BRCA1-associated breast and ovarian cancer risks can be modified by common genetic variants. To identify further cancer risk-modifying loci, we performed a multi-stage GWAS of 11,705 BRCA1 carriers (of whom 5,920 were diagnosed with breast and 1,839 were diagnosed with ovarian cancer), with a further replication in an additional sample of 2,646 BRCA1 carriers. We identified a novel breast cancer risk modifier locus at 1q32 for BRCA1 carriers (rs2290854, P = 2.7×10−8, HR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.09–1.20). In addition, we identified two novel ovarian cancer risk modifier loci: 17q21.31 (rs17631303, P = 1.4×10−8, HR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.17–1.38) and 4q32.3 (rs4691139, P = 3.4×10−8, HR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.17–1.38). The 4q32.3 locus was not associated with ovarian cancer risk in the general population or BRCA2 carriers, suggesting a BRCA1-specific association. The 17q21.31 locus was also associated with ovarian cancer risk in 8,211 BRCA2 carriers (P = 2×10−4). These loci may lead to an improved understanding of the etiology of breast and ovarian tumors in BRCA1 carriers. Based on the joint distribution of the known BRCA1 breast cancer risk-modifying loci, we estimated that the breast cancer lifetime risks for the 5% of BRCA1 carriers at lowest risk are 28%–50% compared to 81%–100% for the 5% at highest risk. Similarly, based on the known ovarian cancer risk-modifying loci, the 5% of BRCA1 carriers at lowest risk have an estimated lifetime risk of developing ovarian cancer of 28% or lower, whereas the 5% at highest risk will have a risk of 63% or higher. Such differences in risk may have important implications for risk prediction and clinical management for BRCA1 carriers.
BRCA1 mutation carriers have increased and variable risks of breast and ovarian cancer. To identify modifiers of breast and ovarian cancer risk in this population, a multi-stage GWAS of 14,351 BRCA1 mutation carriers was performed. Loci 1q32 and TCF7L2 at 10q25.3 were associated with breast cancer risk, and two loci at 4q32.2 and 17q21.31 were associated with ovarian cancer risk. The 4q32.3 ovarian cancer locus was not associated with ovarian cancer risk in the general population or in BRCA2 carriers and is the first indication of a BRCA1-specific risk locus for either breast or ovarian cancer. Furthermore, modeling the influence of these modifiers on cumulative risk of breast and ovarian cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers for the first time showed that a wide range of individual absolute risks of each cancer can be estimated. These differences suggest that genetic risk modifiers may be incorporated into the clinical management of BRCA1 mutation carriers.
Current variant discovery methods often start with the mapping of short reads to a reference genome; yet, their performance deteriorates in genomic regions where the reads are highly divergent from the reference sequence. This is particularly problematic for the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region on chromosome 6p21.3. This region is associated with over 100 diseases, but variant calling is hindered by the extreme divergence across different haplotypes.
We simulated reads from chromosome 6 exonic regions over a wide range of sequence divergence and coverage depth. We systematically assessed combinations between five mappers and five callers for their performance on simulated data and exome-seq data from NA12878, a well-studied individual in which multiple public call sets have been generated. Among those combinations, the number of known SNPs differed by about 5 % in the non-HLA regions of chromosome 6 but over 20 % in the HLA region. Notably, GSNAP mapping combined with GATK UnifiedGenotyper calling identified about 20 % more known SNPs than most existing methods without a noticeable loss of specificity, with 100 % sensitivity in three highly polymorphic HLA genes examined. Much larger differences were observed among these combinations in INDEL calling from both non-HLA and HLA regions. We obtained similar results with our internal exome-seq data from a cohort of chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients.
We have established a workflow enabling variant detection, with high sensitivity and specificity, over the full spectrum of divergence seen in the human genome. Comparing to public call sets from NA12878 has highlighted the overall superiority of GATK UnifiedGenotyper, followed by GATK HaplotypeCaller and SAMtools, in SNP calling, and of GATK HaplotypeCaller and Platypus in INDEL calling, particularly in regions of high sequence divergence such as the HLA region. GSNAP and Novoalign are the ideal mappers in combination with the above callers. We expect that the proposed workflow should be applicable to variant discovery in other highly divergent regions.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12864-016-3045-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Alignment algorithm; Chronic lymphocytic leukemia; Exome sequencing; Human leukocyte antigen; Variant calling
Epigenetic information encoded in covalent modifications of DNA and histone proteins regulates fundamental biological processes through the action of chromatin regulators, transcription factors, and noncoding RNA species. Epigenetic plasticity enables an organism to respond to developmental and environmental signals without genetic changes. However, aberrant epigenetic control plays a key role in pathogenesis of disease. Normal epigenetic states could be disrupted by detrimental mutations and expression alteration of chromatin regulators or by environmental factors. In this primer, we briefly review the epigenetic basis of human disease and discuss how recent discoveries in this field could be translated into clinical diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. We introduce platforms for mapping genome-wide chromatin accessibility, nucleosome occupancy, DNA-binding proteins, and DNA methylation, primarily focusing on the integration of DNA methylation and chromatin immunoprecipitation–sequencing technologies into disease association studies. We highlight practical considerations in applying high-throughput epigenetic assays and formulating analytical strategies. Finally, we summarize current challenges in sample acquisition, experimental procedures, data analysis, and interpretation and make recommendations on further refinement in these areas. Incorporating epigenomic testing into the clinical research arsenal will greatly facilitate our understanding of the epigenetic basis of disease and help identify novel therapeutic targets.
cancer; complex diseases; DNA methylation; epigenome; histone modification
Studies of related individuals have consistently demonstrated notable familial aggregation of cancer. We aim to estimate the heritability and genetic correlation attributable to the additive effects of common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for cancer at 13 anatomical sites.
Between 2007 and 2014, the US National Cancer Institute has generated data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for 49 492 cancer case patients and 34 131 control patients. We apply novel mixed model methodology (GCTA) to this GWAS data to estimate the heritability of individual cancers, as well as the proportion of heritability attributable to cigarette smoking in smoking-related cancers, and the genetic correlation between pairs of cancers.
GWAS heritability was statistically significant at nearly all sites, with the estimates of array-based heritability, hl
2, on the liability threshold (LT) scale ranging from 0.05 to 0.38. Estimating the combined heritability of multiple smoking characteristics, we calculate that at least 24% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 14% to 37%) and 7% (95% CI = 4% to 11%) of the heritability for lung and bladder cancer, respectively, can be attributed to genetic determinants of smoking. Most pairs of cancers studied did not show evidence of strong genetic correlation. We found only four pairs of cancers with marginally statistically significant correlations, specifically kidney and testes (ρ = 0.73, SE = 0.28), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and pediatric osteosarcoma (ρ = 0.53, SE = 0.21), DLBCL and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) (ρ = 0.51, SE =0.18), and bladder and lung (ρ = 0.35, SE = 0.14). Correlation analysis also indicates that the genetic architecture of lung cancer differs between a smoking population of European ancestry and a nonsmoking Asian population, allowing for the possibility that the genetic etiology for the same disease can vary by population and environmental exposures.
Our results provide important insights into the genetic architecture of cancers and suggest new avenues for investigation.
We performed a multistage genome-wide association study to identify inherited genetic variants that predict outcome in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients treated with immunochemotherapy.
We conducted a meta-analysis of two genome-wide association study data sets, one from the LNH2003B trial (N = 540), a prospective clinical trial from the Lymphoma Study Association, and the other from the Molecular Epidemiology Resource study (N = 312), a prospective observational study from the University of Iowa–Mayo Clinic Lymphoma Specialized Program of Research Excellence. Top single nucleotide polymorphisms were then genotyped in independent cohorts of patients from the Specialized Program of Research Excellence (N = 391) and the Groupe Ouest-Est des Leucémies Aiguës et Maladies du Sang (GOELAMS) -075 randomized trial (N = 294). We calculated the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) using a log-additive genetic model with adjustment for age, sex, and age-adjusted International Prognostic Index.
In a meta-analysis of the four studies, the top loci for EFS were marked by rs7712513 at 5q23.2 (near SNX2 and SNCAIP; HR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.23 to 1.57; P = 2.08 × 10−7), and rs7765004 at 6q21 (near MARCKS and HDAC2; HR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.22 to 1.57; P = 7.09 × 10−7), although they did not reach conventional genome-wide significance (P = 5 × 10−8). Both rs7712513 (HR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.29 to 1.72; P = 3.53 × 10−8) and rs7765004 (HR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.27 to 1.71; P = 5.36 × 10−7) were also associated with OS. In exploratory analyses, a two–single nucleotide polymorphism risk score was highly predictive of EFS (P = 1.78 × 10−12) and was independent of treatment, IPI, and cell-of-origin classification.
Our study provides encouraging evidence for associations between loci at 5q23.2 and 6q21 with EFS and OS in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with immunochemotherapy, suggesting novel biology and the potential contribution of host genetics to the prognosis of this aggressive malignancy.
The authors documented a low compliance with guidelines to screen for skin malignancy in a community-dwelling cohort of patients with newly diagnosed chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Assess compliance with skin cancer screening guidelines in a community-dwelling cohort of patients with newly diagnosed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and evaluate the clinical utility of such screening.
We identified patients diagnosed at Mayo Clinic with CLL between January 1, 2004, and June 1, 2012, who resided within 30 miles of Mayo Clinic. We evaluated adherence to skin cancer screening and identified the prevalence of skin malignancies during follow-up. Medical records were reviewed to document skin cancer screening and diagnosis of a skin malignancy.
Collectively, 113 individuals who met criteria were diagnosed with CLL during the study interval. Forty-one patients (36%) had a whole body skin examination by either a dermatologist or primary care provider documented within 6 months of diagnosis; of these; nine (8% of overall cohort; 22% of examined patients) had a skin malignancy identified. Fifteen additional skin malignancies were diagnosed during follow-up. There were a total of 24 skin malignancies (21% of cohort) diagnosed, including basal cell carcinoma (n = 10), squamous cell carcinoma (n = 11), sebaceous carcinomas (n = 2), and melanoma (n = 1).
We documented a low compliance with guidelines to screen for skin malignancy in a community-dwelling cohort of patients with newly diagnosed CLL. Standardized and systems-based approaches are likely to increase compliance with skin cancer screening guidelines in patients with CLL.
GATK Best Practices workflows are widely used in large-scale sequencing projects and recommend post-alignment processing before variant calling. Two key post-processing steps include the computationally intensive local realignment around known INDELs and base quality score recalibration (BQSR). Both have been shown to reduce erroneous calls; however, the findings are mainly supported by the analytical pipeline that incorporates BWA and GATK UnifiedGenotyper. It is not known whether there is any benefit of post-processing and to what extent the benefit might be for pipelines implementing other methods, especially given that both mappers and callers are typically updated. Moreover, because sequencing platforms are upgraded regularly and the new platforms provide better estimations of read quality scores, the need for post-processing is also unknown. Finally, some regions in the human genome show high sequence divergence from the reference genome; it is unclear whether there is benefit from post-processing in these regions.
We used both simulated and NA12878 exome data to comprehensively assess the impact of post-processing for five or six popular mappers together with five callers. Focusing on chromosome 6p21.3, which is a region of high sequence divergence harboring the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system, we found that local realignment had little or no impact on SNP calling, but increased sensitivity was observed in INDEL calling for the Stampy + GATK UnifiedGenotyper pipeline. No or only a modest effect of local realignment was detected on the three haplotype-based callers and no evidence of effect on Novoalign. BQSR had virtually negligible effect on INDEL calling and generally reduced sensitivity for SNP calling that depended on caller, coverage and level of divergence. Specifically, for SAMtools and FreeBayes calling in the regions with low divergence, BQSR reduced the SNP calling sensitivity but improved the precision when the coverage is insufficient. However, in regions of high divergence (e.g., the HLA region), BQSR reduced the sensitivity of both callers with little gain in precision rate. For the other three callers, BQSR reduced the sensitivity without increasing the precision rate regardless of coverage and divergence level.
We demonstrated that the gain from post-processing is not universal; rather, it depends on mapper and caller combination, and the benefit is influenced further by sequencing depth and divergence level. Our analysis highlights the importance of considering these key factors in deciding to apply the computationally intensive post-processing to Illumina exome data.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12859-016-1279-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Base quality score recalibration; Human leukocyte antigen; Local realignment; Variant calling; Whole exome sequencing
Tumor budding in colorectal carcinoma has been associated with poor outcome in multiple studies, but the absence of an established histologic cutoff for “high” tumor budding, heterogeneity in study populations and varying methods for assessing tumor budding have hindered widespread incorporation of this parameter in clinical reports. We used an established scoring system in a population-based cohort to determine a histologic cutoff for “high” tumor budding and confirm its prognostic significance. We retrieved hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections from 553 incident colorectal carcinoma cases. Each case was previously characterized for select molecular alterations and survival data. Interobserver agreement was assessed between two GI pathologists and a group of four general surgical pathologists. High budding (≥10 tumor buds in a 20× objective field) was present in 32% of cases, low budding in 46% and no budding in 22%. High tumor budding was associated with advanced pathologic stage (p<0.001), microsatellite stability (p=0.005), KRAS mutation (p=0.010) and on multivariate analysis with a greater than two times risk of cancer-specific death (HR=2.57 (1.27, 5.19)). After multivariate adjustment, via penalized smoothing splines, we found increasing tumor bud counts from 5 upward to be associated with an increasingly shortened cancer-specific survival. By this method, a tumor bud count of 10 corresponded to approximately 2.5 times risk of cancer –specific death. The interobserver agreement was good with weighted kappa of 0.70 for two GI pathologists over 121 random cases and 0.72 between all six pathologists for 20 random cases. Using an established method to assess budding on routine histologic stains, we have shown a cutoff of 10 for high tumor budding is independently associated with a significantly worse prognosis. The reproducibility data provide support for the routine widespread implementation of tumor budding in clinical reports.
Although hypogammaglobulinemia is a well-recognized complication in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), its prevalence at the time of CLL diagnosis, and association with novel prognostic markers and clinical outcome is not well understood.
All patients seen at Mayo Clinic between 1/1999–7/2013 with newly diagnosed CLL and who had baseline assessment of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) were included. The relationship between hypogammaglobulinemia at diagnosis and novel prognostic parameters, time to first treatment (TFT) and overall survival (OS) were evaluated.
Of 1485 patients who met the eligibility criteria, 382 (26%) had hypogammaglobulinemia (median IgG=624 mg/dL) while the remaining 1103 (74%) had normal serum IgG levels (median IgG=1040 mg/dL). Patients with hypogammaglobulinemia at diagnosis were more likely to have advanced Rai stage (III–IV, p=0.001) and have higher expression of CD49d (p<0.001) compared to patients with normal IgG. Although the median TFT for patients with hypogammaglobulinemia was shorter compared to patients with a normal IgG (3.8 years vs. 7.4 years, p<0.001) on multivariable analysis, there was no difference in OS between these two groups (12.8 years vs. 11.3 years, p=0.73). Of 1103 CLL patients who had a normal IgG at diagnosis and who did not receive CLL therapy, the risk of acquired hypogammaglobulinemia was 11% and 23% at 5 and 10 years, respectively.
Hypogammaglobulinemia is present in one-quarter of newly diagnosed CLL patients. Approximately one-quarter of CLL patients with normal IgG at diagnosis will subsequently develop hypogammaglobulinemia on long-term follow-up. The presence of hypogammaglobulinemia does not appear to impact survival.
CLL; immune dysregulation; hypogammaglobulinemia; prognostic markers; outcomes
Recent advances in DNA sequencing have led to the development of breast cancer susceptibility gene panels for germline genetic testing of patients. We assessed the frequency of mutations in 17 predisposition genes, including BRCA1 and BRCA2, in a large cohort of patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) unselected for family history of breast or ovarian cancer to determine the utility of germline genetic testing for those with TNBC.
Patients and Methods
Patients with TNBC (N = 1,824) unselected for family history of breast or ovarian cancer were recruited through 12 studies, and germline DNA was sequenced to identify mutations.
Deleterious mutations were identified in 14.6% of all patients. Of these, 11.2% had mutations in the BRCA1 (8.5%) and BRCA2 (2.7%) genes. Deleterious mutations in 15 other predisposition genes were detected in 3.7% of patients, with the majority observed in genes involved in homologous recombination, including PALB2 (1.2%) and BARD1, RAD51D, RAD51C, and BRIP1 (0.3% to 0.5%). Patients with TNBC with mutations were diagnosed at an earlier age (P < .001) and had higher-grade tumors (P = .01) than those without mutations.
Deleterious mutations in predisposition genes are present at high frequency in patients with TNBC unselected for family history of cancer. Mutation prevalence estimates suggest that patients with TNBC, regardless of age at diagnosis or family history of cancer, should be considered for germline genetic testing of BRCA1 and BRCA2. Although mutations in other predisposition genes are observed among patients with TNBC, better cancer risk estimates are needed before these mutations are used for clinical risk assessment in relatives.
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a widely prevalent herpes virus which establishes a state of chronic infection. The establishment of CMV‐specific immunity controls viral reactivation and leads to the accumulation of very large numbers of virus‐specific T cells which come to dominate the immune repertoire. There is concern that this may reduce the immune response to heterologous infections and HCMV infection has been associated with reduced survival in elderly people. Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B‐CLL) suffer from a state of immune suppression but have a paradoxical increase in the magnitude of the CMV‐specific T cell and humoral immune response. As such, there is now considerable interest in how CMV infection impacts on the clinical outcome of patients with B‐CLL. Utilizing a large prospective cohort of patients with B‐CLL (n = 347) we evaluated the relationship between HCMV seropositivity and patient outcome. HCMV seropositive patients had significantly worse overall survival than HCMV negative patients in univariate analysis (HR = 2.28, 95% CI: 1.34–3.88; P = 0.002). However, CMV seropositive patients were 4 years older than seronegative donors and this survival difference was lost in multivariate modeling adjusted for age and other validated prognostic markers (P = 0.34). No significant difference was found in multivariate modeling between HCMV positive and negative patients in relation to the time to first treatment (HR = 1.12, 95% CI: 0.68–1.84; P = 0.65). These findings in a second independent cohort of 236 B‐CLL patients were validated. In conclusion no evidence that HCMV impacts on the clinical outcome of patients with B‐CLL was found. Am. J. Hematol. 91:776–781, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Excess adiposity has been associated with lymphomagenesis, possibly mediated by increased cytokine production causing a chronic inflammatory state. The relationship between obesity, cytokine polymorphisms and selected mature B-cell neoplasms is reported.
Data on 4979 cases and 4752 controls from nine American/European studies from the InterLymph consortium (1988–2008) were pooled. For diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), follicular lymphoma (FL) and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL), joint associations of body mass index (from self-reported height and weight) and 12 polymorphisms in cytokines IL1A (rs1800587), IL1B (rs16944, rs1143627), IL1RN (rs454078), IL2 (rs2069762), IL6 (rs1800795, rs1800797), IL10 (rs1800890, rs1800896), TNF (rs1800629), LTA (rs909253), and CARD15 (rs2066847) were investigated using unconditional logistic regression. BMI-polymorphism interaction effects were estimated using the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI).
Obesity (BMI≥30kg m−2) was associated with DLBCL risk (OR=1.33, 95%CI 1.02–1.73), as was TNF-308GA+AA (OR=1.24, 95%CI 1.07–1.44). Together, being obese and TNF-308GA+AA increased DLBCL risk almost two-fold relative to those of normal weight and TNF-308GG (OR=1.93 95%CI 1.27–2.94), with a RERI of 0.41 (95%CI −0.05,0.84, P(interaction)=0.13). For FL and CLL/SLL, no associations with obesity or TNF-308GA+AA, either singly or jointly, were observed. No evidence of interactions between obesity and the other polymorphisms were detected.
Our results suggest that cytokine polymorphisms do not generally interact with BMI to increase lymphoma risk but obesity and TNF-308GA+AA may interact to increase DLBCL risk.
Studies using better measures of adiposity are needed to further investigate the interactions between obesity and TNF-308G>A in the pathogenesis of lymphoma.
Body mass index; genotype; polymorphism; non-Hodgkin lymphoma
It is unknown whether individuals with monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) are at risk for adverse outcomes associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), such as the risk of non-hematologic cancer. We identified all locally-residing individuals diagnosed with high count MBL at Mayo Clinic between 1999 and 2009 and compared their rates of non-hematologic cancer to that of patients with CLL and two control cohorts: general medicine patients and patients who underwent clinical evaluation with flow cytometry but who had no hematologic malignancy. After excluding individuals with prior cancers, there were 107 high count MBL cases, 132 CLL cases, 589 clinic controls, and 482 flow cytometry controls. With 4.6 years median follow-up, 14 (13%) individuals with high count MBL, 21 (4%) clinic controls (comparison MBL p<0.0001), 18 (4%) flow controls (comparison MBL p=0.0001), and 16 (12%) CLL patients (comparison MBL p=0.82) developed non-hematologic cancer. On multivariable Cox regression analysis, individuals with high count MBL had higher risk of non-hematologic cancer than flow controls (HR=2.36; p=0.04) and borderline higher risk than clinic controls (HR=2.00; p=0.07). Patients with high count MBL appear to be at increased risk for non-hematologic cancer, further reinforcing that high count MBL has a distinct clinical phenotype despite low risk of progression to CLL.
chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL); monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) cancer; breast cancer; lung cancer; colorectal cancer; prognosis
DDX3X; chronic lymphocytic leukaemia; targeted sequencing; genomics; tumour suppressor gene
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) are two subtypes of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. A number of studies have evaluated associations between risk factors and CLL/SLL risk. However, these associations remain inconsistent or lacked confirmation. This may be due, in part, to the inadequate sample size of CLL/SLL cases.
We performed a pooled analysis of 2440 CLL/SLL cases and 15186 controls from 13 case-control studies from Europe, North America, and Australia. We evaluated associations of medical history, family history, lifestyle, and occupational risk factors with CLL/SLL risk. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
We confirmed prior inverse associations with any atopic condition and recreational sun exposure. We also confirmed prior elevated associations with usual adult height, hepatitis C virus seropositivity, living or working on a farm, and family history of any hematological malignancy. Novel associations were identified with hairdresser occupation (OR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.05 to 2.98) and blood transfusion history (OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.66 to 0.94). We also found smoking to have modest protective effect (OR = 0.9, 95% CI = 0.81 to 0.99). All exposures showed evidence of independent effects.
We have identified or confirmed several independent risk factors for CLL/SLL supporting a role for genetics (through family history), immune function (through allergy and sun), infection (through hepatitis C virus), and height, and other pathways of immune response. Given that CLL/SLL has more than 30 susceptibility loci identified to date, studies evaluating the interaction among genetic and nongenetic factors are warranted.
The diagnosis of monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) is used to characterize patients with a circulating population of clonal B cells, a total B-cell count of less than 5 × 109/L, and no other features of a B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder including lymphadenopathy/organomegaly. The natural history of clinically identified MBL is unclear. The goal of this study was to explore the outcome of patients with MBL relative to that of individuals with Rai stage 0 chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
Patients and Methods
We used hematopathology records to identify a cohort of 631 patients with newly diagnosed MBL or Rai stage 0 CLL. Within this cohort, 302 patients had MBL (B-cell counts of 0.02 to 4.99 × 109/L); 94 patients had Rai stage 0 CLL with an absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) ≤ 10 × 109/L; and 219 patients had Rai stage 0 CLL with an ALC more than 10 × 109/L. Data on clinical outcome were abstracted from medical records.
The percentage of MBL patients free of treatment at 1, 2, and 5 years was 99%, 98%, and 93%, respectively. B-cell count as a continuous variable (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.9, P = .04) and CD38 status (HR = 10.8, P = .006) predicted time to treatment (TTT) among MBL patients. The likelihood of treatment for MBL patients was lower (HR = 0.32, P = .04) than that of both Rai stage 0 CLL patients with an ALC less than 10 × 109/L (n = 94) and Rai stage 0 CLL patients with an ALC more than 10 × 109/L (n = 219; P = .0003).
Individuals with MBL identified in clinical practice have a low risk for progression at 5 years. Because B-cell count seems to relate to TTT as a continuous variable, additional studies are needed to determine what B-cell count should be used to distinguish between MBL and CLL.
Cigarette smoking (smoking), hormone therapy (MHT), and folate intake (folate) are each thought to influence colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain incompletely defined. Expression of estrogen receptor beta (ESR2) has been associated with CRC stage and survival.
In this prospective cohort study, we examined smoking, MHT, and folate -associated CRC risks by ESR2 protein expression level among participants in the Iowa Women’s Health Study (IWHS). Self-reported exposure variables were assessed at baseline. Archived, paraffin-embedded CRC tissue specimens were collected and evaluated for ESR2 protein expression by immunohistochemistry. Multivariate Cox regression models were fit to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between smoking, MHT, or folate and ESR2-defined CRC subtypes.
Informative environmental exposure and protein expression data were available for 491 incident CRC cases. Positive associations between ESR2-low and -high tumors and several smoking-related variables were noted, most prominently with average number of cigarettes per day (RR = 4.24; 95% CI = 1.81–9.91 for ESR2-low and RR=2.15; 95%CI=1.05–4.41 for ESR2-high for ≥40 cigarettes compared to non-smokers). For MHT, a statistically significant association with ESR2-low tumors was observed with longer duration of exposure (RR = 0.54; 95% CI = 0.26–1.13 for > 5 years compared to never use). No associations were found for folate.
In this study, smoking and MHT were associated with ESR2 expression patterns.
These data support possible heterogeneous effects from smoking and MHT on ERβ-related pathways of colorectal carcinogenesis in older women.
Although transformation to Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a recognized complication in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), its incidence, clinical characteristics and outcomes are not well defined. We used the Mayo Clinic CLL and Lymphoma Databases to identify CLL patients who developed biopsy-proven HL (CLL/HL) on follow-up, as well as cases of de novo HL (i.e., without prior CLL). Among 3887 CLL patients seen at Mayo Clinic from January 1995 through August 2011, 26 (0.7%) developed HL. In a nested cohort of 2,465 newly diagnosed CLL patients followed prospectively, the incidence of HL was 0.05%/year (10 year risk = 0.5%). The median overall survival (OS) from date of HL diagnosis in patients with CLL/HL was 3.9 years compared to not reached for de novo HL patients (n = 709) seen during the same time interval (P < 0.001). The shorter OS of CLL/HL patients persisted after adjusting for differences in age and Ann Arbor stage of disease. The International Prognostic score (IPS) developed for de novo HL stratified prognosis among CLL/HL patients with median survival of not reached, 6.2, 2.4, and 0.3 years (P = 0.006) for those with IPS scores of ≤2, 3, 4, and ≥5, respectively. In summary, approximately 1 of every 200 CLL patients will develop HL within 10 years. Survival after HL diagnosis in patients with CLL is shorter than de novo HL patients. The IPS for de novo HL may be useful for stratifying survival in CLL/HL patients.
Autoimmune conditions and immune system–related genetic variations are associated with risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). In a pooled analysis of 8,692 NHL cases and 9,260 controls from 14 studies (1988–2007) within the International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium, we evaluated the interaction between immune system genetic variants and autoimmune conditions in NHL risk. We evaluated the immunity-related single nucleotide polymorphisms rs1800629 (tumor necrosis factor gene (TNF) G308A), rs1800890 (interleukin-10 gene (IL10) T3575A), rs6457327 (human leukocyte antigen gene (HLA) class I), rs10484561 (HLA class II), and rs2647012 (HLA class II)) and categorized autoimmune conditions as primarily mediated by B-cell or T-cell responses. We constructed unconditional logistic regression models to measure associations between autoimmune conditions and NHL with stratification by genotype. Autoimmune conditions mediated by B-cell responses were associated with increased NHL risk, specifically diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (odds ratio (OR) = 3.11, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.25, 4.30) and marginal zone lymphoma (OR = 5.80, 95% CI: 3.82, 8.80); those mediated by T-cell responses were associated with peripheral T-cell lymphoma (OR = 2.14, 95% CI: 1.35, 3.38). In the presence of the rs1800629 AG/AA genotype, B-cell-mediated autoimmune conditions increased NHL risk (OR = 3.27, 95% CI: 2.07, 5.16; P-interaction = 0.03) in comparison with the GG genotype (OR = 1.82, 95% CI: 1.31, 2.53). This interaction was consistent across major B-cell NHL subtypes, including marginal zone lymphoma (P-interaction = 0.02) and follicular lymphoma (P-interaction = 0.04).
autoimmune conditions; environment; genetics; interaction; human leukocyte antigen; lymphoma, non-Hodgkin; tumor necrosis factor
Studies of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) are typically evaluated by using a time-to-event approach with relapse, re-treatment, and death commonly used as the events. We evaluated the timing and type of events in newly diagnosed DLBCL and compared patient outcome with reference population data.
Patients and Methods
Patients with newly diagnosed DLBCL treated with immunochemotherapy were prospectively enrolled onto the University of Iowa/Mayo Clinic Specialized Program of Research Excellence Molecular Epidemiology Resource (MER) and the North Central Cancer Treatment Group NCCTG-N0489 clinical trial from 2002 to 2009. Patient outcomes were evaluated at diagnosis and in the subsets of patients achieving event-free status at 12 months (EFS12) and 24 months (EFS24) from diagnosis. Overall survival was compared with age- and sex-matched population data. Results were replicated in an external validation cohort from the Groupe d'Etude des Lymphomes de l'Adulte (GELA) Lymphome Non Hodgkinien 2003 (LNH2003) program and a registry based in Lyon, France.
In all, 767 patients with newly diagnosed DLBCL who had a median age of 63 years were enrolled onto the MER and NCCTG studies. At a median follow-up of 60 months (range, 8 to 116 months), 299 patients had an event and 210 patients had died. Patients achieving EFS24 had an overall survival equivalent to that of the age- and sex-matched general population (standardized mortality ratio [SMR], 1.18; P = .25). This result was confirmed in 820 patients from the GELA study and registry in Lyon (SMR, 1.09; P = .71). Simulation studies showed that EFS24 has comparable power to continuous EFS when evaluating clinical trials in DLBCL.
Patients with DLBCL who achieve EFS24 have a subsequent overall survival equivalent to that of the age- and sex-matched general population. EFS24 will be useful in patient counseling and should be considered as an end point for future studies of newly diagnosed DLBCL.
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a common lymphoid malignancy with strong heritability. To further understand the genetic susceptibility for CLL and identify common loci associated with risk, we conducted a meta-analysis of four genome-wide association studies (GWAS) composed of 3,100 cases and 7,667 controls with follow-up replication in 1,958 cases and 5,530 controls. Here we report three new loci at 3p24.1 (rs9880772, EOMES, P=2.55 × 10−11), 6p25.2 (rs73718779, SERPINB6, P=1.97 × 10−8) and 3q28 (rs9815073, LPP, P=3.62 × 10−8), as well as a new independent SNP at the known 2q13 locus (rs9308731, BCL2L11, P=1.00 × 10−11) in the combined analysis. We find suggestive evidence (P<5 × 10−7) for two additional new loci at 4q24 (rs10028805, BANK1, P=7.19 × 10−8) and 3p22.2 (rs1274963, CSRNP1, P=2.12 × 10−7). Pathway analyses of new and known CLL loci consistently show a strong role for apoptosis, providing further evidence for the importance of this biological pathway in CLL susceptibility.
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is a highly inheritable cancer. Here the authors conduct a metaanalysis of four genome-wide association studies and identify three novel loci located near EOMES, SERPINB6 and LPP associated with risk of this disease.
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common adult leukemia in the West and is an incurable malignancy. No firmly established evidence exists for environmental risk-factors in the etiology of CLL. However, CLL is estimated to have one of the highest familial risks for a hematologic malignancy; this along with other evidence strongly supports an inherited genetic component. In the past five years, genome-wide association studies have provided the foundation for new avenues in the investigation of pathogenesis of this disease with 22 susceptibility loci currently identified. We review here the advances made in identifying these loci, the potential to translate these findings into clinical practice, and future directions needed to advance our understanding of the genetic susceptibility of CLL.
CLL; SNP associations; etiology
This study sought to characterize transformation incidence and outcome for patients with follicular lymphoma (FL) in a prospective observational series begun after diffusion of rituximab use.
Patients and Methods
Patients with newly diagnosed FL were prospectively enrolled onto the University of Iowa/Mayo Clinic Specialized Program of Research Excellence Molecular Epidemiology Resource from 2002 to 2009. Patients were actively followed for re-treatment, clinical or pathologic transformation, and death. Risk of transformation was analyzed via time to transformation by using death as a competing risk.
In all, there were 631 patients with newly diagnosed grade 1 to 3a FL who had a median age at enrollment of 60 years. At a median follow-up of 60 months (range, 11 to 110 months), 79 patients had died, and 60 patients developed transformed lymphoma, of which 51 were biopsy proven. The overall transformation rate at 5 years was 10.7%, with an estimated rate of 2% per year. Increased lactate dehydrogenase was associated with increased risk of transformation. Transformation rate at 5 years was highest in patients who were initially observed and lowest in patients who initially received rituximab monotherapy (14.4% v 3.2%; P = .021). Median overall survival following transformation was 50 months and was superior in patients with transformation greater than 18 months after FL diagnosis compared with patients with earlier transformation (5-year overall survival, 66% v 22%; P < .001).
Follicular transformation rates in the immunochemotherapy era are similar to risk of death without transformation and may be lower than reported in older series. Post-transformation prognosis is substantially better than described in older series. Initial management strategies may influence the risk of transformation.
Statins have antilymphoma properties but have also been shown to inhibit the binding of rituximab to the CD20 antigen, resulting in reduced antitumor activity of rituximab in vitro. The clinical impact of statin use on the outcome of lymphoma patients treated with a rituximab-containing regimen is unknown.
Patients and Methods
Consecutive patients with newly diagnosed, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and follicular lymphoma (FL) were enrolled onto a registry and observed prospectively. The impact of statin use on patients' outcomes was analyzed.
Two hundred twenty-eight patients with DLBCL and 293 patients with FL were enrolled from September 2002 through June 2007; 21% of patients with DLBCL and 19% of patients with FL were on statins at diagnosis, and 20% and 17% remained on statins during lymphoma treatment, respectively. All patients with DLBCL and 39% of patients with FL received initial therapy containing rituximab. The median follow-up time was 47 months (range, 13 to 80 months). Statin use had no impact on the overall response rate (P = .67), overall survival (P = .76), or event-free survival (EFS) in patients with DLBCL (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.85; 95% CI, 0.43 to 1.68). Statin use at diagnosis was associated with improved EFS in patients with FL (HR = 0.45; 95% CI, 0.26 to 0.77), including subgroups treated with rituximab or a rituximab-containing regimen (HR = 0.38; 95% CI, 0.14 to 1.07) and patients who were observed only (HR = 0.38; 95% CI, 0.17 to 0.84).
The concurrent use of statins during the treatment of patients with DLBCL and FL in the rituximab era did not adversely affect outcome. The apparent benefit of statin therapy on FL outcome requires further studies.