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1.  Hepatitis C and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Among 4784 Cases and 6269 Controls From the International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium 
Background & Aims
Increasing evidence points towards a role of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in causing malignant lymphomas. We pooled case-control study data to provide robust estimates of the risk of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) subtypes after HCV infection.
Methods
The analysis included 7 member studies from the International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium (InterLymph) based in Europe, North America, and Australia. Adult cases of NHL (n = 4784) were diagnosed between 1988 and 2004 and controls (n = 6269) were matched by age, sex, and study center. All studies used third-generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to test for antibodies against HCV in serum samples. Participants who were human immunodeficiency virus positive or were organ-transplant recipients were excluded.
Results
HCV infection was detected in 172 NHL cases (3.60%) and in 169 (2.70%) controls (odds ratio [OR], 1.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.40–2.25). In subtype-specific analyses, HCV prevalence was associated with marginal zone lymphoma (OR, 2.47; 95% CI, 1.44–4.23), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (OR, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.68–2.99), and lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (OR, 2.57; 95% CI, 1.14–5.79). Notably, risk estimates were not increased for follicular lymphoma (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.65–1.60).
Conclusions
These results confirm the association between HCV infection and NHL and specific B-NHL subtypes (diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, marginal zone lymphoma, and lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma).
doi:10.1016/j.cgh.2008.02.011
PMCID: PMC3962672  PMID: 18387498
2.  Cancers in the Australian HIV Observational Database (AHOD) 
HIV medicine  2012;14(2):77-84.
Objectives
To conduct a within cohort assessment of risk factors for incident AIDS defining cancers (ADC) and non-ADC (NADC) within the Australian HIV Observational Database (AHOD).
Methods
2181 AHOD registrants were linked to the National AIDS Registry/National HIV Database NAR/NHD and the Australian cancer registry to identify those with a notified cancer diagnosis. Included in the current analyses were cancers diagnosed after HIV infection. Risk factors for cancers were also assessed using logistic regression methods.
Results
139 cancer cases were diagnosed after HIV infection among 129 patients. More than half the diagnoses (n=68, 60%) were ADC, of which 69% were KS and 31% NHL. Among the NADC, the most common cancers were melanoma (n=10), lung cancer (n=6), and 5 cases each of Hodgkin’s lymphoma and anal cancer. Over a total of 21021 person years (PY) of follow-up since HIV diagnosis, the overall crude cancer incidence rate for any cancer was 5.09/1000 PY. The overall rate of cancers decreased from 15.9/1000 PY (95%CI: 9.25-25.40/1000) for CD4 counts below 100 cells/μL to 2.4/1000 PY (95%CI: 1.62-3.39/1000) for CD4 counts above 350 cells/μL. Lower CD4 cell count and prior AIDS diagnoses were significant predictors for both ADC and NADC.
Conclusion
ADC remain the predominant cancers in this population, although NADC rates have increased in the more recent time period. Immune deficiency is a risk factor for both ADC and NADC.
doi:10.1111/j.1468-1293.2012.01038.x
PMCID: PMC3535176  PMID: 22934689
HIV/AIDS; cancer; antiretroviral treatment; cohort
3.  Genome-wide Association Study Identifies Multiple Risk Loci for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia 
Berndt, Sonja I. | Skibola, Christine F. | Joseph, Vijai | Camp, Nicola J. | Nieters, Alexandra | Wang, Zhaoming | Cozen, Wendy | Monnereau, Alain | Wang, Sophia S. | Kelly, Rachel S. | Lan, Qing | Teras, Lauren R. | Chatterjee, Nilanjan | Chung, Charles C. | Yeager, Meredith | Brooks-Wilson, Angela R. | Hartge, Patricia | Purdue, Mark P. | Birmann, Brenda M. | Armstrong, Bruce K. | Cocco, Pierluigi | Zhang, Yawei | Severi, Gianluca | Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne | Lawrence, Charles | Burdette, Laurie | Yuenger, Jeffrey | Hutchinson, Amy | Jacobs, Kevin B. | Call, Timothy G. | Shanafelt, Tait D. | Novak, Anne J. | Kay, Neil E. | Liebow, Mark | Wang, Alice H. | Smedby, Karin E | Adami, Hans-Olov | Melbye, Mads | Glimelius, Bengt | Chang, Ellen T. | Glenn, Martha | Curtin, Karen | Cannon-Albright, Lisa A. | Jones, Brandt | Diver, W. Ryan | Link, Brian K. | Weiner, George J. | Conde, Lucia | Bracci, Paige M. | Riby, Jacques | Holly, Elizabeth A. | Smith, Martyn T. | Jackson, Rebecca D. | Tinker, Lesley F. | Benavente, Yolanda | Becker, Nikolaus | Boffetta, Paolo | Brennan, Paul | Foretova, Lenka | Maynadie, Marc | McKay, James | Staines, Anthony | Rabe, Kari G. | Achenbach, Sara J. | Vachon, Celine M. | Goldin, Lynn R | Strom, Sara S. | Lanasa, Mark C. | Spector, Logan G. | Leis, Jose F. | Cunningham, Julie M. | Weinberg, J. Brice | Morrison, Vicki A. | Caporaso, Neil E. | Norman, Aaron D. | Linet, Martha S. | De Roos, Anneclaire J. | Morton, Lindsay M. | Severson, Richard K. | Riboli, Elio | Vineis, Paolo | Kaaks, Rudolph | Trichopoulos, Dimitrios | Masala, Giovanna | Weiderpass, Elisabete | Chirlaque, María-Dolores | Vermeulen, Roel C H | Travis, Ruth C. | Giles, Graham G. | Albanes, Demetrius | Virtamo, Jarmo | Weinstein, Stephanie | Clavel, Jacqueline | Zheng, Tongzhang | Holford, Theodore R | Offit, Kenneth | Zelenetz, Andrew | Klein, Robert J. | Spinelli, John J. | Bertrand, Kimberly A. | Laden, Francine | Giovannucci, Edward | Kraft, Peter | Kricker, Anne | Turner, Jenny | Vajdic, Claire M. | Ennas, Maria Grazia | Ferri, Giovanni M. | Miligi, Lucia | Liang, Liming | Sampson, Joshua | Crouch, Simon | Park, Ju-hyun | North, Kari E. | Cox, Angela | Snowden, John A. | Wright, Josh | Carracedo, Angel | Lopez-Otin, Carlos | Bea, Silvia | Salaverria, Itziar | Martin, David | Campo, Elias | Fraumeni, Joseph F. | de Sanjose, Silvia | Hjalgrim, Henrik | Cerhan, James R. | Chanock, Stephen J. | Rothman, Nathaniel | Slager, Susan L.
Nature genetics  2013;45(8):868-876.
doi:10.1038/ng.2652
PMCID: PMC3729927  PMID: 23770605
4.  Smoking, variation in N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) and 2 (NAT2), and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a pooled analysis within the InterLymph consortium 
Cancer causes & control : CCC  2012;24(1):125-134.
Purpose
Studies of smoking and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) have yielded inconsistent results, possibly due to subtype heterogeneity and/or genetic variation impacting the metabolism of tobacco-derived carcinogens, including substrates of the N-acetyltransferase enzymes NAT1 and NAT2.
Methods
We conducted a pooled analysis of 5,026 NHL cases and 4,630 controls from seven case–control studies in the international lymphoma epidemiology consortium to examine associations between smoking, variation in the N-acetyltransferase genes NAT1 and NAT2, and risk of NHL subtypes. Smoking data were harmonized across studies, and genetic variants in NAT1 and NAT2 were used to infer acetylation phenotype of the NAT1 and NAT2 enzymes, respectively. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs) for risk of NHL and subtypes were calculated using joint fixed effects unconditional logistic regression models.
Results
Current smoking was associated with a significant 30 % increased risk of follicular lymphoma (n = 1,176) but not NHL overall or other NHL subtypes. The association was similar among NAT2 slow (OR 1.36; 95 % CI 1.07–1.75) and intermediate/rapid (OR 1.27; 95 % CI 0.95–1.69) acetylators (pinteraction = 0.82) and also did not differ by NAT1*10 allelotype. Neither NAT2 phenotype nor NAT1*10 allelotype was associated with risk of NHL overall or NHL subtypes.
Conclusion
The current findings provide further evidence for a modest association between current smoking and follicular lymphoma risk and suggest that this association may not be influenced by variation in the N-acetyltransferase enzymes.
doi:10.1007/s10552-012-0098-4
PMCID: PMC3529854  PMID: 23160945
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma; Gene environment interaction; Cigarette smoking; N-acetyltransferase; Follicular lymphoma
5.  The importance of blood-borne viruses in elevated cancer risk among opioid-dependent people: a population-based cohort study 
BMJ Open  2012;2(5):e001755.
Objective
To quantify cancer risk in opioid dependence and the association with infection by the oncogenic blood-borne viruses (BBVs) hepatitis C (HCV), hepatitis B (HBV) and HIV.
Design
Cohort study.
Setting
New South Wales, Australia.
Participants
All 45 412 adults aged 16 years or over registered for opioid substitution therapy (OST) between 1985 and 2007. Notifications of cancer, death and infection with HCV, HBV and HIV were ascertained by record linkage with registries.
Main outcome measures
The ratios of observed to expected number of cancers, standardised incidence ratios (SIRs), and the average annual per cent change (AAPC) in overall age and sex-standardised cancer incidence.
Results
Overall cancer risk was modestly increased compared to the general population (SIR 1.15, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.23). Excess risk was observed for 11 cancers, particularly lung (4.02, 95% CI 3.32 to 4.82), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (1.51, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.88) and liver (8.04, 95% CI 6.18 to 10.3). Reduced risk was observed for six cancers, including prostate (0.16, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.32) and breast (0.48, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.62). Individuals notified with HCV or HBV had a markedly increased risk of liver cancer; lung cancer risk was also increased in those with HCV. HIV was associated with an elevated risk of liver, anus and kidney cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and Kaposi sarcoma. Cancer risk was not increased in individuals without a BBV notification, apart from pancreatic cancer (3.92, 95% CI 1.07 to 10.0). Cancer incidence increased significantly over time (AAPC 9.4%, 4.2% to 15%, p=0.001).
Conclusions
BBVs play a major role in the cancer risk profile of opioid-dependent individuals registered for OST. To address the dramatic increasing trend in cancer incidence, the OST setting could be utilised for cancer prevention strategies.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2012-001755
PMCID: PMC3488729  PMID: 23045358
Public Health
6.  Self-reported history of infections and the risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: an InterLymph pooled analysis 
We performed a pooled analysis of data on self-reported history of infections in relation to the risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) from 17 case-control studies that included 12,585 cases and 15,416 controls aged 16–96 years at recruitment. Pooled odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated in two-stage random-effect or joint fixed-effect models, adjusting for age, sex and study centre. Data from the two years prior to diagnosis (or date of interview for controls) were excluded. A self-reported history of infectious mononucleosis (IM) was associated with an excess risk of NHL (OR=1.26, 95% CI=1.01–1.57 based on data from 16 studies); study-specific results indicate significant (I2=51%, p=0.01) heterogeneity. A self-reported history of measles or whooping cough was associated with an approximate 15% reduction in risk. History of other infection was not associated with NHL. We find little clear evidence of an association between NHL risk and infection although the limitations of data based on self-reported medical history (particularly of childhood illness reported by older people) are well recognised.
doi:10.1002/ijc.27438
PMCID: PMC3406230  PMID: 22266776
7.  Sex- and Subtype-Specific Analysis of H2AFX Polymorphisms in Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(9):e74619.
H2AFX encodes a histone variant involved in signaling sites of DNA damage and recruiting repair factors. Genetic variants in H2AFX may influence risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), a heterogeneous group of lymphoid tumors that are characterized by chromosomal translocations. We previously reported that rs2509049, a common variant in the promoter of H2AFX, was associated with risk for NHL in the British Columbia population. Here we report results for 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 100 Kb surrounding H2AFX in an expanded collection of 568 NHL cases and 547 controls. After correction for multiple testing, significant associations were present for mantle cell lymphoma (p=0.007 for rs604714) and all B-cell lymphomas (p=0.046 for rs2509049). Strong linkage disequilibrium in the 5 Kb upstream of H2AFX limited the ability to determine which specific SNP (rs2509049, rs7759, rs8551, rs643788, rs604714, or rs603826), if any, was responsible. There was a significant interaction between sex and rs2509049 in the all B-cell lymphomas group (p=0.002); a sex-stratified analysis revealed that the association was confined to females (p=0.001). Neither the overall nor the female-specific association with rs2509049 was replicated in any of four independent NHL sample sets. Meta-analysis of all five study populations (3,882 B-cell NHL cases and 3,718 controls) supported a weak association with B-cell lymphoma (OR=0.92, 95% CI=0.86-0.99, p=0.034), although this association was not significant after exclusion of the British Columbia data. Further research into the potential sex-specificity of the H2AFX-NHL association may identify a subset of NHL cases that are influenced by genotype at this locus.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0074619
PMCID: PMC3775730  PMID: 24069324
8.  A pooled analysis of three studies evaluating genetic variation in innate immunity genes and non-Hodgkin lymphoma risk 
British Journal of Haematology  2011;152(6):721-726.
Summary
Genetic variation in immune-related genes may play a role in the development of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). To test the hypothesis that innate immunity polymorphisms may be associated with NHL risk, we genotyped 144 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs) capturing common genetic variation within 12 innate immunity gene regions in three independent population-based case-control studies (1946 cases and 1808 controls). Gene-based analyses found IL1RN to be associated with NHL risk (minP = 0.03); specifically, IL1RN rs2637988 was associated with an increased risk of NHL (per-allele odds ratio = 1.15, 95% confidence interval = 1.05 – 1.27; ptrend = 0.003), which was consistent across study, subtype, and gender. FCGR2A was also associated with a decreased risk of the follicular lymphoma NHL subtype (minP = 0.03). Our findings suggest that genetic variation in IL1RN and FCGR2A may play a role in lymphomagenesis. Given that conflicting results have been reported regarding the association between IL1RN SNPs and NHL risk, a larger number of innate immunity genes with sufficient genomic coverage should be evaluated systematically across many studies.
doi:10.1111/j.1365-2141.2010.08518.x
PMCID: PMC3253820  PMID: 21250972
non-Hodgkin lymphoma; immune; innate immunity; genetic variation; single nucleotide polymorphisms
9.  Continuing declines in some but not all HIV-associated cancers in Australia after widespread use of antiretroviral therapy 
AIDS (London, England)  2009;23(16):2183-2190.
Objective
To describe changes in cancer incidence in people with HIV in Australia since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
Design
Population-based, retrospective cohort study of people with HIV (n = 20 232) using data linkage between national registers of HIV/AIDS and cancer in 1982–2004.
Methods
Age-adjusted and sex-adjusted incidence rate ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated to compare site-specific cancer incidence during the early (1996–1999) and late (2000–2004) HAART periods with that prior to HAART (1982–1995). Five-year age-specific, sex-specific, calendar year-specific, and state-specific standardized incidence ratios with 95% confidence interval were also calculated for each period.
Results
Incidence of Kaposi sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma declined significantly (Ptrend < 0.001). Incidence of Hodgkin lymphoma was significantly higher during the early-HAART period (incidence rate ratio 2.34, 95% confidence interval 1.19–4.63) but declined thereafter (Pdiff = 0.014). Incidence of anal cancer was unchanged (Ptrend = 0.451) and remained raised more than 30-fold. Incidence declined significantly for melanoma (Ptrend = 0.041) and prostate cancer (Ptrend = 0.026), and, during the late-HAART period, was lower than in the general population for both cancers. Incidence of colorectal cancer was consistently lower than in the general population.
Conclusion
Incidence of Kaposi sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma has continued to decline among people with HIV in Australia, though it remains very substantially elevated. Incidence of Hodgkin lymphoma may now also be declining. Incidence of anal cancer has remained stable, and it is now the third most common cancer in HIV-infected Australians. Reasons for the reduced incidence of colorectal and prostate cancer, and more recently of melanoma, are unclear.
doi:10.1097/QAD.0b013e328331d384
PMCID: PMC2873230  PMID: 19734774
cancer; cohort studies; HAART; HIV; infection
10.  Risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma associated with germline variation in genes that regulate the cell cycle, apoptosis, and lymphocyte development 
Chromosomal translocations are the hallmark genetic aberration in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), with specific translocations often selectively associated with specific NHL subtypes. Because many NHL-associated translocations involve cell cycle, apoptosis, and lymphocyte development regulatory genes, we evaluated NHL risk associated with common genetic variation in 20 candidate genes in these pathways. Genotyping of 203 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was conducted in 1946 NHL cases and 1808 controls pooled from three independent population-based case-control studies. We used logistic regression to compute odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for NHL and four major NHL subtypes in relation to tag SNP genotypes and haplotypes. We observed the most striking associations for tag SNPs in the pro-apoptotic gene BCL2L11 (BIM) and BCL7A, which is involved in a rare NHL-associated translocation. Variants in BCL2L11 were strongly related to follicular lymphoma only, particularly rs3789068 (ORAG=1.41, 95%CI 1.10–1.81; ORGG=1.65, 95%CI 1.25–2.19; p-trend=0.0004). Variants in BCL7A were strongly related to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma only, particularly rs1880030 (ORAG=1.34, 95%CI 1.08–1.68; ORAA=1.60, 95%CI 1.22–2.08; p-trend=0.0004). The associations for both variants were similar in all three studies and supported by haplotype analyses. We also observed notable associations for variants in BCL6, CCND1, and MYC. Our results support the role of common genetic variation in cell cycle, apoptosis, and lymphocyte development regulatory genes in lymphomagenesis, and suggest that effects may vary by NHL subtype. Replication of our findings and further study to identify functional SNPs are warranted.
doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-08-1037
PMCID: PMC2716008  PMID: 19336552
lymphoma; non-Hodgkin; polymorphism; single nucleotide; apoptosis; cell cycle
11.  Effect of reduced immunosuppression after kidney transplant failure on risk of cancer: population based retrospective cohort study 
Objective To compare cancer incidence in kidney transplant recipients during periods of transplant function (and immunosuppression) and after transplant failure (when immunosuppression is ceased or reduced).
Design, setting, and participants Nationwide, population based retrospective cohort study of 8173 Australian kidney transplant recipients registered on the Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry who first received a transplant during 1982-2003. Incident cancers were ascertained using linkage with national cancer registry records.
Main outcome measures Cancer-specific standardised incidence ratios for periods of transplant function and for dialysis after transplant failure. Incidence was compared between periods using multivariate incidence rate ratios adjusted for current age, sex, and duration of transplantation.
Results All cases of Kaposi’s sarcoma occurred during transplant function. Standardised incidence ratios were significantly elevated during transplant function, but not during dialysis after transplant failure, for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, lip cancer, and melanoma. For each of these cancers, incidence was significantly lower during dialysis after transplant failure in multivariate analysis (incidence rate ratios 0.20 (95% CI 0.06 to 0.65) for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, 0.04 (0.01 to 0.31) for lip cancer, and 0.16 (0.04 to 0.64) for melanoma). In contrast, standardised incidence ratios during dialysis after transplant failure remained significantly elevated for leukaemia and lung cancer, and cancers related to end stage kidney disease (kidney, urinary tract, and thyroid cancers), with thyroid cancer incidence significantly higher during dialysis after transplant failure (incidence rate ratio 6.77 (2.64 to 17.39)). There was no significant difference in incidence by transplant function for other cancers.
Conclusions The effect of immunosuppression on cancer risk is rapidly reversible for some, but not all, cancer types. Risk reversal was mainly observed for cancers with a confirmed infectious cause. Risk of other cancers, especially those related to end stage kidney disease, remained significantly increased after reduction of immunosuppression.
doi:10.1136/bmj.c570
PMCID: PMC2820609  PMID: 20150194
12.  A pooled investigation of Toll-like receptor gene variants and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma 
Carcinogenesis  2008;30(2):275-281.
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) may influence the development of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) given their important roles in recognizing microbial pathogens and stimulating multiple immune pathways. We conducted an investigation of TLR gene variants in a pooled analysis including three population-based case–control studies of NHL (1946 cases and 1808 controls). Thirty-six tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TLR2, TLR4 and the TLR10–TLR1–TLR6 gene cluster were genotyped. Two TLR10–TLR1–TLR6 variants in moderate linkage disequilibrium were significantly associated with NHL: rs10008492 [odds ratio for CT genotype (ORCT) 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.97–1.30; ORTT 1.40, 95% CI 1.15–1.71; Ptrend = 0.001] and rs4833103 (ORAC 0.75, 95% CI 0.64–0.88; ORAA 0.74, 95% CI 0.62–0.90; Ptrend = 0.002; Pdominant = 0.0002). Associations with these SNPs were consistent across all the three studies and did not appreciably differ by histologic subtype. We found little evidence of association between TLR2 variation and all NHL, although the rare variant rs3804100 was significantly associated with marginal zone lymphoma (MZL), both overall (ORCT/CC 1.89, 95% CI 1.27–2.81; Pdominant = 0.002) and in two of the three studies. No associations with TLR4 variants were observed. This pooled analysis provides strong evidence that variation in the TLR10–TLR1–TLR6 region is associated with NHL risk and suggests that TLR2 variants may influence susceptibility to MZL.
doi:10.1093/carcin/bgn262
PMCID: PMC2639046  PMID: 19029192
13.  Effect of ThinPrep Preparation on Human papillomavirus Detection and Genotyping in Rectal Samples by PCR▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2008;47(1):227-229.
Specimen-to-specimen carryover during ThinPrep slide preparation was evaluated by comparing human papillomavirus genotypes detected prior and subsequent to the ThinPrep processing of 121 PreservCyt samples. Overall, 52 samples generated concordant genotypes and 38 had additional and 21 had fewer genotypes postprocessing. PreservCyt samples should be aliquoted for PCR testing prior to ThinPrep processing.
doi:10.1128/JCM.01518-08
PMCID: PMC2620877  PMID: 19005144
14.  Common Gene Variants in the Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) and TNF Receptor Superfamilies and NF-kB Transcription Factors and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Risk 
PLoS ONE  2009;4(4):e5360.
Background
A promoter polymorphism in the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) (TNF G-308A) is associated with increased non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) risk. The protein product, TNF-α, activates the nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-κB) transcription factor, and is critical for inflammatory and apoptotic responses in cancer progression. We hypothesized that the TNF and NF-κB pathways are important for NHL and that gene variations across the pathways may alter NHL risk.
Methodology/Principal Findings
We genotyped 500 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 48 candidate gene regions (defined as 20 kb 5′, 10 kb 3′) in the TNF and TNF receptor superfamilies and the NF-κB and related transcription factors, in 1946 NHL cases and 1808 controls pooled from three independent population-based case-control studies. We obtaineded a gene region-level summary of association by computing the minimum p-value (“minP test”). We used logistic regression to compute odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for NHL and four major NHL subtypes in relation to SNP genotypes and haplotypes. For NHL, the tail strength statistic supported an overall relationship between the TNF/NF-κB pathway and NHL (p = 0.02). We confirmed the association between TNF/LTA on chromosome 6p21.3 with NHL and found the LTA rs2844484 SNP most significantly and specifically associated with the major subtype, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) (p-trend = 0.001). We also implicated for the first time, variants in NFKBIL1 on chromosome 6p21.3, associated with NHL. Other gene regions identified as statistically significantly associated with NHL included FAS, IRF4, TNFSF13B, TANK, TNFSF7 and TNFRSF13C. Accordingly, the single most significant SNPs associated with NHL were FAS rs4934436 (p-trend = 0.0024), IRF4 rs12211228 (p-trend = 0.0026), TNFSF13B rs2582869 (p-trend = 0.0055), TANK rs1921310 (p-trend = 0.0025), TNFSF7 rs16994592 (p-trend = 0.0024), and TNFRSF13C rs6002551 (p-trend = 0.0074). All associations were consistent in each study with no apparent specificity for NHL subtype.
Conclusions/Significance
Our results provide consistent evidence that variation in the TNF superfamily of genes and specifically within chromosome 6p21.3 impacts lymphomagenesis. Further characterization of these susceptibility loci and identification of functional variants are warranted.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0005360
PMCID: PMC2669130  PMID: 19390683

Results 1-14 (14)