prognostic parameter in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).
SAA levels were measured by rate nephelometry immunoassay in 167 healthy controls and 167 ESCC patients prior to surgical resection. Statistical associations between clinicopathological observations and SAA levels were determined using the Mann–Whitney U test. The clinical value of SAA level as a prognostic parameter was evaluated using the Cox’s proportional hazards model.
SAA levels were significantly higher in patients with ESCC compared to levels in healthy controls (13.88 ± 15.19 mg/L vs. 2.26 ± 1.66 mg/L, P < 0.001). Elevation of SAA levels (≥ 8.0 mg/L) was observed in 54.5% (91/167) of patients with ESCC but not in healthy controls. SAA levels were associated with tumor size (P < 0.001), histological differentiation (P = 0.015), T classification (P < 0.001), clinical stage (P < 0.001), lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001) and distant metastasis (P < 0.001), but not with the age and gender of the patients or tumor location. Multivariate analysis revealed that patients with an elevated level of SAA (≥ 8.0 mg/L) had significantly lower 5-year survival rate than those with non-elevated SAA (< 8.0 mg/L, log-rank P < 0.0001).
An elevated level of preoperative SAA was found to associate with tumor progression and poor survival in patients with ESCC.
Serum amyloid A; Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; Prognosis; Biomark
Cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma (cNEC) is rarely seen in the external ear. In this paper, we newly describe a patient with cNEC in his right external auditory canal, followed by a further discussion on the clinical features, diagnosis, and treatments of cNEC of the external ear. A review of the literature showed that cNEC of the external auditory canal generally presents as asymptomatic and that pathology yields the most confirmative diagnosis. A wide resection with adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy is recommended. The overall prognosis of this condition is poor.
Malignancies of the lymphoid cells, including non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs), Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and multiple myeloma (MM), occur at much lower rates in Asians than other racial/ethnic groups in the United States (US). It remains unclear whether these deficits are explained by genetic or environmental factors. To better understand environmental contributions, we examined incidence patterns of lymphoid malignancies among populations characterized by ethnicity, birthplace, and residential neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and ethnic enclave status.
We obtained data regarding all Asian patients diagnosed with lymphoid malignancies between 1988 and 2004 from the California Cancer Registry and neighborhood characteristics from US Census data.
While incidence rates of most lymphoid malignancies were lower among Asian than white populations, only follicular lymphoma (FL), chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL), and nodular sclerosis (NS) HL rates were statistically significantly lower among foreign-born than US-born Asians, with incidence rate ratios ranging from 0.34 to 0.87. Rates of CLL/SLL and NS HL were also lower among Asian women living in ethnic enclaves or lower-SES neighborhoods than those living elsewhere. Conclusions: These observations support strong roles of environmental factors in the causation of FL, CLL/SLL, and NS HL.
Studying specific lymphoid malignancies in US Asians may provide valuable insight towards understanding their environmental causes.
lymphoid malignancies; Asians; immigration; environmental causes
In a structure-activity relationship (SAR) study, 3-methoxy-1,4-phenanthrenequinones, calanquinone A (6a), denbinobin (6b), 5-OAc-calanquinone A (7a) and 5-OAc-denbinobin (7b), have significantly promising cytotoxicity against various human cancer cell lines (IC50 0.08–1.66 µg/mL). Moreover, we also established a superior pharmacophore model for cytotoxicity (r = 0.931) containing three hydrogen bond acceptors (HBA1, HBA2 and HBA3) and one hydrophobic feature (HYD) against MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. The pharmacophore model indicates that HBA3 is an essential feature for the oxygen atom of 5-OH in 6a–b and for the carbonyl group of 5-OCOCH3 in 7a–b, important for their cytotoxic properties. The SAR for moderately active 5a–b (5-OCH3), and highly active 6a–b and 7a–b, are also elaborated in a spatial aspect model. Further rational design and synthesis of new cytotoxic phenanthrene analogs can be implemented via this model. Additionally, employing a ChemGPS-NP based model for cytotoxicity mode of action (MOA) provides support for a preliminary classification of compounds 6a–b as topoisomerase II inhibitors.
AIM: To estimate the cost-benefit of endoscopic screening strategies of esophageal cancer (EC) in high-risk areas of China.
METHODS: Markov model-based analyses were conducted to compare the net present values (NPVs) and the benefit-cost ratios (BCRs) of 12 EC endoscopic screening strategies. Strategies varied according to the targeted screening age, screening frequencies, and follow-up intervals. Model parameters were collected from population-based studies in China, published literatures, and surveillance data.
RESULTS: Compared with non-screening outcomes, all strategies with hypothetical 100 000 subjects saved life years. Among five dominant strategies determined by the incremental cost-effectiveness analysis, screening once at age 50 years incurred the lowest NPV (international dollar-I$55 million) and BCR (2.52). Screening six times between 40-70 years at a 5-year interval [i.e., six times(40)f-strategy] yielded the highest NPV (I$99 million) and BCR (3.06). Compared with six times(40)f-strategy, screening thrice between 40-70 years at a 10-year interval resulted in relatively lower NPV, but the same BCR.
CONCLUSION: EC endoscopic screening is cost-beneficial in high-risk areas of China. Policy-makers should consider the cost-benefit, population acceptance, and local economic status when choosing suitable screening strategies.
Cost-benefit analysis; Esophageal cancer; Endoscopy; Screening; High-risk area
The title compound, dipotassium diaquabis(diphosphato)triferrate(II), K2[FeII
3(P2O7)2(H2O)2], was synthesized under solvothermal conditions. The crystal structure is isotypic with its Co analogue. In the structure, there are two crystallographically distinct Fe positions; one lies on an inversion center, the other on a general position. The first Fe2+ cation adopts a regular octahedral coordination with six O atoms, whereas the other is coordinated by five O atoms and a water molecule. The [FeO6] octahedron shares its trans-edges with an adjacent [FeO5(H2O)] octahedron; in turn, the [FeO5(H2O)] octahedron shares skew-edges with a neighbouring [FeO6] octahedron and an [FeO5(H2O)] octahedron, resulting in a zigzag octahedral chain running along . The zigzag chains are linked to each other by the P2O7 diphosphate groups, leading to a corrugated iron diphosphate layer, [Fe3(P2O7)2(H2O)2]2−, parallel to (100). The interlayer space is occupied by K+ cations, which adopt an eight-coordination to seven O atoms and one water molecule from a neighbouring iron diphosphate layer. Thus, the K+ ions not only compensate the negative charge of the layer but also link the layers into a network structure.