Rhodococcus sp. Chr-9 can degrade pyridine in the presence of chromate. Its draft genome sequence revealed that strain Chr-9 harbors sets of genes for resistance to heavy metals such as lead, mercury, arsenate, and cobalt, as well as three different gene clusters for metabolizing aromatic compounds, such as phenol, benzoate, and 4-nitrophenol.
To investigate the feasibility of the anti-mucin 1 (anti-MUC1/CD227) antibody in the fluorescent imaging of ovarian cancer, the CD227 antibody and a control IgG antibody were labeled with a near-infrared dye [Cy5.5-N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS)] and a green dye (fluorescein-NHS). In vivo fluorescence images were obtained at 4, 12 and 36 h after injection of the probes into OVCAR3 tumor-bearing mice. The tumor to background ratios were calculated for both probes. Ex vivo fluorescence images were obtained following sacrifice at 36 h. After conjugation to Cy5.5 and fluorescein, the dual-color labeled CD227 probe (Ab-FL-Cy5.5) could be visualized by both green and near-infrared fluorescence. Uptake by the tumors was higher for the Ab-FL-Cy5.5 than for the IgG-Cy5.5 probe. All tumors could be visualized by in vivo imaging with an acceptable tumor to background ratio. Ex vivo studies demonstrated the advantages of using green fluorescence imaging to guide the resection of tumor tissues. These preliminary data indicate that the Ab-FL-Cy5.5 probe is promising for further tumor imaging applications and clinical translation.
fluorescence imaging; ovarian cancer; mucin 1 antibody; CD227 antibody; near-infrared fluorescence
Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is an independent risk factor for liver diseases, such as fatty liver and hepatic fibrosis. However, the mechanisms underlying this pro-oxidative effect of homocysteine (Hcy) in hepatocytes remain largely unknown. Thus, we investigated the effect of Hcy on the gene expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the primary rate-limiting enzyme in heme catabolism and a key anti-oxidant detoxification enzyme in maintaining cellular redox homeostasis.
In vivo, twenty male C57BL/6 mice at 8 weeks of age were randomly divided into two groups. One group was fed a chow diet (chow group; n = 10), the other group of mice was fed a methionine-supplemented diet (Met group, 1 mg kg−1 day−1 L-methionine in drinking water; n = 10) for 4 weeks. In vitro, HepG2 cells were stimulated with different doses of homocysteine (Hcy).
Four weeks’ methionine supplementation caused a significant increase of plasma Hcy concentration and a decrease of HO-1 expression in the liver of C57BL/6 mice than mice received chow diet. Besides, SOD enzyme activities were impaired and the level of oxidative stress markers, such as malondialdehyde (MDA) were elevated in the liver from mice supplemented with methionine compared with control mice. In cultured hepatocytes, Hcy treatment reduced both the mRNA and protein levels of HO-1 dose-dependently. However, Hcy had no effect on the gene expression of Nrf2, the major transcriptional regulator of HO-1. Instead, Hcy induced the expression of Bach1, a transcriptional repressor of HO-1. In addition, Hcy stimulated the nuclear localization of Bach1 but prevented that of Nrf2. Furthermore, we found that knockdown of Bach1 attenuated the suppression of the HO-1 expression by Hcy.
Collectively, our results demonstrated that Bach1 plays an important role in Hcy-triggered ROS generations through inhibiting HO-1 expression, likely, resulting from the disturbed interplay between Bach1 and Nrf2.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1743-7075-11-55) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Homocysteine; Reactive oxygen species; Heme Oxygenase-1; Nrf2; Bach1
West Nile virus (WNV), which is an emerging pathogenic flavivirus with increasing distribution worldwide, is the cause of major human and animal health concerns. The pre-membrane (prM) protein of WNV is cleaved during maturation by the furin protease into the structural protein M and a pr-segment. In this study we generated and characterized a monoclonal antibody (MAb) against the WNV prM protein. Western blot analysis showed that the MAb reacted with WNV prM specifically. Immunohistochemistry assays demonstrated that the MAb recognized native prM protein in transfected BHK-21 cells. Preliminary studies were performed to identify the epitope recognized by the MAb using a set of synthesized overlapping peptides spanning the whole length of the prM protein. The MAb reported here may provide a valuable tool for the further exploration of the biological properties and functions of the prM protein and may also be developed for potential clinical applications.
Vascular cognitive impairment, no dementia (VCIND) is a condition at risk for future dementia and should be the target of preventive strategies. Preliminary evidence suggests that acupuncture may be a clinically effective intervention for people with early-stage vascular cognitive impairment. We will do a multicenter, 6-month, drug-controlled, nonblinded, randomized, parallel-group trial to determine whether acupuncture is effective for improving cognitive function and quality of life for patients with VCIND.
A total of 216 eligible patients will be recruited and randomly assigned acupuncture for two sessions/week (n = 108) or citicoline 300 mg/day (n = 108) in a multicenter, 6-month trial. The primary endpoint is cognition (Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale, Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-cog)). Secondary endpoints include assessments of activities of daily living and behavioral symptoms (Clock Drawing Test (CDT), Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale (IADL)).
This will be the first large-scale trial specifically evaluating acupuncture therapy in VCIND. If the study confirms the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture treatment, it will be important to examine how the acupuncture approach could most effectively be integrated into the provision of routine healthcare.
This study is registered as an International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial on 17 January 2014, number ISRCTN 82980206
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1745-6215-15-442) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
This study was performed to observe the effects of Zishenpingchan granule on neurobehavioral manifestations and the activity and gene expression of striatal dopamine D1 and D2 receptors of rats with levodopa-induced dyskinesias (LID). We established normal control group, LID model group, and TCM intervention group. Each group received treatment for 4 weeks. Artificial neural network (ANN) was applied to excavate the main factor influencing variation in neurobehavioral manifestations of rats with LID. The results showed that overactivation in direct pathway mediated by dopamine D1 receptor and overinhibition in indirect pathway mediated by dopamine D2 receptor may be the main mechanism of LID. TCM increased the efficacy time of LD to ameliorate LID symptoms effectively mainly by upregulating dopamine D2 receptor gene expression.
The detection rate of prostate cancer (PCa) using traditional biopsy guided by transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) is not satisfactory. The aim of this study was to determine the utility of 3-Tesla (3-T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) prior to TRUS-guided prostate biopsy and to investigate which subgroup of patients had the most evident improvement in PCa detection rate. A total of 420 patients underwent 3-T MRI examination prior to the first prostate biopsy and the positions of suspicious areas were recorded respectively. TRUS-guided biopsy regimes included systematic 12-core biopsy and targeted biopsy identified by MRI. Patients were divided into subgroups according to their serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, PSA density (PSAD), prostate volume, TRUS findings and digital rectal examination (DRE) findings. The ability of MRI to improve the cancer detection rate was evaluated. The biopsy positive rate of PCa was 41.2% (173/420), and 41 of the 173 (23.7%) patients were detected only by targeted biopsy in the MRI-suspicious area. Compared with the systematic biopsy, the positive rate was significantly improved by the additional targeted biopsy (P=0.0033). The highest improvement of detection rate was observed in patients with a PSA level of 4–10 ng/ml, PSAD of 0.12–0.20 ng/ml2, prostate volume >50 ml, negative TRUS findings and negative DRE findings (P<0.05). Therefore, it is considered that 3-T MRI examination could improve the PCa detection rate on first biopsy, particularly in patients with a PSA level of 4–10 ng/ml, PSAD of 0.12–0.20 ng/ml2, prostate volume of >50 ml, negative TRUS findings and negative DRE findings.
prostate cancer; transrectal ultrasound; magnetic resonance imaging; biopsy
AIM: To improve the colonization rate of transplanted mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the liver and effect of MSC transplantation for acute liver failure (ALF).
METHODS: MSC was modified with the chemokine CXC receptor 4 (CXCR4) gene (CXCR4-MSC) or not (Null-MSC) through lentiviral transduction. The characteristics of CXCR4-MSCs and Null-MSCs were determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting and flow cytometry. CXCR4-MSCs and Null-MSCs were infused intravenously 24 h after administration of CCl4 in nude mice. The distribution of the MSCs, survival rates, liver function, hepatocyte regeneration and growth factors of the recipient mice were analyzed.
RESULTS: In vitro, CXCR4-MSCs showed better migration capability toward stromal cell-derived factor-1α and a protective effect against thioacetamide in hepatocytes. In vivo imaging showed that CXCR4-MSCs migrated to the liver in larger numbers than Null-MSCs 1 and 5 d after ALF. Higher colonization led to a longer lifetime and better liver function. Either CXCR4-MSCs or Null-MSCs exhibited a paracrine effect through secreting hepatocyte growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor. Immunohistochemical analysis of Ki-67 showed increased cell proliferation in the damaged liver of CXCR4-MSC-treated animals.
CONCLUSION: Genetically modified MSCs expressing CXCR4 showed greater colonization and conferred better functional recovery in damaged liver.
Acute liver failure; Cell transplantation; Chemokine CXC receptor 4; Mesenchymal stem cells; Cell mobilization
Obesity and high blood pressure (BP) are public health problems all over the world. Some studies have reported a positive association between them in children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity and their associations with BP among school children and adolescents in Shandong, an important province in eastern China.
In 2011, we conducted a cross-sectional population-representative survey in Shandong, China. A total of 4 898 children and adolescents aged 6–17 years were randomly selected from 140 counties/districts using a multistage random cluster sampling. Weight, height and BP were measured by a trained physician or pediatrician, and information about age, gender and place of residence was obtained using questionnaires. Obesity and high BP were defined according to age- and gender-specific Chinese reference data for children.
A total of 4 898 (100%) children and adolescents provided complete information. The prevalence of overweight, obesity and overweight plus obesity were 10.9%, 8.7% and 19.6%, respectively. Boys were more likely to be overweight or obese than girls (P < 0.05 for overweight; P < 0.001 for obesity). The prevalence of overweight plus obesity was highest among children aged 6–11 years (22.3%). BP and the prevalence of high BP increased with increasing body mass index (BMI). With age and sex adjusted, odds ratios (ORs) for high BP were [OR 2.2;95% CI 1.7–2.8) in overweight and [OR 3.6;95% CI 2.6–4.9] in obese children.
The representative survey confirms high prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in Shandong. Childhood obesity is a strong risk factor for high BP. Intervention programs should be implemented to combat the growing obesity epidemic.
Prevalence; Overweight; Obesity; Adolescents; Blood pressure
Rationale: Bioactive lipid mediators, derived from membrane lipid precursors, are released into the airway and airspace where they bind high-affinity cognate receptors and may mediate asthma pathogenesis. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a bioactive lipid mediator generated by the enzymatic activity of extracellular autotaxin (ATX), binds LPA receptors, resulting in an array of biological actions on cell proliferation, migration, survival, differentiation, and motility, and therefore could mediate asthma pathogenesis.
Objectives: To define a role for the ATX-LPA pathway in human asthma pathogenesis and a murine model of allergic lung inflammation.
Methods: We investigated the profiles of LPA molecular species and the level of ATX exoenzyme in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids of human patients with asthma subjected to subsegmental bronchoprovocation with allergen. We interrogated the role of the ATX-LPA pathway in allergic lung inflammation using a murine allergic asthma model in ATX-LPA pathway–specific genetically modified mice.
Measurements and Main Results: Subsegmental bronchoprovocation with allergen in patients with mild asthma resulted in a remarkable increase in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid levels of LPA enriched in polyunsaturated 22:5 and 22:6 fatty acids in association with increased concentrations of ATX protein. Using a triple-allergen mouse asthma model, we showed that ATX-overexpressing transgenic mice had a more severe asthmatic phenotype, whereas blocking ATX activity and knockdown of the LPA2 receptor in mice produced a marked attenuation of Th2 cytokines and allergic lung inflammation.
Conclusions: The ATX-LPA pathway plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of asthma. These preclinical data indicate that targeting the ATX-LPA pathway could be an effective antiasthma treatment strategy.
asthma; lysophosphatidic acid; autotaxin; allergic airway inflammation
Inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The link between rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality is well established; however, the association between inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and cardiovascular risk is controversial. Arterial stiffness is both a marker and risk factor for atherosclerosis. Here we aimed to 1) compare circulating markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction, traditional cardiovascular risk factors, and arterial stiffness between RA and IBD to help to understand their different associations with cardiovascular disease; 2) assess the impacts of circulating markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction, and traditional risk factors on arterial stiffness.
Patients with RA (n = 43) and IBD (n = 42), and control subjects (n = 73) were recruited. Plasma inflammatory markers and von Willebrand factor (vWF) were measured by Multiplex assays or ELISA. Arterial stiffness was determined by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and ankle-brachial index (ABI) was measured. Framingham Risk Score (FRS) was calculated, and other traditional risk factors were also documented.
Plasma levels of several inflammatory markers and vWF were significantly but comparably elevated in RA and IBD compared with controls, except for a higher level of C-reactive protein (CRP) in RA than IBD. Compared to controls, FRS, body mass index, waist circumference, and triglycerides were increased in RA, but not in IBD. baPWV did not significantly differ among 3 groups, while ABI was modestly but significantly lower in IBD than controls. Circulating markers (macrophage migration inhibitory factor, tumour necrosis factor-α, CRP, and vWF) were significantly associated with baPWV. However, traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, diabetes and triglycerides) were the parameters associated with baPWV in multiple regression analyses (overall r = 0.866, p < 0.001).
RA has a higher level of CRP and more pronounced traditional cardiovascular risk factors than IBD, which may contribute to the difference in their associations with cardiovascular disease and mortality. Traditional risk factors, rather than inflammation markers, are major predictors of arterial stiffness even in subjects with inflammatory disorders. Our results point to the importance of modifying traditional risk factors in patients with inflammatory disorders.
Inflammation; Rheumatoid arthritis; Inflammatory bowel disease; Arterial stiffness; Pulse wave velocity
Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the causative agent of classical swine fever (CSF), which is a highly contagious swine disease that causes significant economic loses to the pig industry worldwide. The envelope E2 glycoprotein of CSFV is the most important viral antigen in inducing protective immune response against CSF. In this study, we generated a mammalian cell clone (BCSFV-E2) that could stably produce a secreted form of CSFV E2 protein (mE2). The mE2 protein was shown to be N-linked glycosylated and formed a homodimer. The vaccine efficacy of mE2 was evaluated by immunizing pigs. Twenty-five 6-week-old Landrace piglets were randomly divided into five groups. Four groups were intramuscularly immunized with mE2 emulsified in different adjuvants twice at four-week intervals. One group was used as the control group. All mE2-vaccinated pigs developed CSFV-neutralizing antibodies two weeks after the first vaccination with neutralizing antibody titers ranging from 1∶40 to 1∶320. Two weeks after the booster vaccination, the neutralizing antibody titers increased greatly and ranged from 1∶10,240 to 1∶81,920. At 28 weeks after the booster vaccine was administered, the neutralizing antibody titers ranged from 1∶80 to 1∶10240. At 32 weeks after the first vaccination, pigs in all the groups were challenged with a virulent CSFV strain at a dose of 1×105 TCID50. At two weeks after the challenge, all the mE2-immunized pigs survived and exhibited no obvious symptoms of CSF. The neutralizing antibody titer at this time was 20,480. Unvaccinated pigs in the control group exhibited symptoms of CSF 3–4 days after challenge and were euthanized from 7–9 days after challenge when the pigs became moribund. These results indicate that the mE2 is a good candidate for the development of a safe and effective CSFV subunit vaccine.
Martensitic transformation plays a pivotal role in the microstructural evolution and plasticity of many engineering materials. However, so far the underlying atomic processes that accomplish the displacive transformation have been obscured by the difficulty in directly observing key microstructural signatures on atomic scale. To resolve this long-standing problem, here we examine an AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel that has a strain/microstructure-gradient induced by surface mechanical attrition, which allowed us to capture in one sample all the key interphase regions generated during the γ(fcc) → ε(hcp) → α′(bcc) transition, a prototypical case of deformation induced martensitic transformation (DIMT). High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) observations confirm the crucial role of partial dislocations, and reveal tell-tale features including the lattice rotation of the α′ martensite inclusion, the transition lattices at the ε/α′ interfaces that cater the shears, and the excess reverse shear-shuffling induced γ necks in the ε martensite plates. These direct observations verify for the first time the 50-year-old Bogers-Burgers-Olson-Cohen (BBOC) model, and enrich our understanding of DIMT mechanisms. Our findings have implications for improved microstructural control in metals and alloys.
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the most common pregnancy complications. Inflammation may play a role in the pathogenesis of GDM. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine whether maternal serum concentration of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), leptin, and adiponectin were associated with GDM. A systematic search of PubMed and Medline was undertaken. In total, 27 trials were evaluated by meta-analyses using the software Review Manager 5.0. The results showed that maternal TNF-α (P = 0.0003) and leptin (P < 0.00001) concentrations were significantly higher in GDM patients versus controls. However, maternal adiponectin (P < 0.00001) concentration was significantly lower in GDM patients compared with controls. Subgroup analysis taking in consideration the effect of obesity on maternal adipokine levels showed that circulating levels of TNF-α and leptin remained elevated in GDM patients compared to their body mass index (BMI) matched controls, and adiponectin level remained depressed in GDM individuals. Our findings strengthen the clinical evidence that GDM is accompanied by exaggerated inflammatory responses.
Interleukin-28B (IL28B) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs8099917 has been described to be associated with response to treatment with pegylated interferon and ribavirin (PEG-IFN/RBV) in patients with chronic hepatitis C from the North America, Europe, Asia countries like Japan and Taiwan. Whether this holds true for Chinese patients remains unknown.
We aimed to study the effects of IL28B rs8099917 on antiviral therapy responses in Chinese patients with hepatitis C.
Patients and Methods:
IL28B rs8099917 was genotyped in 263 patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and 244 healthy controls in Tianjin, China using TaqMan SNP genotyping method. The roles of rs8099917 and clinical characteristics in antiviral treatment were analyzed by logistic regression.
Among 263 patients with chronic HCV infection, 223 had a TT genotype (84.8%). Frequencies of TG/GG genotypes in patients with hepatitis C were significantly different from those of healthy controls (15.2% vs. 9.0%; P = 0.033). Patients with HCV infection had a higher G allele frequency than healthy controls (7.8% vs. 4.7%; P = 0.044). Univariate analysis revealed no significant association between rs8099917 and sustained virological response (SVR) (P = 0.612). However, it was found that HCV genotypes 2a/3a, age, prothrombin time (PT), albumin (ALB) and cholesterol (CHO) were associated with SVR. In multivariate analysis, only ALB was significantly an independent predictor of SVR (OR = 1.223; 95%CI: 1.046−1.430; P = 0.011).
In contrast with T, rs8099917 G is a susceptible allele to HCV in China. ALB can independently predict SVR. Rs8099917 may play a quiet role to predict treatment response of patients with hepatitis C who received PEG−IFN/RBV therapy in China.
China; Polymorphism; Hepatitis C; Interleukin-28B; Therapy
This is a meta-analysis of randomized and non-randomized studies comparing the clinical and radiological efficacy of minimally invasive (MI) and conventional open transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (open-TLIF) for degenerative lumbar diseases.
A literature search of the MEDLINE database identified 11 studies that met our inclusion criteria. A total of 785 patients were examined. Pooled estimates of clinical and radiological outcomes, and corresponding 95 % confidence intervals were calculated.
The pooled data revealed that MI-TLIF was associated with less blood loss, shorter hospital stay, and a trend of better functional outcomes when compared with open-TLIF. However, MI-TLIF significantly increased the intraoperative X-ray exposure. Both techniques had similar operative time, complication rate, and re-operation rate.
Based on the available evidence, MI-TLIF for degenerative lumbar diseases might lead to better patient-based outcomes. MI-TLIF would be a promising procedure, but extra efforts are needed to reduce its intraoperative radiation exposure. More randomized controlled trials are needed to compare these two surgical options.
Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion; Minimally invasive; Outcome; Meta-analysis
Anterior odontoid screw fixation (AOSF) has been one of the most popular treatments for odontoid fractures. However, the true efficacy of AOSF remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to provide the pooled rates of non-union, reoperation, infection, and approach related complications after AOSF for odontoid fractures.
We searched studies that discussed complications after AOSF for type II or type III odontoid fractures. A proportion meta-analysis was done and potential sources of heterogeneity were explored by meta-regression analysis.
Of 972 references initially identified, 63 were eligible for inclusion. 54 studies provided data regarding non-union. The pooled non-union rate was 10% (95% CI: 7%–3%). 48 citations provided re-operation information with a pooled proportion of 5% (95% CI: 3%–7%). Infection was described in 20 studies with an overall rate of 0.2% (95% CI: 0%–1.2%). The main approach related complication is postoperative dysphagia with a pooled rate of 10% (95% CI: 4%–17%). Proportions for the other approach related complications such as postoperative hoarseness (1.2%, 95% CI: 0%–3.7%), esophageal/retropharyngeal injury (0%, 95% CI: 0%–1.1%), wound hematomas (0.2%, 95% CI: 0%–1.8%), and spinal cord injury (0%, 95% CI: 0%–0.2%) were very low. Significant heterogeneities were detected when we combined the rates of non-union, re-operation, and dysphagia. Multivariate meta-regression analysis showed that old age was significantly predictive of non-union. Subgroup comparisons showed significant higher non-union rates in age ≥70 than that in age ≤40 and in age 40 to <50. Meta-regression analysis did not reveal any examined variables influencing the re-operation rate. Meta-regression analysis showed age had a significant effect on the dysphagia rate.
This study summarized the rates of non-union, reoperation, infection, and approach related complications after AOSF for odontoid factures. Elderly patients were more likely to experience non-union and dysphagia.
Endothelial cell focal adhesion kinase is a key intermediate between c-Src and the regulation of endothelial cell barrier function in the control of tumor metastasis.
Pharmacological focal adhesion kinase (FAK) inhibition prevents tumor growth and metastasis, via actions on both tumor and stromal cells. In this paper, we show that vascular endothelial cadherin (VEC) tyrosine (Y) 658 is a target of FAK in tumor-associated endothelial cells (ECs). Conditional kinase-dead FAK knockin within ECs inhibited recombinant vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A) and tumor-induced VEC-Y658 phosphorylation in vivo. Adherence of VEGF-expressing tumor cells to ECs triggered FAK-dependent VEC-Y658 phosphorylation. Both FAK inhibition and VEC-Y658F mutation within ECs prevented VEGF-initiated paracellular permeability and tumor cell transmigration across EC barriers. In mice, EC FAK inhibition prevented VEGF-dependent tumor cell extravasation and melanoma dermal to lung metastasis without affecting primary tumor growth. As pharmacological c-Src or FAK inhibition prevents VEGF-stimulated c-Src and FAK translocation to EC adherens junctions, but FAK inhibition does not alter c-Src activation, our experiments identify EC FAK as a key intermediate between c-Src and the regulation of EC barrier function controlling tumor metastasis.
24 h urinary sodium extretion was used to estimate the daily salt intake of shandong residents aged from 18 to 69 years in China.
20 selected counties/districts in Shandong stratified by geographic region (Eastern, Central Southern and North Western) and residence type (urban vs rural).
Among 2184 randomly selected adults, 2061 provided usable 24 h urine samples. Urine volume <500 mL or male creatinine <3.81 (female creatinine <4.57) are not included in the analysis.
The mean sodium level excreted over 24 h was 237.61 mmol (95% CI 224.77 to 250.44) mmol. Overall, the estimated mean salt intake was 13.90 g/day (95% CI 13.15 to 14.65). The mean salt intake among rural residents was higher than that among urban residents (14.00 vs 13.68 g; p<0.01). Salt intake in men was higher than that in women (14.40 vs 13.37 g; p<0.01). Approximately 96% of the survey participants had a dietary salt intake of ≥6 g/day.
The salt intake in Shandong is alarmingly higher than the current recommended amount (6 g/day). Thus, effective interventions to reduce salt intake levels to combat the increasing burden of non-communicable diseases need to be developed and implemented.
EPIDEMIOLOGY; NUTRITION & DIETETICS
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the most important cause of epidemic encephalitis in most Asian regions. There is no specific treatment available for Japanese encephalitis, and vaccination is the only effective way to prevent JEV infection in humans and domestic animals. The purpose of this study is to establish a new mammalian cell line stably and efficiently expressing virus-like particle of JEV for potential use of JEV subunit vaccine.
We generated a new cell clone (BJ-ME cells) that stably produces a secreted form of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) virus-like particle (VLP). The BJ-ME cells were engineered by transfecting BHK-21 cells with a code-optimized cDNA encoding JEV prM and E protein expression plasmid. Cell line BJ-ME can stably produces a secreted form of Japanese encephalitis virus virus-like particle (JEV-VLP) which contains the JEV envelope glycoprotein (E) and membrane protein (M). The amount of JEV-VLP antigen released into the culture fluid of BJ-ME cells was as high as 15–20 μg/ml. JEV-VLP production was stable after multiple cell passages and 100% cell expression was maintained without detectable cell fusion or apoptosis. Cell culture fluid containing the JEV-VLP antigen could be harvested five to seven times continuously at intervals of 4–6 days while maintaining the culture. Mice immunized with the JEV-VLP antigen with or without adjuvant developed high titers of neutralizing antibodies and 100% protection against lethal JEV challenge.
These results suggest that the recombinant JEV-VLP antigen produced by the BJ-ME cell line is an effective, safe and affordable subunit Japanese encephalitis vaccine candidate, especially for domestic animals such as pig and horse.
Japanese encephalitis virus; Mammalian cell line; Virus-like particle; Subunit vaccine
Lymphangioma is an uncommon benign tumor that develops in the lymphatic system. Abdominal lymphangiomatosis is extremely rare in adult patients, and the clinical symptoms of this condition are complicated and atypical. We report a case of abdominal lymphangiomatosis in a 38-year-old female who presented with intestinal bleeding and protein-losing enteropathy, as well as lesions in the lung and bones. A computed tomography scan revealed multiple small cystic lesions without enhancement. Histological examination revealed microscopic cysts were submucosal, with walls composed of thin fibrous tissue, and D2-40 stained highlight the lining of the lymphatic channels by immunohistochemical method. We make a comparison with the cases reported before, and also discuss the diagnose of diffuse pulmonary lymphangiomatosis and Gorham’s disease.
Lymphangioma; Abdominal lymphangiomatosis; Gastrointestinal bleeding; Diffuse pulmonary lymphangiomatosis; Gorham’s disease
After being polio free for more than 10 years, an outbreak following importation of wild poliovirus (WPV) was confirmed in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China, in 2011.
A cross-sectional study was conducted prior to supplementary immunization activities (SIAs), immediately after the confirmation of the WPV outbreak. In selected prefectures, participants aged ≤60 years old who visited hospitals at county-level or above to have their blood drawn for reasons not related to the study, were invited to participate in our study. Antibody titers ≥8 were considered positive.
Among the 2,611 participants enrolled, 2,253 (86.3%), 2,283 (87.4%), and 1,989 (76.2%) were seropositive to P1, P2 and P3 respectively, and 1744 (66.8%) participants were seropositive to all the three serotypes. Lower antibody seropositivities and geometric mean titers were observed in children <1 year of age and in adults aged 15–39 years.
Serosurveys to estimate population immunity in districts at high risk of polio importation might be useful to gauge underlying population immunity gaps to polio and possibly to guide preparedness and response planning. Consideration should be given to older children and adults during polio risk assessment planning and outbreak response.
Investigating the endophytic bacterial community in special moss species is fundamental to understanding the microbial-plant interactions and discovering the bacteria with stresses tolerance. Thus, the community structure of endophytic bacteria in the xerophilous moss Grimmia montana were estimated using a 16S rDNA library and traditional cultivation methods. In total, 212 sequences derived from the 16S rDNA library were used to assess the bacterial diversity. Sequence alignment showed that the endophytes were assigned to 54 genera in 4 phyla (Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Cytophaga/Flexibacter/Bacteroids). Of them, the dominant phyla were Proteobacteria (45.9%) and Firmicutes (27.6%), the most abundant genera included Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Enterobacter, Leclercia, Microvirga, Pseudomonas, Rhizobium, Planococcus, Paenisporosarcina and Planomicrobium. In addition, a total of 14 species belonging to 8 genera in 3 phyla (Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria) were isolated, Curtobacterium, Massilia, Pseudomonas and Sphingomonas were the dominant genera. Although some of the genera isolated were inconsistent with those detected by molecular method, both of two methods proved that many different endophytic bacteria coexist in G. montana. According to the potential functional analyses of these bacteria, some species are known to have possible beneficial effects on hosts, but whether this is the case in G. montana needs to be confirmed.
bacterial diversity; endophytes; moss; molecular method; cultivated isolates
Zircons are crucial to understanding the first 500 Myr of crustal evolution of Earth. Very few zircons of this age (>4050 Ma) have been found other than from a ~300 km diameter domain of the Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia. Here we report SIMS U-Pb and O isotope ratios and trace element analyses for two ~4100 Ma detrital zircons from a Paleozoic quartzite at the Longquan area of the Cathaysia Block. One zircon (207Pb/206Pb age of 4127 ± 4 Ma) shows normal oscillatory zonation and constant oxygen isotope ratios (δ18O = 5.8 to 6.0‰). The other zircon grain has a ~4100 Ma magmatic core surrounded by a ~4070 Ma metamorphic mantle. The magmatic core has elevated δ18O (7.2 ± 0.2‰), high titanium concentration (53 ± 3.4 ppm) and a positive cerium anomaly, yielding anomalously high calculated oxygen fugacity (FMQ + 5) and a high crystallization temperature (910°C). These results are unique among Hadean zircons and suggest a granitoid source generated from dry remelting of partly oxidizing supracrustal sediments altered by surface waters. The ~4100 Ma dry melting and subsequent ~4070 Ma metamorphism provide new evidence for the diversity of the Earth's earliest crust.