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author:("Wang, anhui")
1.  Epidemiological, Clinical and Histological Characteristics of HBV/HDV Co-Infection: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study in Guangdong, China 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(12):e115888.
Background
The epidemiology of hepatitis D virus (HDV) in China is fairly unknown. The mechanisms whereby HDV leads to accelerated liver disease in hepatitis B virus (HBV)/HDV co-infected patients and the histological characteristics of chronic hepatitis D (CHD) patients need further investigation.
Methods
The prevalence of HDV was retrospectively evaluated in all consecutive hospitalized patients with chronic HBV infection from May 2005 to October 2011. HBV/HDV co-infected patients and HBV mono-infected patients were compared clinically and histologically. Significant histological abnormality was defined as significant necroinflammation (grade ≥A2) and/or significant fibrosis (stage ≥ F2).
Results
6.5% of patients (426/6604) tested positive for IgM anti-HDV. HDV was more common in patients over 50 years old than those under 50 (11.7% vs. 5.1%, P<0.001). HBV/HDV co-infected patients had higher frequencies of end-stage liver disease (ESLD) than HBV mono-infected patients, and HDV co-infection was an independent risk factor for ESLD (OR: 1.428, 95%CI: 1.116–1.827; P = 0.005). The HBV DNA levels in the HBV/HDV group were significantly lower than the HBV group in chronic hepatitis patients (median: 6.50 log10copies/mL vs 6.80 log10copies/mL, P = 0.003), but higher than the HBV group in ESLD patients (median: 5.73 log10copies/mL vs 5.16 log10copies/mL, P<0.001). When stratified by alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level, 46.7%, 56.5% and 80.5% of CHD patients had significant necroinflammation and 86.7%, 87.0% and 90.3% had significant fibrosis with ALT 1–2×upper limit normal (ULN), 2–5×ULN and>5×ULN respectively.
Conclusion
The prevalence of HDV is not low in patients with chronic HBV infection. HDV may contribute to progression to ESLD through late-phase HBV DNA reactivation.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0115888
PMCID: PMC4274124  PMID: 25532128
2.  Significant Fibrosis Is Not Rare in Chinese Chronic Hepatitis B Patients with Persistent Normal ALT 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(10):e78672.
Background
Limited studies have been done on chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients defined according to the latest Asian-Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver guideline with liver histology by a large sample size.
Methods
We retrospectively evaluated liver histological characteristics on a cohort of consecutive treatment-naive CHB patients with persistent normal alanine aminotransferase (PNALT) or elevated ALT from May 2005 to October 2011. Histological assessment was based on the Metavir scoring system, significant abnormality was defined as necroinflammation grade ≥A2 and/or fibrosis stage ≥F2.
Results
A total of 675 CHB patients were recruited, including 516 HBeAg-positive and 159 HBeAg-negative patients. In HBeAg-positive patients, significant fibrosis was found 49.4% (42/85) in PNALT, 69.8% (88/126) in ALT 1-2×upper limit normal (ULN) and 81.6% (249/305) in ALT>2×ULN group, respectively. In HBeAg-negative patients, significant fibrosis was found 30.9% (17/55) in PNALT, 73.3% (33/45) in ALT 1-2×ULN and 94.9% (56/59) in ALT>2×ULN group, respectively. HBeAg-positive patients with PNALT over 30 years old had a higher frequency of significant fibrosis than those under 30 years old (87.5% vs. 45.5%, P = 0.058). Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated increasing age (P = 0.012), higher aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (P < 0.001) and lower HBV DNA (P < 0.001) were associated with significant necroinflammation, while higher AST (P < 0.001), lower albumin (P = 0.027) and HBV DNA (P = 0.004) were associated with significant fibrosis in HBeAg-positive patients with elevated ALT. Higher AST was associated with significant necroinflammation in HBeAg-negative patients with elevated ALT (P = 0.009).
Conclusions
Significant fibrosis is not rare in Chinese CHB patients with PNALT, especially HBeAg-positive patients over 30 years old.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0078672
PMCID: PMC3808379  PMID: 24205292
3.  Novel Evidence of HBV Recombination in Family Cluster Infections in Western China 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(6):e38241.
Two hepatitis B virus (HBV) C/D recombinants were isolated from western China. No direct evidence indicates that these new viruses arose as a result of recombination between genotype C and D or a result of convergence. In this study, we search for evidence of intra-individual recombination in the family cluster cases with co-circulation of genotype C, D and C/D recombinants. We studied 68 individuals from 15 families with HBV infections in 2006, identified individuals with mixed HBV genotype co-infections by restriction fragment length polymorphism and proceeded with cloning and DNA sequencing. Recombination signals were detected by RDP3 software and confirmed by split phylogenetic trees. Families with mixed HBV genotype co-infections were resampled in 2007. Three of 15 families had individuals with different HBV genotype co-infections in 2006. One individual (Y2) had a triple infection of HBV genotype C, D and C/D recombinant in 2006, but only genotype D in 2007. Further clonal analysis of this patient indicated that the C/D recombinant was not identical to previously isolated CD1 or CD2, but many novel recombinants with C2, D1 and CD1 were simultaneously found. All parental strains could recombine with each other to form new recombinant in this patient. This indicates that the detectable mixed infection and recombination have a limited time window. Also, as the recombinant nature of HBV precludes the possibility of a simple phylogenetic taxonomy, a new standard may be required for classifying HBV sequences.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0038241
PMCID: PMC3366946  PMID: 22675528
4.  Investigation of Antigen-Antibody Interactions of Sulfonamides with a Monoclonal Antibody in a Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay Using 3D-QSAR Models 
A three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) model of sulfonamide analogs binding a monoclonal antibody (MAbSMR) produced against sulfamerazine was carried out by Distance Comparison (DISCOtech), comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA), and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA). The affinities of the MAbSMR, expressed as Log10IC50, for 17 sulfonamide analogs were determined by competitive fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA). The results demonstrated that the proposed pharmacophore model containing two hydrogen-bond acceptors, two hydrogen-bond donors and two hydrophobic centers characterized the structural features of the sulfonamides necessary for MAbSMR binding. Removal of two outliers from the initial set of 17 sulfonamide analogs improved the predictability of the models. The 3D-QSAR models of 15 sulfonamides based on CoMFA and CoMSIA resulted in q2 cv values of 0.600 and 0.523, and r2 values of 0.995 and 0.994, respectively, which indicates that both methods have significant predictive capability. Connolly surface analysis, which mainly focused on steric force fields, was performed to complement the results from CoMFA and CoMSIA. This novel study combining FPIA with pharmacophore modeling demonstrates that multidisciplinary research is useful for investigating antigen-antibody interactions and also may provide information required for the design of new haptens.
doi:10.3390/ijms13056334
PMCID: PMC3382755  PMID: 22754368
3D-QSAR; sulfonamides; monoclonal antibody; CoMFA; CoMSIA
5.  Geographical and Ethnic Distribution of the HBV C/D Recombinant on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(4):e18708.
Two forms of hepatitis B virus (HBV) C/D recombinant have been identified in western China, but little is known about their geographical and ethnic distributions, and particularly the clinical significance and specific mutations in the pre-core region. To address these questions, a total of 624 chronic HBV carriers from four ethnic populations representing five provinces in western China were enrolled in this study. Genotypes were firstly determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism, and then confirmed by full or partial genome nucleotide sequencing. The distribution of HBV genotypes was as follows: HBV/B: 40 (6.4%); HBV/C: 221 (35.4%); HBV/D: 39 (6.3%); HBV/CD: 324 (51.9%). In the 324 HBV C/D recombinant infections, 244 (75.3%) were infected with the “CD1” and 80 (24.7%) were infected with the “CD2.” The distribution of HBV genotypes exhibited distinct patterns in different regions and ethnic populations. Geographically, the C/D recombinant was the most prevalent HBV strain on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Ethnically, the C/D recombinant had a higher prevalence in Tibetan patients than in other populations. Clinically, patients with HBV/CD1 showed significantly lower levels of serum total bilirubin than patients with HBV/C2. The prevalence of HBeAg was comparable between patients with HBV/CD1 and HBV/C2 (63.3% vs 50.0%, P = 0.118) whether patients were taken together or stratified by age into three groups (65.6% vs 58.8% in <30 years, P = 0.758; 61.9% vs 48.0% in 30–50 years, P = 0.244; 64.3% vs 33.3%, P = 0.336). Virologically HBV/CD1 had a significantly lower frequency of G1896A than HBV/C2. In conclusion, the HBV C/D recombinant is restricted to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in western China and is found predominantly in Tibetans. The predominance of the premature pre-core stop mutation G1896A in patients with the HBV C/D recombinant may account for the higher prevalence of HBeAg in these patients.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0018708
PMCID: PMC3073994  PMID: 21494570
6.  Cellular immune responses in patients with hepatitis B surface antigen seroclearance induced by antiviral therapy 
Virology Journal  2011;8:69.
Background
The mechanisms by which chronic hepatitis B is completely resolved through antiviral therapy are unknown, and the contribution of acquired T cell immunity to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seroclearance has not been investigated. Therefore, we measured the T-cell responses to core and envelope antigens in patients with HBsAg seroclearance.
Methods
Fourteen subjects with HBsAg seroclearance following antiviral treatment for chronic hepatitis B, 7 HBeAg-positive immunotolerant HBV carriers and 9 HBeAg-negative inactive HBsAg carriers were recruited. HBV-specific T-cell responses to recombinant HBV core (rHBcAg) and envelope (rHBsAg) proteins and pools of core and envelope peptides were measured using an ELISPOT assay detecting interferon-gamma and intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) assays detecting interferon-gamma or interleukin 2.
Results
Interferon-gamma ELISPOT assays showed a low frequency of weak responses to the rHBsAg and S peptide pool in the HBsAg seroclearance group, and the response frequency to the rHBcAg and the C peptide pool was higher than to the rHBsAg (P < 0.001) and S peptide pool (P = 0.001) respectively. A higher response frequency to C than S peptide pools was confirmed in the interferon-gamma ICS assays for both CD4+ (P = 0.033) and CD8+ (P = 0.040) T cells in the HBsAg seroclearance group. The responses to C and S antigens in the inactive carriers were similar.
Conclusions
There was a low frequency of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell immune responses to envelope antigens in Chinese subjects with HBsAg seroclearance following antiviral therapy. It is unlikely that these immune responses are responsible for HBsAg seroclearance in these subjects.
doi:10.1186/1743-422X-8-69
PMCID: PMC3049122  PMID: 21320337
7.  Selection of Anti-Sulfadimidine Specific ScFvs from a Hybridoma Cell by Eukaryotic Ribosome Display 
PLoS ONE  2009;4(7):e6427.
Background
Ribosome display technology has provided an alternative platform technology for the development of novel low-cost antibody based on evaluating antibiotics derived residues in food matrixes.
Methodology/Principal Findings
In our current studies, the single chain variable fragments (scFvs) were selected from hybridoma cell lines against sulfadimidine (SM2) by using a ribosome library technology. A DNA library of scFv antibody fragments was constructed for ribosome display, and then mRNA–ribosome–antibody (MRA) complexes were produced by a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system. The synthetic sulfadimidine-ovalbumin (SM2-OVA) was used as an antigen to pan MRA complexes and putative scFv-encoding genes were recovered by RT-PCR in situ following each panning. After four rounds of ribosome display, the expression vector pCANTAB5E containing the selected specific scFv DNA was constructed and transformed into Escherichia coli HB2151. Three positive clones (SAS14, SAS68 and SAS71) were screened from 100 clones and had higher antibody activity and specificity to SM2 by indirect ELISA. The three specific soluble scFvs were identified to be the same molecular weight (approximately 30 kDa) by Western-blotting analysis using anti-E tag antibodies, but they had different amino acids sequence by sequence analysis.
Conclusions/Significance
The selection of anti-SM2 specific scFv by in vitro ribosome display technology will have an important significance for the development of novel immunodetection strategies for residual veterinary drugs.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0006427
PMCID: PMC2712767  PMID: 19641611
8.  Clinical and Virological Characteristics of Hepatitis B Virus Subgenotypes Ba, C1, and C2 in China▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2007;45(5):1491-1496.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) subgenotypes Ba, C1 (Cs), and C2 (Ce) are the most prevalent HBV variants in China. To investigate the virological characteristics of these subgenotypes and their clinical implications, we enrolled a cohort of 211 patients in the Guangdong Province of China, including 132 with chronic hepatitis B virus infection (CH), 32 with liver cirrhosis (LC), and 47 with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) according to clinical examination, liver function test, and ultrasonograph results. Overall, HBV Ba was found in 51.2% (108/211), HBV C1 in 33.6% (71/211), and HBV C2 in 15.2% (32/211) of the cases. The distribution of HBV genotype C was greater among patients in the LC and HCC groups than among patients in the CH group, while the distribution of HBV genotype B was greater among the CH patients than among the LC and HCC patients. No significant differences in clinical features were found among patients with HBV Ba, C1, and C2. Virologically, HBV C1 had the strongest association with the A1762T G1764A double mutation, while the mutation at position 1896 resulting in A (1896A) was uncommon. In contrast, HBV Ba had the highest frequency of 1896A but the lowest of A1762T G1764A, and HBV C2 had intermediate frequencies of these mutations. Mutations of 1653T and 1753V were specifically associated with HBV C2 and C1, respectively. Multivariate analyses showed that the 1653T, 1753V, and A1762T G1764A mutations and patient age significantly increased the risk of HCC development. In conclusion, HBV Ba, C1, and C2 have different mutation patterns in the enhancer II/core promoter/precore region. Therefore, genotyping and detecting the 1653T and 1753V mutations, in addition to the A1762T G1764A double mutation, might have important clinical implications as predictive risk factors for hepatocarcinogenesis.
doi:10.1128/JCM.02157-06
PMCID: PMC1865908  PMID: 17376881

Results 1-8 (8)