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1.  Socioeconomic Status and Lung Cancer: Unraveling the Contribution of Genetic Admixture 
American journal of public health  2013;103(10):e73-e80.
We examined the relationship between genetic ancestry, socioeconomic status and lung cancer among African Americans and Latinos.
We evaluated socioeconomic status and genetic ancestry in a Northern California lung cancer case-control study (1998-2003) of African Americans and Latinos. Lung cancer cases and controls were frequency matched on age, sex and race/ethnicity. Case-control differences in individual admixture proportions were assessed using two-sample t-tests, and analysis of covariance. Logistic regression models examined associations between genetic ancestry, socioeconomic characteristics and lung cancer.
Decreased Amerindian ancestry was associated with higher education among Latino controls and greater African ancestry was associated with decreased education among African lung cancer cases. Education was associated with lung cancer in both Latinos and African Americans, independently of smoking, ancestry, age and sex. Genetic ancestry was not associated with lung cancer in African Americans.
Findings suggest socioeconomic factors may have a greater impact than genetic ancestry for lung cancer among African Americans. The genetic heterogeneity and recent dynamic migration and acculturation of Latinos complicate recruitment, thus epidemiologic analyses and findings should be interpreted cautiously.
PMCID: PMC3780736  PMID: 23948011
2.  Fine-mapping of the 5p15.33, 6p22.1-p21.31 and 15q25.1 regions identifies functional and histology-specific lung cancer susceptibility loci in African-Americans 
Genome-wide association studies of European and East Asian populations have identified lung cancer susceptibility loci on chromosomes 5p15.33, 6p22.1-p21.31 and 15q25.1. We investigated whether these regions contain lung cancer susceptibly loci in African-Americans refined previous association signals by utilizing the reduced linkage disequilibrium observed in African-Americans.
1308 African-American cases and 1241 African-American controls from three centers were genotyped for 760 single nucleotide polymorphisms spanning three regions, and additional SNP imputation was performed. Associations between polymorphisms and lung cancer risk were estimated using logistic regression, stratified by tumor histology where appropriate.
The strongest associations were observed on 15q25.1 in/near CHRNA5, including a missense substitution (rs16969968: OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.25–1.97, P = 1.1 × 10−4) and variants in the 5′-UTR. Associations on 6p22.1-p21.31 were histology-specific and included a missense variant in BAT2 associated with squamous-cell carcinoma (rs2736158: OR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.48–0.85, P = 1.82 × 10−3). Associations on 5p15.33 were detected near TERT, the strongest of which was rs2735940 (OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.73–0.93, P = 1.1 × 10−3). This association was stronger among cases with adenocarcinoma (OR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.65–0.86, P = 8.1 × 10−5).
Polymorphisms in 5p15.33, 6p22.1-p21.31 and 15q25.1 are associated with lung cancer in African-Americans. Variants on 5p15.33 are stronger risk factors for adenocarcinoma and variants on 6p21.33 associated only with squamous-cell carcinoma.
Results implicate the BAT2, TERT and CHRNA5 genes in the pathogenesis of specific lung cancer histologies.
PMCID: PMC3565099  PMID: 23221128
Lung cancer; adenocarcinoma; squamous-cell carcinoma; fine-mapping; African-American; genetic association
3.  A Case-Control Study of Asphalt and Tar Exposure and Lung Cancer in Minorities 
Considerable controversy surrounds the carcinogenic potential of asphalt and tar. Since minority individuals may have had relatively high historical exposures, we investigated asphalt and tar exposure and lung cancer risk among African Americans and Latino Americans.
We conducted a case-control study of lung cancer among African Americans and Latino Americans in the San Francisco Bay area (422 cases, 894 controls). A questionnaire was used to obtain detailed work histories and exposure information. Self-reported exposure to asphalt and tar as well as other factors (eg. smoking, automobile exhaust, and asbestos) were evaluated as predictors of lung cancer risk. Potential effect modification by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 was also explored.
Self-reported duration of exposure to asphalt and tar was associated with a statistically significant excess risk of lung cancer in the overall population (OR: 1.11, 95%CI: 1.01–1.22), evaluating risk per year of exposure. Years of exposure to automobile exhaust (OR: 1.02, 95%CI: 1.00–1.05) and asbestos (OR: 1.04, 95%CI: 1.02–1.06) were also associated with statistically significant elevations in risk. In Latino Americans, the lung cancer risks associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-related exposures were consistently higher in the CYP1A1 wildtype subjects as compared to the variant genotype subjects, and the interaction was statistically significant for smoking and the CYP1A1 M2 polymorphism (p-valueinteraction=0.02).
These data are consistent with the literature suggesting that exposure to asphalt and tar may increase risk of lung cancer. However, it was not possible to separate the effects and asphalt and tar in this study.
PMCID: PMC3196745  PMID: 21882217
asphalt; tar; lung cancer; minorities
4.  Association study of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor genes identifies a novel lung cancer susceptibility locus near CHRNA1 in African-Americans 
Oncotarget  2012;3(11):1428-1438.
Studies in European and East Asian populations have identified lung cancer susceptibility loci in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) genes on chromosome 15q25.1 which also appear to influence smoking behaviors. We sought to determine if genetic variation in nAChR genes influences lung cancer susceptibly in African-Americans, and evaluated the association of these cancer susceptibility loci with smoking behavior. A total of 1308 African-Americans with lung cancer and 1241 African-American controls from three centers were genotyped for 378 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning the sixteen human nAChR genes. Associations between SNPs and the risk of lung cancer were estimated using logistic regression, adjusted for relevant covariates. Seven SNPs in three nAChR genes were significantly associated with lung cancer at a strict Bonferroni-corrected level, including a novel association on chromosome 2 near the promoter of CHRNA1 (rs3755486: OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.18-1.67, P = 1.0 × 10−4). Association analysis of an additional 305 imputed SNPs on 2q31.1 supported this association. Publicly available expression data demonstrated that the rs3755486 risk allele correlates with increased CHRNA1 gene expression. Additional SNP associations were observed on 15q25.1 in genes previously associated with lung cancer, including a missense variant in CHRNA5 (rs16969968: OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.27-2.01, P = 5.9 × 10−5). Risk alleles on 15q25.1 also correlated with an increased number of cigarettes smoked per day among the controls. These findings identify a novel lung cancer risk locus on 2q31.1 which correlates with CHRNA1 expression and replicate previous associations on 15q25.1 in African-Americans.
PMCID: PMC3717803  PMID: 23232035
Lung cancer; nicotine dependence; African-Americans; genetic association; smoking
5.  Reduced Allergy and Immunoglobulin E among Adults with Intra-cranial Meningioma Compared to Controls 
Meningioma, the most frequent tumor in the central nervous system, has few recognized risk factors. We explored the role of allergies in a population-based case-control consortium study of meningioma in five geographic areas. We also studied serum levels of a marker of atopic allergy (IgE) in a subset of study participants, a first for a study on meningioma. Participants (N = 1,065) with surgically resected, pathologically confirmed meningioma and controls (N = 634) selected via random-digit dialing were recruited and interviewed. Cases were less likely than controls to report history of physician-diagnosed allergy [odds ratio (OR) = 0.64; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.51 – 0.80]. Also, cases (N = 295) had lower total serum IgE than controls [N = 192; OR = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.75–0.98 for each unit of Ln(IgE)]. Similar to glioma and cancers at several other sites, meningioma appears to have an inverse relationship with history of allergies and a biomarker of atopic allergy. Since some common opposing predisposition or developmental processes for allergy and meningioma may exist, further research into immune processes that can affect the incidence and natural history of meningioma is warranted.
PMCID: PMC3337969  PMID: 21520030
Meningioma; epidemiology; risk factors; neurosurgery; brain tumor; genetics; immune factors
6.  Survival following non-small cell lung cancer among Asian/Pacific Islander, Latina, and non-Hispanic White women who have never smoked 
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among US Asian/Pacific Islander (API) and Latina women, despite low smoking prevalence. This study examined survival patterns following non-small cell lung cancer in a population-based sample of lung cancer cases from the San Francisco Bay Area Lung Cancer Study (SFBALCS).
Women diagnosed with lung cancer from 1998–2003 and 2005–2008 and identified through the Greater Bay Area Cancer Registry were telephone-screened for eligibility for the SFBALCS. The screener data were linked to the cancer registry data to determine follow-up. This analysis included 187 non-Hispanic White, 23 US-born Latina, 32 foreign-born Latina, 30 US-born API, and 190 foreign-born API never smokers diagnosed with lung cancer and followed through 2008.
All-cause survival was poorer among APIs (hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.7 (1.0–2.8) among US-born APIs; 1.2 (0.9–1.5) among foreign-born APIs), and Latinas (HR (95% CI) = 2.1 (1.2–3.6) among US-born Latinas; 1.4 (0.9–2.3) among foreign-born Latinas), relative to non-Hispanic Whites. These survival differences were not explained by differences in selected sociodemographic or clinical factors.
Further research should focus on factors such as cultural behaviors, access to or attitudes toward health care, and genetic variations, as possible explanations for these striking racial/ethnic differences.
Latina and API female never smokers diagnosed with lung cancer were up to two-times more likely to die than non-Hispanic Whites, highlighting the need for additional research to identify the underlying reasons for the disparities, as well as heightened clinical awareness.
PMCID: PMC3070404  PMID: 21239685
lung cancer survival; Asian; Latina; Hispanic; never smokers; nativity
7.  Fine mapping of chromosome 15q25.1 lung cancer susceptibility in African-Americans 
Human Molecular Genetics  2010;19(18):3652-3661.
Several genome-wide association studies identified the chr15q25.1 region, which includes three nicotinic cholinergic receptor genes (CHRNA5-B4) and the cell proliferation gene (PSMA4), for its association with lung cancer risk in Caucasians. A haplotype and its tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) encompassing six genes from IREB2 to CHRNB4 were most strongly associated with lung cancer risk (OR = 1.3; P < 10−20). In order to narrow the region of association and identify potential causal variations, we performed a fine-mapping study using 77 SNPs in a 194 kb segment of the 15q25.1 region in a sample of 448 African-American lung cancer cases and 611 controls. Four regions, two SNPs and two distinct haplotypes from sliding window analyses, were associated with lung cancer. CHRNA5 rs17486278 G had OR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.07–1.54 and P = 0.008, whereas CHRNB4 rs7178270 G had OR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.66–0.94 and P = 0.008 for lung cancer risk. Lung cancer associations remained significant after pack-year adjustment. Rs7178270 decreased lung cancer risk in women but not in men; gender interaction P = 0.009. For two SNPs (rs7168796 A/G and rs7164594 A/G) upstream of PSMA4, lung cancer risks for people with haplotypes GG and AA were reduced compared with those with AG (OR = 0.56, 95% CI 0.38–0.82; P = 0.003 and OR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.59–0.90, P = 0.004, respectively). A four-SNP haplotype spanning CHRNA5 (rs11637635 C, rs17408276 T, rs16969968 G) and CHRNA3 (rs578776 G) was associated with increased lung cancer risk (P = 0.002). The identified regions contain SNPs predicted to affect gene regulation. There are multiple lung cancer risk loci in the 15q25.1 region in African-Americans.
PMCID: PMC2928127  PMID: 20587604
8.  CYP1A1/2 Haplotypes and Lung Cancer and Assessment of Confounding by Population Stratification 
Cancer research  2009;69(6):2340-2348.
Prior studies of lung cancer and CYP1A1/2 in African American and Latino populations have shown inconsistent results and not yet investigated the haplotype block structure of CYP1A1/2 or addressed potential population stratification. To investigate haplotypes in the CYP1A1/2 region and lung cancer in African Americans and Latinos, we conducted a case-control study (1998-2003). African Americans (N = 535) and Latinos (N = 412) were frequency-matched on age, sex, and self-reported race/ethnicity. We used a custom genotyping panel containing 50 single nucleotide polymorphisms in the CYP1A1/2 region and 184 ancestry informative markers selected to have large allele frequency differences between Africans, Europeans, and Amerindians. Latinos exhibited significant haplotype main effects in two blocks, even after adjusting for admixture (odds ratio (OR) = 2.02, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.28 – 3.19 and OR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.36 – 0.83) but no main effects were found among African Americans. Adjustment for admixture revealed substantial confounding by population stratification among Latinos but not African Americans. Among Latinos and African Americans interactions between smoking level and haplotypes were not statistically significant. Evidence of population stratification among Latinos underscores the importance of adjusting for admixture in lung cancer association studies, particularly in Latino populations. These results suggest a variant occurring within the CYP1A2 region may be conferring an increased risk of lung cancer in Latinos.
PMCID: PMC3018237  PMID: 19276377
lung cancer; haplotype; CYP1A1/2; population stratification; admixed
9.  Base excision repair genes and risk of lung cancer among San Francisco Bay Area Latinos and African-Americans 
Carcinogenesis  2008;30(1):78-87.
Base excision repair (BER) is the primary DNA damage repair mechanism for repairing small base lesions resulting from oxidation and alkylation damage. This study examines the association between 24 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) belonging to five BER genes (XRCC1, APEX1, PARP1, MUTYH and OGG1) and lung cancer among Latinos (113 cases and 299 controls) and African-Americans (255 cases and 280 controls). The goal was to evaluate the differences in genetic contribution to lung cancer risk by ethnic groups. Analyses of individual SNPs and haplotypes were performed using unconditional logistic regressions adjusted for age, sex and genetic ancestry. Four SNPs among Latinos and one SNP among African-Americans were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with either risk of all lung cancer or non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, only the association between XRCC1 Arg399Gln (rs25487) and NSCLC among Latinos (odds ratio associated with every copy of Gln = 1.52; 95% confidence interval: 1.01–2.28) had a false-positive report probability of <0.5. Arg399Gln is a SNP with some functional evidence and has been shown previously to be an important SNP associated with lung cancer, mostly for Asians. Since the analyses were adjusted for genetic ancestry, the observed association between Arg399Gln and NSCLC among Latinos is unlikely to be confounded by population stratification; however, this result needs to be confirmed by additional studies among the Latino population. This study suggests that there are genetic differences in the association between BER pathway and lung cancer between Latinos and African-Americans.
PMCID: PMC2722143  PMID: 19029194
10.  Nucleotide excision repair genes and risk of lung cancer among San Francisco bay area Latinos and African Americans 
Few studies on the association between nucleotide excision repair (NER) variants and lung cancer risk have included Latinos and African Americans. We examine variants in six NER genes (ERCC2, ERCC4, ERCC5, LIG1, RAD23B and XPC) in association with primary lung cancer risk among 113 Latino and 255 African American subjects newly diagnosed with primary lung cancer from 1998 to 2003 in the San Francisco Bay Area, and 579 healthy controls (299 Latinos and 280 African Americans). Individual single nucleotide polymorphism and haplotype analyses, multifactor dimensionality reduction, and principal components analysis were performed to assess the association between six genes in the NER pathway and lung cancer risk. Among Latinos, ERCC2 haplotype CGA (rs238406, rs11878644, rs6966) was associated with reduced lung cancer risk [odds ratio (OR) of 0.65 and 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.44-0.97], especially among non-smokers (OR=0.29; 95% CI: 0.12-0.67). From multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis, in Latinos, smoking and three SNPs (ERCC2 rs171140, ERCC5 rs17655, and LIG1 rs20581) together had a prediction accuracy of 67.4% (p=0.001) for lung cancer. Among African Americans, His/His genotype of ERCC5 His1104Asp (rs17655) was associated with increased lung cancer risk (OR=1.78; 95% CI: 1.09-2.91), and LIG1 haplotype GGGAA (rs20581, rs156641, rs3730931, rs20579, and rs439132) was associated with reduced lung cancer risk (OR=0.61; 95% CI: 0.42-0.88). Our study suggests different elements of the NER pathway may be important in the different ethnic groups resulting either from different linkage relationship, genetic backgrounds, and/or exposure histories.
PMCID: PMC2734972  PMID: 18709642
nucleotide excision repair; DNA repair; lung cancer; African Americans; Latinos
11.  Comparison of Statistical Methods for Estimating Genetic Admixture in a Lung Cancer Study of African Americans and Latinos 
American Journal of Epidemiology  2008;168(9):1035-1046.
A variety of methods are available for estimating genetic admixture proportions in populations; however, few investigators have conducted detailed comparisons using empirical data. The authors characterized admixture proportions among self-identified African Americans (n = 535) and Latinos (n = 412) living in the San Francisco Bay Area who participated in a lung cancer case-control study (1998–2003). Individual estimates of genetic ancestry based on 184 informative markers were obtained from a Bayesian approach and 2 maximum likelihood approaches and were compared using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficients, and Bland-Altman plots. Case-control differences in individual admixture proportions were assessed using 2-sample t tests and logistic regression analysis. Results indicated that Bayesian and frequentist approaches to estimating admixture provide similar estimates and inferences. No difference was observed in admixture proportions between African-American cases and controls, but Latino cases and controls significantly differed according to Amerindian and European genetic ancestry. Differences in admixture proportions between Latino cases and controls were not unexpected, since cases were more likely to have been born in the United States. Genetic admixture proportions provide a quantitative measure of ancestry differences among Latinos that can be used in analyses of genetic risk factors.
PMCID: PMC2720774  PMID: 18791191
African Americans; case-control studies; epidemiologic methods; genetics, population; Hispanic Americans; linkage disequilibrium; lung neoplasms; statistics
12.  Epithelial cells in nipple aspirate fluid and subsequent breast cancer risk: A historic prospective study 
BMC Cancer  2008;8:75.
Past studies have shown that women with abnormal cytology or epithelial cells in nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) have an increased relative risk (RR) of breast cancer when compared to women from whom NAF was attempted but not obtained (non-yielders). This study analyzed NAF results from a group of women seen in a breast clinic between 1970–1991 (N = 2480). Our analysis presented here is an aggregate of two sub-groups: women with questionnaire data (n = 712) and those with NAF visits beginning in 1988 (n = 238), the year in which cancer case information was uniformly collected in California.
Cytological classification was determined for a group of 946 women using the most abnormal epithelial cytology observed in fluid specimens. Breast cancer incidence and mortality status was determined through June 2006 using data from the California Cancer Registry, California Vital Statistics and self-report. We estimated odd ratios (ORs) for breast cancer using logistic regression analysis, adjusting for age. We analyzed breast cancer risk related to abnormality of NAF cytology using non-yielders as the referent group and breast cancer risk related to the presence or absence of epithelial cells in NAF, using non-yielders/fluid without epithelial cells as the referent group.
Overall, 10% (93) of the 946 women developed breast cancer during the follow-up period. Age-adjusted ORs and 95% confidence intervals (C.I.) compared to non-yielders were 1.4 (0.3 to 6.4), 1.7 (0.9 to 3.5), and 2.0 (1.1 to 3.6) for women with fluid without epithelial cells, normal epithelial cells and hyperplasia/atypia, respectively. Comparing the presence or absence of epithelial cells in NAF, women with epithelial cells present in NAF were more likely to develop breast cancer than non-yielders or women with fluid without epithelial cells (RR = 1.9, 1.2 to 3.1).
These results support previous findings that 1) women with abnormal epithelial cells in NAF have an increased risk of breast cancer when compared to non-yielders or women with normal epithelial cells in NAF and 2) women with epithelial cells present in NAF have an increased risk of breast cancer when compared to non-yielders or women who had NAF without epithelial cells present.
PMCID: PMC2292198  PMID: 18366688
13.  A descriptive study of variables associated with obtaining nipple aspirate fluid in a cohort of non-lactating women 
BMC Women's Health  2006;6:15.
The search for biologic endpoints and biomarkers in the study of breast cancer risk assessment and risk reduction strategies has led to an interest in obtaining cytologic information and other biomarkers from nipple aspirate fluid (NAF).
This descriptive study examined factors associated with an increased ability to obtain NAF in a cohort of 3043 women between the ages of 15 and 89 years of age. The majority of women were between the ages of 30–49 (N = 1529/50.2%). Variables examined in relation to obtaining fluid include: age, marital status, age at menarche, menopausal status, a history of pregnancy, a history of breast-feeding, estrogen use, oral contraceptive use, endocrine disorders and tranquilizer use.
On average, women from whom breast fluid was obtained were younger than women from whom breast fluid was attempted but not obtained (mean = 41.9 years versus 46.5 years, p < 0.0001). In unadjusted and age-adjusted comparisons, being married, a history of pregnancy, younger age at menarche (12 years of age or younger), tranquilizer use, oral contraceptive pill (OCP) use and endocrine problems were associated with an increased ability to obtain breast fluid. Post-menopausal status and exogenous estrogen use were associated with a decreased ability to obtain breast fluid. After age-adjustment, oral contraceptive use was no longer significantly associated with an increased ability to obtain fluid and post-menopausal status was no longer associated with a decreased ability to obtain breast fluid. After multivariate adjustment, age, being married, a history of pregnancy, tranquilizer use and a history of endocrine problems remained positively associated with the ability to obtain breast fluid. In addition, menopausal women who took estrogen were less likely to yield fluid than premenopausal women.
Four variables (being married, history of pregnancy, tranquilizer use and endocrine disorders) remained positively associated with the ability to obtain NAF in all analyses. A younger age was consistently associated with a greater ability to obtain NAF in this and other studies.
PMCID: PMC1626446  PMID: 17044938
14.  ERCC1 and ERCC2 polymorphisms and adult glioma1 
Neuro-Oncology  2005;7(4):495-507.
ERCC2 and ERCC1 are important in DNA nucleotide excision repair and lie on chromosome 19q13.3 near a putative glioma suppressor region. We genotyped constitutive variants ERCC1 C8092A and ERCC2 K751Q and R156R in approximately 450 adults with glioma and 500 controls from two independent population-based series, uniformly reviewed patients’ tumors to determine histopathologic category, and determined a variety of tumor markers among astrocytic tumors. Odds ratios (ORs) for glioblastoma for those carrying two ERCC1 A alleles versus none or one were 1.67 in series 1 and 1.64 in series 2, which yielded a combined OR of 1.67 (95% CI, 0.93–3.02; P = 0.09), adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, and series. Odds ratios for the ERCC2 variants were not consistently elevated or reduced for the two series in all cases versus controls. However, among whites, for those with ERCC2 K751Q genotype QQ versus QK/KK, the OR for nonglioblastoma histologies versus controls was 1.82 (95% CI, 0.97–3.44; P = 0.06). Also, among whites, glioma patients were significantly more likely than controls to be homozygous for variants in both ERCC1 C8092A and ERCC2 K751Q (OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.1–9.3). Given the numbers of comparisons made, these findings could be due to chance. However, the results might warrant clarification in additional series in conjunction with the nearby putative glioma suppressor genes (GLTSCR1 and GLTSCR2)
PMCID: PMC1871723  PMID: 16212814
polymorphisms; ERCC1; ERCC2; glioma; case-control study
15.  Inverse association of antioxidant and phytoestrogen nutrient intake with adult glioma in the San Francisco Bay Area: a case-control study 
BMC Cancer  2006;6:148.
Increasing evidence from epidemiologic studies suggest that oxidative stress may play a role in adult glioma. In addition to dietary antioxidants, antioxidant and weak estrogenic properties of dietary phytoestrogens may attenuate oxidative stress. Our hypothesis is that long-term consumption of dietary antioxidants and phytoestrogens such as genistein, daidzein, biochanin A, formononetin, matairesinol, secoisolariciresinol and coumestrol, may reduce the risk of adult glioma.
Using unconditional logistic regression models, we compared quartiles of consumption for several specific antioxidants and phytoestrogens among 802 adult glioma cases and 846 controls from two study series from the San Francisco Bay Area Adult Glioma Study, 1991 – 2000, controlling for vitamin supplement usage, age, socioeconomic status, gender, ethnicity and total daily calories. For cases, dietary information was either self-reported or reported by a proxy. For controls, dietary information was self-reported. Gender- and series- specific quartiles of average daily nutrient intake, estimated from food-frequency questionnaires, were computed from controls.
Significant p-values (trend test) were evaluated using significance levels of either 0.05 or 0.003 (the Bonferroni corrected significance level equivalent to 0.05 adjusting for 16 comparisons). For all cases compared to controls, statistically significant inverse associations were observed for antioxidant index (p < 0.003), carotenoids (alpha- and beta-carotene combined, p < 0.05), daidzein (p = 0.003), matairesinol (p < 0.05), secoisolariciresinol (p < 0.003), and coumestrol (p < 0.003). For self-reported cases compared to controls, statistically significant inverse associations were observed for antioxidant index (p < 0.05) and daidzein (p < 0.05).
Our results support inverse associations of glioma with higher dietary antioxidant index and with higher intake of certain phytoestrogens, especially daidzein.
PMCID: PMC1513391  PMID: 16749939

Results 1-15 (15)