Diabetes has been positively associated with the risk of colorectal cancer. We investigated whether recently established risk variants for diabetes also have effects on colorectal cancer.
Nineteen SNPs associated with type-2 diabetes (T2D) in genome-wide association studies were tested in a case-control study of 2,011 colorectal cancer cases and 6,049 controls nested in the Multiethnic Cohort as part of the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) initiative. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were estimated by unconditional logistic regression to evaluate the association between SNPs and colorectal cancer risk, adjusting for age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Permutation testing was conducted to correct for multiple hypothesis testing.
Four type 2 diabetes SNPs were associated with colorectal cancer risk: rs7578597 (THADA), rs864745 (JAZF1), rs5219 (KCNJ11), and rs7961581 (TSPAN8, LGR5). The strongest association was for the rs7578597 (THADA) Thr1187Ala missense polymorphism (Ptrend = 0.004 adjusted for multiple testing) with the high risk allele for colorectal cancer being the low risk allele for diabetes. Similar patterns of associations were seen with further adjustment for diabetes status and body mass index. The association of diabetes status with colorectal cancer risk was somewhat weakened after adjustment for these SNPs.
Our findings suggest that diabetes risk variants also influence colorectal cancer susceptibility, possibly through different mechanisms than for diabetes.
colorectal cancer; SNPs; type 2 diabetes
The genetic basis of sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) is not well explained by known risk polymorphisms. Here we perform a meta-analysis of two genome-wide association studies in 2,627 cases and 3,797 controls of Japanese ancestry and 1,894 cases and 4,703 controls of African ancestry, to identify genetic variants that contribute to CRC susceptibility. We replicate genome-wide statistically significant associations (P < 5×10−8) in 16,823 cases and 18,211 controls of European ancestry. This study reveals a new pan-ethnic CRC risk locus at 10q25 (rs12241008, intronic to VTI1A; P=1.4×10−9), providing additional insight into the etiology of CRC and highlighting the value of association mapping in diverse populations.
Genome-wide association studies of colorectal cancer (CRC) in Europeans and Asians have identified 21 risk susceptibility regions [29 index single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)]. Characterizing these risk regions in diverse racial groups with different linkage disequilibrium (LD) structure can help localize causal variants. We examined associations between CRC and all 29 index SNPs in 6597 African Americans (1894 cases and 4703 controls). Nine SNPs in eight regions (5q31.1, 6q26-q27, 8q23.3, 8q24.21, 11q13.4, 15q13.3, 18q21.1 and 20p12.3) formally replicated in our data with one-sided P-values <0.05 and the same risk directions as reported previously. We performed fine-mapping of the 21 risk regions (including 250 kb on both sides of the index SNPs) using genotyped and imputed markers at the density of the 1000 Genomes Project to search for additional or more predictive risk markers. Among the SNPs correlated with the index variants, two markers, rs12759486 (or rs7547751, a putative functional variant in perfect LD with it) in 1q41 and rs7252505 in 19q13.1, were more strongly and statistically significantly associated with CRC (P < 0.0006). The average per allele risk was improved using the replicated index variants and the two new markers (odds ratio = 1.14, P = 6.5 × 10−16) in African Americans, compared with using all index SNPs (odds ratio = 1.07, P = 3.4 × 10−10). The contribution of the two new risk SNPs to CRC heritability was estimated to be 1.5% in African Americans. This study highlights the importance of fine-mapping in diverse populations.
It is widely accepted that chronic inflammation plays a role in the etiology of colorectal cancer. Using a two-stage design, we examined the associations between colorectal cancer and common variation in 37 key genes in the inflammation and innate immunity pathways.
In the discovery stage, 2,322 discordant sibships (2,535 cases, 3,915 sibling controls) from the Colorectal Cancer Family Registry were genotyped for over 600 tagSNPs and 99 SNPs were selected for further examination based on strength of association. In the second stage, 351 SNPs tagging gene regions covered by the 99 SNPs were tested in 4,783 Multiethnic Cohort subjects (2,153 cases, 2,630 controls).
The association between rs9858822 in the PPARG gene and colorectal cancer was statistically significant at the end of the second stage (odds ratio per allele = 1.36, Bonferroni-adjusted P = 0.045), based on the “effective” number of markers in Stage 2 (n = 306). The risk allele C was common (frequency 0.3) in African Americans but rare (frequency < 0.03) in whites, Japanese Americans, Latinos and Native Hawaiians. No statistically significant heterogeneity of effects across race/ethnicity, BMI levels, regular aspirin use or pack-years of smoking was detected for this SNP. Suggestive associations were also observed for several SNPs in close vicinity to rs9858822.
Our results provide new evidence of association between PPARG variants and colorectal cancer risk.
Further replication in independent samples is warranted.
pathway approach; inflammation; colorectal cancer; minority population; immunity
α-Hydroxynitrosamine metabolites of nitrosamines decompose to a reactive diazohydroxide and an aldehyde. To test the hypothesis that the aldehydes contribute to the harmful effects of nitrosamines, the toxic and mutagenic activity of three model methylating agents were compared in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing human O6-alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) or not. N-Nitrosomethylurethane (NMUr), acetoxymethylmethylnitrosamine (AMMN) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-4-acetoxy-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK-4-OAc) are all activated by ester hydrolysis to methanediazohydroxide. NMUr does not form an aldehyde whereas AMMN generates formaldehyde and NNK-4-OAc produces 4-oxo-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (OPB). Since these compounds were likely to alkylate DNA to different extents, the toxic and mutagenic activity of these compounds was normalized to the levels of the most cytotoxic and mutagenic DNA adduct, O6-mG, to assess if the aldehydes contributed to the toxicological properties of these methylating agents. Levels of 7-mG indicated that the differences in cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of these compounds resulted from differences in their ability to methylate DNA. When normalized against the levels of O6-mG, there was no difference between these three compounds in cells that lacked AGT. However, AMMN and NNK-4-OAc were more toxic than NMUr in cells expressing AGT when normalized against O6-mG levels. In addition, AMMN was more mutagenic than NNK-4-OAc and MNUr in these cells. These findings demonstrate that the aldehyde decomposition products of nitrosamines can contribute to the cytotoxic and/or mutagenic activity of methylating nitrosamines.
nitrosamines; aldehyde; mutagenicity; toxicity; DNA repair
Body mass index is an established risk factor for post-menopausal breast cancer. Epidemiologic studies have also reported a positive association between type 2 diabetes (T2D) and breast cancer risk. To investigate a genetic basis linking these common phenotypes with breast cancer, we tested 31 common variants for T2D and obesity in a case-control study of 1,915 breast cancer cases and 2,884 controls nested within the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC) study. Following adjustment for multiple tests, we found no significant association between any variant and breast cancer risk. Summary scores comprised of the numbers of risk alleles for T2D and/or obesity were also not found to be significantly associated with breast cancer risk.
type 2 diabetes; obesity; GWAS; SNPs; breast cancer
Incidence rates for many cancers differ markedly by race/ethnicity and furthering our understanding of the genetic and environmental causes of such disparities is a scientific and public health need. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are widely acknowledged to provide important information about the etiology of common cancers. To date, these studies have been primarily conducted in European-derived populations. There are important reasons for extending the reach of GWAS studies to other groups and for conducting multiethnic genetic studies involving multiple populations and admixed populations. These include a (1) need to discover the full scope of variants that affect risk of disease in all populations, (2) furthering the understanding of disease pathways, and (3) to assist in fine mapping of genetic associations by exploiting the differences in linkage disequilibrium between populations to narrow the range of marker alleles demarking regions that contain a true biologically relevant variant. Challenges to multiethnic studies relating to study power, control for hidden population structure, imputation, and use of shared controls for multiple cancer endpoints are discussed.
Female steroid hormone levels and exogenous hormone use influence breast cancer risk. We investigated the association between genetic variation in the hormone metabolism and signaling pathway and mammographic density (MD), a strong predictor of breast cancer risk.
We genotyped 161 SNPs in 15 hormone metabolism pathway gene regions and evaluated MD in 2,038 Singapore Chinese women. Linear regression analysis was used to investigate SNP-MD association. An overall pathway summary was obtained using the adaptive ranked truncated product test.
We did not find any of the individually tested SNPs to be associated with MD after a multiple testing correction. There was no evidence of an overall effect on MD of genetic variation in the hormone metabolism pathway.
In this cross-sectional study, genetic variation in hormone metabolism pathway was not associated with MD in Singapore Chinese women.
Consistent with existing data from Caucasian populations, polymorphisms in hormone pathway genes are not likely to be strong predictors of MD in Asian women.
Hormone metabolism; polymorphism; mammographic density; Chinese
Candidate variant association studies have been largely unsuccessful in identifying common breast cancer susceptibility variants, although most studies have been underpowered to detect associations of a realistic magnitude. We assessed 41 common non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) for which evidence of association with breast cancer risk had been previously reported. Case-control data were combined from 38 studies of white European women (46 450 cases and 42 600 controls) and analyzed using unconditional logistic regression. Strong evidence of association was observed for three nsSNPs: ATXN7-K264R at 3p21 [rs1053338, per allele OR = 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.04–1.10, P = 2.9 × 10−6], AKAP9-M463I at 7q21 (rs6964587, OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.03–1.07, P = 1.7 × 10−6) and NEK10-L513S at 3p24 (rs10510592, OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.07–1.12, P = 5.1 × 10−17). The first two associations reached genome-wide statistical significance in a combined analysis of available data, including independent data from nine genome-wide association studies (GWASs): for ATXN7-K264R, OR = 1.07 (95% CI = 1.05–1.10, P = 1.0 × 10−8); for AKAP9-M463I, OR = 1.05 (95% CI = 1.04–1.07, P = 2.0 × 10−10). Further analysis of other common variants in these two regions suggested that intronic SNPs nearby are more strongly associated with disease risk. We have thus identified a novel susceptibility locus at 3p21, and confirmed previous suggestive evidence that rs6964587 at 7q21 is associated with risk. The third locus, rs10510592, is located in an established breast cancer susceptibility region; the association was substantially attenuated after adjustment for the known GWAS hit. Thus, each of the associated nsSNPs is likely to be a marker for another, non-coding, variant causally related to breast cancer risk. Further fine-mapping and functional studies are required to identify the underlying risk-modifying variants and the genes through which they act.
In a consortium including 23 637 breast cancer patients and 25 579 controls of East Asian ancestry, we investigated 70 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 67 independent breast cancer susceptibility loci recently identified by genome-wide association studies (GWASs) conducted primarily in European-ancestry populations. SNPs in 31 loci showed an association with breast cancer risk at P < 0.05 in a direction consistent with that reported previously. Twenty-one of them remained statistically significant after adjusting for multiple comparisons with the Bonferroni-corrected significance level of <0.0015. Eight of the 70 SNPs showed a significantly different association with breast cancer risk by estrogen receptor (ER) status at P < 0.05. With the exception of rs2046210 at 6q25.1, the seven other SNPs showed a stronger association with ER-positive than ER-negative cancer. This study replicated all five genetic risk variants initially identified in Asians and provided evidence for associations of breast cancer risk in the East Asian population with nearly half of the genetic risk variants initially reported in GWASs conducted in European descendants. Taken together, these common genetic risk variants explain ∼10% of excess familial risk of breast cancer in Asian populations.
Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. Common variants at 27 loci have been identified as associated with susceptibility to breast cancer, and these account for ~9% of the familial risk of the disease. We report here a meta-analysis of 9 genome-wide association studies, including 10,052 breast cancer cases and 12,575 controls of European ancestry, from which we selected 29,807 SNPs for further genotyping. These SNPs were genotyped in 45,290 cases and 41,880 controls of European ancestry from 41 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). The SNPs were genotyped as part of a collaborative genotyping experiment involving four consortia (Collaborative Oncological Gene-environment Study, COGS) and used a custom Illumina iSelect genotyping array, iCOGS, comprising more than 200,000 SNPs. We identified SNPs at 41 new breast cancer susceptibility loci at genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10−8). Further analyses suggest that more than 1,000 additional loci are involved in breast cancer susceptibility.
Estrogen receptor (ER)-negative tumors represent 20–30% of all breast cancers, with a higher proportion occurring in younger women and women of African ancestry1. The etiology2 and clinical behavior3 of ER-negative tumors are different from those of tumors expressing ER (ER positive), including differences in genetic predisposition4. To identify susceptibility loci specific to ER-negative disease, we combined in a meta-analysis 3 genome-wide association studies of 4,193 ER-negative breast cancer cases and 35,194 controls with a series of 40 follow-up studies (6,514 cases and 41,455 controls), genotyped using a custom Illumina array, iCOGS, developed by the Collaborative Oncological Gene-environment Study (COGS). SNPs at four loci, 1q32.1 (MDM4, P = 2.1 × 10−12 and LGR6, P = 1.4 × 10−8), 2p24.1 (P = 4.6 × 10−8) and 16q12.2 (FTO, P = 4.0 × 10−8), were associated with ER-negative but not ER-positive breast cancer (P > 0.05). These findings provide further evidence for distinct etiological pathways associated with invasive ER-positive and ER-negative breast cancers.
There are several well-established environmental risk factors for ovarian cancer, and recent genome-wide association studies have also identified six variants that influence disease risk. However, the interplay between such risk factors and susceptibility loci has not been studied.
Data from 14 ovarian cancer case-control studies were pooled, and stratified analyses by each environmental risk factor with tests for heterogeneity were conducted to determine the presence of interactions for all histological subtypes. A genetic “risk score” was created to consider the effects of all six variants simultaneously. A multivariate model was fit to examine the association between all environmental risk factors and genetic risk score on ovarian cancer risk.
Among 7,374 controls and 5,566 cases, there was no statistical evidence of interaction between the six SNPs or genetic risk score and the environmental risk factors on ovarian cancer risk. In a main effects model, women in the highest genetic risk score quartile had a 65% increased risk of ovarian cancer compared to women in the lowest (95% CI 1.48-1.84). Analyses by histological subtype yielded risk differences across subtype for endometriosis (phet<0.001), parity (phet<0.01), and tubal ligation (phet=0.041).
The lack of interactions suggests that a multiplicative model is the best fit for these data. Under such a model, we provide a robust estimate of each risk factor's effect, which sets the stage for absolute risk prediction modeling that considers both environmental and genetic risk factors. Further research into the observed differences in risk across histological subtype is warranted.
Gene-environment interactions; ovarian cancer; epidemiology; histological subtype; pooled analysis
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) plays a critical role in normal mammary development and morphogenesis. Decreased TGF-β signaling has been associated with increased mammographic density. Percent mammographic density (PMD) adjusted for age and body mass index (BMI) is a strong risk factor and predictor of breast cancer risk. PMD is highly heritable, but few genetic determinants have been identified. We investigated the association between genetic variation in TGFB1 and PMD using a cross-sectional study of 2,038 women who were members of the population-based Singapore Chinese Health Study cohort. We assessed PMD using a computer-assisted method. We used linear regression to examine the association between 9 tagging SNPs of TGFB1 and PMD and their interaction with parity, adjusting for age, BMI, and dialect group. We calculated ‘P-values adjusted for correlated tests’ (PACT) to account for multiple testing. The strongest association was observed for rs2241716. Adjusted PMD was higher by 1.5% per minor allele (PACT =0.04). When stratifying by parity, this association was limited to nulliparous women. For nulliparous women, adjusted PMD was higher by 8.6% per minor allele (PACT=0.003; P for interaction with parity=0.002). Three additional TGFB1 tagging SNPs, which were in linkage disequilibrium with rs2241716, were statistically significantly associated with adjusted PMD (PACT<0.05) for nulliparous women. However, none of these three SNPs showed statistically significant association after adjusting for rs2241716. Our data support that TGFB1 genetic variation may be an important genetic determinant of mammographic density measure that predicts breast cancer risk, particularly in nulliparous women.
TGFB1; polymorphism; mammographic density; Chinese
Risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is higher among individuals with a family history or a prior diagnosis of other cancers. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have suggested that some genetic susceptibility variants are associated with multiple complex traits (pleiotropy).
We investigated whether common risk variants identified in cancer GWAS may also increase the risk of developing NHL as the first primary cancer.
As part of the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) consortium, 113 cancer risk variants were analyzed in 1,441 NHL cases and 24,183 controls from three studies (BioVU, Multiethnic Cohort Study, Women's Health Initiative) for their association with the risk of overall NHL and common subtypes [diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), follicular lymphoma (FL), chronic lymphocytic leukemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL)] using an additive genetic model adjusted for age, sex and ethnicity. Study-specific results for each variant were meta-analyzed across studies.
The analysis of NHL subtype-specific GWAS SNPs and overall NHL suggested a shared genetic susceptibility between FL and DLBCL, particularly involving variants in the major histocompatibility complex region (rs6457327 in 6p21.33: FL OR = 1.29, p = 0.013; DLBCL OR = 1.23, p = 0.013; NHL OR = 1.22, p = 5.9×E-05). In the pleiotropy analysis, six risk variants for other cancers were associated with NHL risk, including variants for lung (rs401681 in TERT: OR per C allele = 0.89, p = 3.7×E-03; rs4975616 in TERT: OR per A allele = 0.90, p = 0.01; rs3131379 in MSH5: OR per T allele = 1.16, p = 0.03), prostate (rs7679673 in TET2: OR per C allele = 0.89, p = 5.7×E-03; rs10993994 in MSMB: OR per T allele = 1.09, p = 0.04), and breast (rs3817198 in LSP1: OR per C allele = 1.12, p = 0.01) cancers, but none of these associations remained significant after multiple test correction.
This study does not support strong pleiotropic effects of non-NHL cancer risk variants in NHL etiology; however, larger studies are warranted.
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified genetic factors in type 2 diabetes (T2D), mostly among individuals of European ancestry. We tested whether previously identified T2D-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) replicate and whether SNPs in regions near known T2D SNPs were associated with T2D within the Singapore Chinese Health Study.
2338 cases and 2339 T2D controls from the Singapore Chinese Health Study were genotyped for 507,509 SNPs. Imputation extended the genotyped SNPs to 7,514,461 with high estimated certainty (r2>0.8). Replication of known index SNP associations in T2D was attempted. Risk scores were computed as the sum of index risk alleles. SNPs in regions ±100 kb around each index were tested for associations with T2D in conditional fine-mapping analysis.
Of 69 index SNPs, 20 were genotyped directly and genotypes at 35 others were well imputed. Among the 55 SNPs with data, disease associations were replicated (at p<0.05) for 15 SNPs, while 32 more were directionally consistent with previous reports. Risk score was a significant predictor with a 2.03 fold higher risk CI (1.69–2.44) of T2D comparing the highest to lowest quintile of risk allele burden (p = 5.72×10−14). Two improved SNPs around index rs10923931 and 5 new candidate SNPs around indices rs10965250 and rs1111875 passed simple Bonferroni corrections for significance in conditional analysis. Nonetheless, only a small fraction (2.3% on the disease liability scale) of T2D burden in Singapore is explained by these SNPs.
While diabetes risk in Singapore Chinese involves genetic variants, most disease risk remains unexplained. Further genetic work is ongoing in the Singapore Chinese population to identify unique common variants not already seen in earlier studies. However rapid increases in T2D risk have occurred in recent decades in this population, indicating that dynamic environmental influences and possibly gene by environment interactions complicate the genetic architecture of this disease.
A common genetic variant (rs10993994) in the 5’ region of the gene encoding β-microseminoprotein (MSP) is associated with circulating levels of MSP and prostate cancer risk. Whether MSP levels are predictive of prostate cancer risk has not been evaluated.
We investigated the prospective relationship between circulating plasma levels of MSP and prostate cancer risk in a nested case–control study of 1503 case subjects and 1503 control subjects among black, Latino, Japanese, Native Hawaiian, and white men from the Multiethnic Cohort study. We also examined the ability of MSP to serve as a biomarker for discriminating prostate cancer case subjects from control subjects. All statistical tests are two-sided.
In all racial and ethnic groups, men with lower MSP levels were at greater risk of developing prostate cancer (odds ratio = 1.02 per one unit decrease in MSP, P < .001 in the prostate-specific antigen [PSA]–adjusted analysis). Compared with men in the highest decile of MSP, the multivariable PSA-adjusted odds ratio was 3.64 (95% confidence interval = 2.41 to 5.49) for men in the lowest decile. The positive association with lower MSP levels was observed consistently across racial and ethnic populations, by disease stage and Gleason score, for men with both high and low levels of PSA and across all genotype classes of rs10993994. However, we did not detect strong evidence of MSP levels in improving prostate cancer prediction beyond that of PSA.
Regardless of race and ethnicity or rs10993994 genotype, men with low blood levels of MSP have increased risk of prostate cancer.
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in diverse populations are needed to reveal variants that are more common and/or limited to defined populations. We conducted a GWAS of breast cancer in women of African ancestry, with genotyping of > 1,000,000 SNPs in 3,153 African American cases and 2,831 controls, and replication testing of the top 66 associations in an additional 3,607 breast cancer cases and 11,330 controls of African ancestry. Two of the 66 SNPs replicated (p < 0.05) in stage 2, which reached statistical significance levels of 10−6 and 10−5 in the stage 1 and 2 combined analysis (rs4322600 at chromosome 14q31: OR = 1.18, p = 4.3×10−6; rs10510333 at chromosome 3p26: OR = 1.15, p = 1.5×10−5). These suggestive risk loci have not been identified in previous GWAS in other populations and will need to be examined in additional samples. Identification of novel risk variants for breast cancer in women of African ancestry will demand testing of a substantially larger set of markers from stage 1 in a larger replication sample.
GWAS; breast cancer; African ancestry; common genetic variation
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of breast cancer defined by hormone receptor status have revealed loci contributing to susceptibility of estrogen receptor (ER)-negative subtypes. To identify additional genetic variants for ER-negative breast cancer, we conducted the largest meta-analysis of ER-negative disease to date, comprising 4754 ER-negative cases and 31 663 controls from three GWAS: NCI Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3) (2188 ER-negative cases; 25 519 controls of European ancestry), Triple Negative Breast Cancer Consortium (TNBCC) (1562 triple negative cases; 3399 controls of European ancestry) and African American Breast Cancer Consortium (AABC) (1004 ER-negative cases; 2745 controls). We performed in silico replication of 86 SNPs at P ≤ 1 × 10-5 in an additional 11 209 breast cancer cases (946 with ER-negative disease) and 16 057 controls of Japanese, Latino and European ancestry. We identified two novel loci for breast cancer at 20q11 and 6q14. SNP rs2284378 at 20q11 was associated with ER-negative breast cancer (combined two-stage OR = 1.16; P = 1.1 × 10−8) but showed a weaker association with overall breast cancer (OR = 1.08, P = 1.3 × 10–6) based on 17 869 cases and 43 745 controls and no association with ER-positive disease (OR = 1.01, P = 0.67) based on 9965 cases and 22 902 controls. Similarly, rs17530068 at 6q14 was associated with breast cancer (OR = 1.12; P = 1.1 × 10−9), and with both ER-positive (OR = 1.09; P = 1.5 × 10−5) and ER-negative (OR = 1.16, P = 2.5 × 10−7) disease. We also confirmed three known loci associated with ER-negative (19p13) and both ER-negative and ER-positive breast cancer (6q25 and 12p11). Our results highlight the value of large-scale collaborative studies to identify novel breast cancer risk loci.
Observational studies have found an inverse association between type 2 diabetes (T2D) and prostate cancer (PCa), and genome-wide association studies have found common variants near 3 loci associated with both diseases. The authors examined whether a genetic background that favors T2D is associated with risk of advanced PCa. Data from the National Cancer Institute's Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium, a genome-wide association study of 2,782 advanced PCa cases and 4,458 controls, were used to evaluate whether individual single nucleotide polymorphisms or aggregations of these 36 T2D susceptibility loci are associated with PCa. Ten T2D markers near 9 loci (NOTCH2, ADCY5, JAZF1, CDKN2A/B, TCF7L2, KCNQ1, MTNR1B, FTO, and HNF1B) were nominally associated with PCa (P < 0.05); the association for single nucleotide polymorphism rs757210 at the HNF1B locus was significant when multiple comparisons were accounted for (adjusted P = 0.001). Genetic risk scores weighted by the T2D log odds ratio and multilocus kernel tests also indicated a significant relation between T2D variants and PCa risk. A mediation analysis of 9,065 PCa cases and 9,526 controls failed to produce evidence that diabetes mediates the association of the HNF1B locus with PCa risk. These data suggest a shared genetic component between T2D and PCa and add to the evidence for an interrelation between these diseases.
carcinoma; diabetes mellitus, type 2; genetic predisposition to disease; genetics; genome-wide association study; humans; polymorphism, single nucleotide; prostatic neoplasms
HNF1B is overexpressed in clear cell epithelial ovarian cancer, and we observed epigenetic silencing in serous epithelial ovarian cancer, leading us to hypothesize that variation in this gene differentially associates with epithelial ovarian cancer risk according to histological subtype. Here we comprehensively map variation in HNF1B with respect to epithelial ovarian cancer risk and analyse DNA methylation and expression profiles across histological subtypes. Different single-nucleotide polymorphisms associate with invasive serous (rs7405776 odds ratio (OR) = 1.13, P = 3.1 × 10−10) and clear cell (rs11651755 OR = 0.77, P = 1.6 × 10−8) epithelial ovarian cancer. Risk alleles for the serous subtype associate with higher HNF1B-promoter methylation in these tumours. Unmethylated, expressed HNF1B, primarily present in clear cell tumours, coincides with a CpG island methylator phenotype affecting numerous other promoters throughout the genome. Different variants in HNF1B associate with risk of serous and clear cell epithelial ovarian cancer; DNA methylation and expression patterns are also notably distinct between these subtypes. These findings underscore distinct mechanisms driving different epithelial ovarian cancer histological subtypes.
There is increasing interest in adding common genetic variants
identified through genome wide association studies (GWAS) to breast cancer
risk prediction models. First results from such models showed modest
benefits in terms of risk discrimination. Heterogeneity of breast cancer as
defined by hormone-receptor status has not been considered in this context.
In this study we investigated the predictive capacity of 32 GWAS-detected
common variants for breast cancer risk, alone and in combination with
classical risk factors, and for tumors with different hormone receptor
Material and Methods
Within the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3), we
analyzed 6009 invasive breast cancer cases and 7827 matched controls of
European ancestry, with data on classical breast cancer risk factors and 32
common gene variants identified through GWAS. Discriminatory ability with
respect to breast cancer of specific hormone receptor-status was assessed
with the age- and cohort-adjusted concordance statistic
(AUROCa). Absolute risk scores were
calculated with external reference data. Integrated discrimination
improvement (IDI) was used to measure improvements in risk prediction.
We found a small but steady increase in discriminatory ability with
increasing numbers of genetic variants included in the model (difference in
AUROCa going from 2.7 to 4%). Discriminatory ability
for all models varied strongly by hormone receptor status
Discussion and Conclusion
Adding information on common polymorphisms provides small but
statistically significant improvements in the quality of breast cancer risk
prediction models. We consistently observed better performance for receptor
positive cases, but the gain in discriminatory quality is not sufficient for
breast cancer; risk prediction; genetic factors; hormone receptor status
Obesity is a leading contributor to colorectal cancer risk. We investigated whether the risk variants identified in genome-wide association studies of body mass index (BMI) and waist size are associated with colorectal cancer risk, independently of the effect of obesity phenotype due to a shared etiology. Twenty four SNPs in 15 loci (BDNF, FAIM2, FTO, GNPDA2, KCTD15, LYPLAL1, MC4R, MSRA, MTCH2, NEGR1, NRXN3, SEC16B, SH2B1, TFAP2B, and TMEM18) were genotyped in a case-control study of 2,033 colorectal cancer cases and 9,640 controls nested within the Multiethnic Cohort Study, as part of the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) consortium. Risk alleles for two obesity SNPs were associated with colorectal cancer risk – KCTD15 rs29941 [odds ratio (OR) for C allele = 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.83–0.98; p = 0.01] and MC4R rs17782313 (OR for C allele = 1.12, 95% CI 1.02–1.22; p = 0.02). These associations were independent of the effect of BMI. However, none of the results remained significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. No heterogeneity was observed across race/ethnic groups. Our findings suggest that the obesity risk variants are not likely to affect the risk of colorectal cancer substantially.
genotype-phenotype interactions; obesity; pleiotropy; prospective nested case-control studies; race/ethnicity
There have been few genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of prostate cancer among diverse populations. To search for novel prostate cancer risk variants, we conducted GWAS of prostate cancer in Japanese and Latinos. In addition, we tested prostate cancer risk variants and developed genetic risk models of prostate cancer for Japanese and Latinos.
Our first stage GWAS of prostate cancer included Japanese (cases/controls=1,033/1,042) and Latino (cases/controls=1,043/1,057) from the Multiethnic Cohort. Significant associations from stage 1 (P < 1.0×10−4) were examined in silico in GWAS of prostate cancer (stage 2) in Japanese (cases/controls=1,583/3,386) and Europeans (cases/controls=1,854/1,894).
No novel stage 1 SNPs outside of known risk regions reached genome-wide significance. For Japanese, in stage 1, the most notable putative novel association was seen with 10 SNPs (P<8.0. x10−6) at chromosome 2q33; however, this was not replicated in stage 2. For Latinos, the most significant association was observed with rs17023900 at the known 3p12 risk locus (stage 1: OR=1.45; P=7.01×10−5 and stage 2: OR=1.58; P =3.05×10−7). The majority of the established risk variants for prostate cancer, 79% and 88%, were positively associated with prostate cancer in Japanese and Latinos (stage I), respectively. The cumulative effects of these variants significantly influence prostate cancer risk (OR per allele=1.10; P = 2.71×10−25 and OR=1.07; P = 1.02×10−16 for Japanese and Latinos, respectively).
Conclusion and Impact
Our GWAS of prostate cancer did not identify novel genome-wide significant variants. However, our findings demonstrate that established risk variants for prostate cancer significantly contribute to risk among Japanese and Latinos.
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a transcription factor important for adipogenesis and adipocyte differentiation. Data from animal studies suggest that PPARγ may be involved in breast tumorigenesis, but results from epidemiologic studies on the association between PPARγ variation and breast cancer risk have been mixed. Recent data suggest that soy isoflavones can activate PPARγ. We investigated the inter-relations of soy, PPARγ, and mammographic density (MD), a biomarker of breast cancer risk in a cross-sectional study of 2,038 women who were members of the population-based Singapore Chinese Health Study Cohort.
We assessed MD using a computer-assisted method. We used linear regression to examine the association between 26 tagging SNPs of PPARγ and their interaction with soy intake and MD. To correct for multiple testing, we calculated P-values adjusted for multiple correlated tests (PACT).
Out of the 26 tested SNPs in the PPARγ, 6 SNPs were individually shown to be statistically significantly associated with MD (PACT=0.004∼0.049). A stepwise regression procedure identified that only rs880663 was independently associated with MD which decreased by 1.89% per minor allele (PACT=0.008).This association was significantly stronger in high soy consumers as MD decreased by 3.97% per minor allele of rs880663 in high soy consumers (PACT=0.006; P for interaction with lower soy intake=0.017).
Our data support that PPARγ genetic variation may be important in determining MD, particularly in high soy consumers.
Our findings may help to identify molecular targets and lifestyle intervention for future prevention research.
PPARγ; PPARG; polymorphism; soy; mammographic density; Chinese