Marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) is the third most common subtype of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Here we perform a two-stage GWAS of 1,281 MZL cases and 7,127 controls of European ancestry and identify two independent loci near BTNL2 (rs9461741, P=3.95 × 10−15) and HLA-B (rs2922994, P=2.43 × 10−9) in the HLA region significantly associated with MZL risk. This is the first evidence that genetic variation in the major histocompatibility complex influences MZL susceptibility.
Marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) is a common subtype of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Here the authors carry out a two-stage genome-wide association study in over 8,000 Europeans and identify two new MZL risk loci at chromosome 6p, implicating the major histocompatibility complex in the disease for the first time.
The risk to die from an infectious disease in Germany has been continuously decreasing over the last century. Since infections are, however, not only causes of death but risk factors for diseases like cardiovascular diseases, it is essential to monitor and analyze their prevalence and frequency, especially in consideration of the increased life expectancy. To gain more knowledge about infectious diseases as risk factors and their implications on the condition and change of the immune status, the German National Cohort (GNC), a population-based prospective cohort study, will recruit 200,000 subjects between 2014 and 2017. In Pretest 1, a feasibility study for the GNC, we evaluated a self-administered and self-report questionnaire on infectious diseases and on the use of health care facilities (hereinafter called “ID Screen”) for feasibility and validity.
From August–November 2011, 435 participants between the ages of 20–69 completed the ID Screen. All subjects had been recruited via a random sample from the local residents’ registration offices by 4 of the 18 participating study centers. The questionnaire encompasses 77 variables in six sections assessing items such as 12-month prevalence of infections, cumulative prevalence of infectious diseases, visit of health care facilities and vaccination. The feasibility was amongst others evaluated by assessing the completeness and comprehensiveness of the questionnaire. To assess the questionnaires ability to measure “immune status” and “susceptibility to infections”, multivariate analysis was used.
The overall practicability was good and most items were well understood, demonstrated by < 2/33 missing questions per questionnaire and only three variables: vaccination for influenza and pneumococci and infection with chickenpox had a frequency > 5 % of missing values. However, direct comparison of the items 12-month prevalence and lifetime prevalence of nephritis/pyelitis showed poor agreement and thereby poor understanding by 80 % of the participants, illustrating the necessity for a clear, lay person appropriate description of rare diseases to increase comprehensibility. The questionnaire will be used to support the assessment of immune dysfunction and frequency of infection. An analysis of these constructs in an exploratory factor analysis revealed limited applicability due to low interitem correlation (Cronbach’s α < 0.5). This is corroborated by the extraction of more than one factor with a Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin measure of 0.6 instead of a unidimensional latent construct for “immune status”.
All in all, the ID Screen is a good and reliable tool to measure infectious diseases as risk factors and outcome in general, but requires a better translation of infection specific terms into lay person terms. For the assessment of the overall immune status, the tool has strong limitations. Vaccinations status should also rather be assessed based on vaccination certificates than on participants’ recall.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi: 10.1007/s00103-014-2052-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Survey validity; Infections; Questionnaires; Self-report; German National Cohort (GNC); Infektionen; Fragebogen zu Infektionskrankheiten; Selbsteinschätzung; Validierung; Nationale Kohorte (NaKo)
Recent findings suggest that alcohol consumption may reduce risk of multiple myeloma (MM).
To better understand this relationship, we conducted an analysis of six case-control studies participating in the International Multiple Myeloma Consortium (1,567 cases, 7,296 controls). Summary odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) relating different measures of alcohol consumption and MM risk were computed by unconditional logistic regression with adjustment for age, race, and study center.
Cases were significantly less likely than controls to report ever drinking alcohol (men: OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.59-0.89, women: OR 0.81, 0.68-0.95). The inverse association with MM was stronger when comparing current to never drinkers (men: OR=0.57, 95% CI 0.45-0.72, women: OR=0.55, 95% CI 0.45-0.68), but null among former drinkers. We did not observe an exposure-response relationship with increasing alcohol frequency, duration or cumulative lifetime consumption. Additional adjustment for body mass index, education, or smoking did not affect our results; and the patterns of association were similar for each type of alcohol beverage examined.
Our study is, to our knowledge, the largest of its kind to date, and our findings suggest that alcohol consumption may be associated with reduced risk of MM.
Prospective studies, especially those conducted as pooled analyses with large sample sizes, are needed to confirm our findings and further explore whether alcohol consumption provides true biologic protection against this rare, highly fatal malignancy.
Personal use of hair dye has been inconsistently linked to risk of
non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), perhaps because of small samples or a lack of
detailed information on personal hair-dye use in previous studies. This study
included 4,461 NHL cases and 5,799 controls from the International Lymphoma
Epidemiology Consortium 1988–2003. Increased risk of NHL (odds ratio
(OR) = 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1, 1.4) associated with
hair-dye use was observed among women who began using hair dye before 1980.
Analyses by NHL subtype showed increased risk for follicular lymphoma (FL) and
chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL) but not for
other NHL subtypes. The increased risks of FL (OR = 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1,
1.9) and CLL/SLL (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.0) were mainly observed among
women who started using hair dyes before 1980. For women who began using hair
dye in 1980 or afterward, increased FL risk was limited to users of dark-colored
dyes (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.0). These results indicate that personal
hair-dye use may play a role in risks of FL and CLL/SLL in women who started use
before 1980 and that increased risk of FL among women who started use during or
after 1980 cannot be excluded.
case-control studies; hair dyes; lymphoma; non-Hodgkin
Background & Aims
Increasing evidence points towards a role of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in causing malignant lymphomas. We pooled case-control study data to provide robust estimates of the risk of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) subtypes after HCV infection.
The analysis included 7 member studies from the International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium (InterLymph) based in Europe, North America, and Australia. Adult cases of NHL (n = 4784) were diagnosed between 1988 and 2004 and controls (n = 6269) were matched by age, sex, and study center. All studies used third-generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to test for antibodies against HCV in serum samples. Participants who were human immunodeficiency virus positive or were organ-transplant recipients were excluded.
HCV infection was detected in 172 NHL cases (3.60%) and in 169 (2.70%) controls (odds ratio [OR], 1.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.40–2.25). In subtype-specific analyses, HCV prevalence was associated with marginal zone lymphoma (OR, 2.47; 95% CI, 1.44–4.23), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (OR, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.68–2.99), and lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (OR, 2.57; 95% CI, 1.14–5.79). Notably, risk estimates were not increased for follicular lymphoma (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.65–1.60).
These results confirm the association between HCV infection and NHL and specific B-NHL subtypes (diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, marginal zone lymphoma, and lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma).
Nutritional status is known to alter immune function, a suspected risk factor for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). To investigate whether long-term over, or under, nutrition is associated with NHL self-reported anthropometric data on weight and height from over 10000 cases of NHL and 16000 controls were pooled across 18 case-control studies identified through the International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium. Study-specific odds ratios (OR) were estimated using logistic regression and combined using a random-effects model. Severe obesity, defined as BMI of 40 kg m−2 or more, was not associated with NHL overall (pooled OR=1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.70–1.41) or the majority of NHL subtypes. An excess was however observed for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (pooled OR=1.80, 95% CI 1.24–2.62), although not all study-specific ORs were raised. Among the overweight (BMI 25–29.9 kg m−2) and obese (BMI 30–39.9 kg m−2), associations were elevated in some studies and decreased in others, while no association was observed among the underweight (BMI<18.5 kg m−2). There was little suggestion of increasing ORs for NHL or its subtypes with every 5 kg m−2 rise in BMI above 18.5 kg m−2. BMI components height and weight were also examined, and the tallest men, but not women, were at marginally increased risk (pooled OR=1.19, 95% CI 1.06–1.34). In summary, whilst we conclude that there is no evidence to support the hypothesis that obesity is a determinant of all types of NHL combined, the association between severe obesity and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma may warrant further investigation.
non-Hodgkin lymphoma; lymphoma; body mass index; weight; height; epidemiology
Studies of smoking and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) have yielded inconsistent results, possibly due to subtype heterogeneity and/or genetic variation impacting the metabolism of tobacco-derived carcinogens, including substrates of the N-acetyltransferase enzymes NAT1 and NAT2.
We conducted a pooled analysis of 5,026 NHL cases and 4,630 controls from seven case–control studies in the international lymphoma epidemiology consortium to examine associations between smoking, variation in the N-acetyltransferase genes NAT1 and NAT2, and risk of NHL subtypes. Smoking data were harmonized across studies, and genetic variants in NAT1 and NAT2 were used to infer acetylation phenotype of the NAT1 and NAT2 enzymes, respectively. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs) for risk of NHL and subtypes were calculated using joint fixed effects unconditional logistic regression models.
Current smoking was associated with a significant 30 % increased risk of follicular lymphoma (n = 1,176) but not NHL overall or other NHL subtypes. The association was similar among NAT2 slow (OR 1.36; 95 % CI 1.07–1.75) and intermediate/rapid (OR 1.27; 95 % CI 0.95–1.69) acetylators (pinteraction = 0.82) and also did not differ by NAT1*10 allelotype. Neither NAT2 phenotype nor NAT1*10 allelotype was associated with risk of NHL overall or NHL subtypes.
The current findings provide further evidence for a modest association between current smoking and follicular lymphoma risk and suggest that this association may not be influenced by variation in the N-acetyltransferase enzymes.
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma; Gene environment interaction; Cigarette smoking; N-acetyltransferase; Follicular lymphoma
Interaction between CD40 and its ligand, CD154, has a key function in immune regulation. Recent experimental data support a role of deregulated CD40 signalling in lymphomagenesis. Data from earlier studies that are part of this pooling study implicate a functional polymorphism (−1C>T, rs1883832) in the TNFRSF5 gene encoding CD40 in the etiology of follicular lymphoma. Here, the association of this variant with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) risk was replicated in a European multicenter study of 855 NHL cases and 1,206 controls. In the combined analysis of 2,617 cases and 3,605 controls, carrying the TT genotype was associated with an increased risk for all NHL (OR = 1.4; p for linear trend = 0.00009), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (OR = 1.6; p for linear trend = 0.002) and follicular lymphoma (OR = 1.6; p for linear trend = 0.001). These data suggest a possible role of this functional polymorphism in lymphomas originating within the germinal center.
lymphoma; TNFRSF5; CD40; polymorphism; epidemiology
Owing to their role in controlling the efflux of toxic compounds, transporters are central players in the process of detoxification and elimination of xenobiotics, which in turn is related to cancer risk. Among these transporters, ATP-binding cassette B1/multidrug resistance 1 (ABCB1/MDR1), ABCC2/multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2), and ABCG2/breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) affect susceptibility to many hematopoietic malignancies. The maintenance of regulated expression of these transporters is governed through the activation of intracellular “xenosensors” like the nuclear receptor 1I2/pregnane X receptor (NR1I2/PXR). SNPs in genes encoding these regulators have also been implicated in the risk of several cancers. Using a tagging approach, we tested the hypothesis that common polymorphisms in the transporter genes ABCB1, ABCC2, ABCG2, and the regulator gene NR1I2 could be implicated in lymphoma risk. We selected 68 SNPs in the 4 genes, and we genotyped them in 1,481 lymphoma cases and 1,491 controls of the European cases-control study (EpiLymph) using the Illumina™ GoldenGate assay technology.Carriers of the SNP rs6857600 minor allele in ABCG2, was associated with a decrease in risk of B-cell lymphoma (B-NHL) overall (p<0.001). Furthermore, a decreased risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was associated with the ABCG2 rs2231142 variant (p=0.0004), which could be replicated in an independent population. These results suggest a role for this gene in B-NHL susceptibility, especially for CLL.
Lymphoma; multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1); multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2); breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP); pregnane X receptor (PXR)
Accumulating evidence suggests that risk factors for classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) differ by tumor Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) status. This potential etiological heterogeneity is not recognized in current disease classification.
We conducted a genome-wide association study of 1200 cHL patients and 6417 control subjects, with validation in an independent replication series, to identify common genetic variants associated with total cHL and subtypes defined by tumor EBV status. Multiple logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) assuming a log-additive genetic model for the variants. All statistical tests were two-sided.
Two novel loci associated with total cHL irrespective of EBV status were identified in the major histocompatibility complex region; one resides adjacent to MICB (rs2248462: OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.53 to 0.69, P = 1.3 × 10−13) and the other at HLA-DRA (rs2395185: OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.50 to 0.62, P = 8.3 × 10−25) with both results confirmed in an independent replication series. Consistent with previous reports, associations were found between EBV-positive cHL and genetic variants within the class I region (rs2734986, HLA-A: OR = 2.45, 95% CI = 2.00 to 3.00, P = 1.2 × 10−15; rs6904029, HCG9: OR = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.36 to 0.59, P = 5.5 × 10−10) and between EBV-negative cHL and rs6903608 within the class II region (rs6903608, HLA-DRA: OR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.84 to 2.35, P = 6.1 × 10−31). The association between rs6903608 and EBV-negative cHL was confined to the nodular sclerosis histological subtype. Evidence for an association between EBV-negative cHL and rs20541 (5q31, IL13: OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.32 to 1.76, P = 5.4 x 10−9), a variant previously linked to psoriasis and asthma, was observed; however, the evidence for replication was less clear. Notably, one additional psoriasis-associated variant, rs27524 (5q15, ERAP1), showed evidence of an association with cHL in the genome-wide association study (OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.10 to 1.33, P = 1.5 × 10−4) and replication series (P = .03).
Overall, these results provide strong evidence that EBV status is an etiologically important classification of cHL and also suggest that some components of the pathological process are common to both EBV-positive and EBV-negative patients.
The EPILYMPH study applied a detailed occupational exposure assessment approach to a large multi-centre case–control study conducted in six European countries. This paper analysed multiple myeloma (MM) risk associated with level of education, and lifetime occupational history and occupational exposures, based on the EPILYMPH data set.
277 MM cases and four matched controls per each case were included. Controls were randomly selected, matching for age (+/− 5 years), centre and gender. Lifetime occupations and lifetime exposure to specific workplace agents was obtained through a detailed questionnaire. Local industrial hygienists assessed likelihood and intensity for specific exposures. The odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals (OR, 95% CI) were calculated for level of education, individual occupations and specific exposures. Unconditional logistic regression models were run for individual occupations and exposures.
A low level of education was associated with MM OR=1.68 (95% CI 1.02-2.76). An increased risk was observed for general farmers (OR=1.77; 95% CI 1.05-2.99) and cleaning workers (OR=1.69; 95% CI 1.04-2.72) adjusting for level of education. Risk was also elevated, although not significant, for printers (OR=2.06; 95% CI 0.97-4.34). Pesticide exposure over a period of ten years or more increased MM risk (OR=1.62; 95% CI 1.01-2.58).
These results confirm an association of MM with farm work, and indicate its association with printing and cleaning. While prolonged exposure to pesticides seems to be a risk factor for MM, an excess risk associated with exposure to organic solvents could not be confirmed.
Multiple Myeloma; Occupation; Pesticide; Epidemiology; Case–control study; EPILYMPH study
To identify susceptibility loci for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) subtypes, we conducted a three-stage genome-wide association study. We identified two variants associated with follicular lymphoma (FL) in 1,465 FL cases/6,958 controls at 6p21.32 (rs10484561, rs7755224, r2=1.0; combined p-values=1.12×10-29, 2.00×10-19), providing further support that MHC genetic variation influences FL susceptibility. Confirmatory evidence of a previously reported association was also found between chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma and rs735665 (combined p-value=4.24×10-9).
In an International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium pooled analysis, polymorphisms in 2 immune-system-related genes, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-10 (IL10), were associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) risk. Here, 8,847 participants were added to previous data (patients diagnosed from 1989 to 2005 in 14 case-control studies; 7,999 cases, 8,452 controls) for testing of polymorphisms in the TNF –308G>A (rs1800629), lymphotoxin-α (LTA) 252A>G (rs909253), IL10 –3575T>A (rs1800890, rs1800896), and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 2 (NOD2) 3020insC (rs2066847) genes. Odds ratios were estimated for non-Hispanic whites and several ethnic subgroups using 2-sided tests. Consistent with previous findings, odds ratios were increased for “new” participant TNF –308A carriers (NHL: per-allele odds ratio (ORallelic) = 1.10, Ptrend = 0.001; diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL): ORallelic = 1.23, Ptrend = 0.004). In the combined population, odds ratios were increased for TNF –308A carriers (NHL: ORallelic = 1.13, Ptrend = 0.0001; DLBCL: ORallelic = 1.25, Ptrend = 3.7 × 10−6; marginal zone lymphoma: ORallelic = 1.35, Ptrend = 0.004) and LTA 252G carriers (DLBCL: ORallelic = 1.12, Ptrend = 0.006; mycosis fungoides: ORallelic = 1.44, Ptrend = 0.015). The LTA 252A>G/TNF –308G>A haplotype containing the LTA/TNF variant alleles was strongly associated with DLBCL (P = 2.9 × 10−8). Results suggested associations between IL10 –3575T>A and DLBCL (Ptrend = 0.02) and IL10 –1082A>G and mantle cell lymphoma (Ptrend = 0.04). These findings strengthen previous results for DLBCL and the LTA 252A>G/TNF –308A locus and provide robust evidence that these TNF/LTA gene variants, or others in linkage disequilibrium, are involved in NHL etiology.
lymphoma; lymphoma, non-Hodgkin; lymphotoxin-alpha; meta-analysis; polymorphism, genetic; polymorphism, single nucleotide; tumor necrosis factor-alpha
Apart from Helicobacter pylori infection and lifestyle factors, host genetic susceptibility has been suggested to contribute to individual variation in gastric cancer risk as well. Aiming to evaluate the associations between host cell proliferation-related genetic polymorphisms and gastric cancer susceptibility, we reviewed the related studies published until 15 September 2008 and quantitatively summarized the associations of the most widely studied polymorphisms (TP53 Arg72Pro, L-myc EcoRI) using meta-analysis. Fifty-five eligible studies were included in this review. Twenty-three polymorphisms significantly related to gastric cancer risk in at least one study were identified. Polymorphisms determining higher levels of growth factors, which are important for tissue repair, were recently observed to be associated with reduced risk of gastric cancer. In the meta-analysis, TP53 72Pro was associated with increased risk of diffuse gastric cancer among Asians (OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.04–1.99), but decreased risk of intestinal gastric cancer among Caucasians (OR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.36–0.89). This review suggests that cell proliferation-related genetic polymorphisms could be candidate biomarkers of gastric cancer risk, but current evidence for the use for risk stratification is still very limited. Modestly significant associations in meta-analyses stratified by population or type of gastric cancer may be observed by chance because of the limited number of studies and small sample size. Larger studies are warranted to clarify the effect of cell proliferation-related genetic polymorphisms on gastric carcinogenesis.
gastric cancer; genetic polymorphism; cell proliferation
We conducted genome-wide association studies of non-Hodgkin lymphoma using Illumina HumanHap550 BeadChips to identify subtype-specific associations in follicular, diffuse large B-cell and chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphomas. We found that rs6457327 on 6p21.33 was associated with susceptibility to follicular lymphoma (FL, N=189 cases/592 controls) with validation in an additional 456 FL cases and 2,785 controls (combined allelic p-value=4.7×10−11). The region of strongest association overlaps C6orf15(STG), located near psoriasis susceptibility region 1(PSORS1).
Genetic susceptibility studies of lymphoma may serve to identify at risk populations and to elucidate important disease mechanisms.
This review considered all studies published through October 2006 on the contribution of genetic polymorphisms in the risk of lymphoma.
Numerous studies implicate the role of genetic variants that promote B-cell survival and growth with increased risk of lymphoma. Several reports including a large pooled study by InterLymph, an international consortium of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) case-control studies, found positive associations between variant alleles in TNF -308G>A and IL10 -3575T>A genes and risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Four studies reported positive associations between a GSTT1 deletion and risk of Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Genetic studies of folate-metabolizing genes implicate folate in NHL risk, but further studies that include folate and alcohol assessments are needed. Links between NHL and genes involved in energy regulation and hormone production and metabolism may provide insights into novel mechanisms implicating neuro- and endocrine-immune cross-talk with lymphomagenesis, but will need replication in larger populations.
Numerous studies suggest that common genetic variants with low penetrance influence lymphoma risk, though replication studies will be needed to eliminate false positive associations.
lymphoma; genetic susceptibility; SNP; NHL; polymorphisms
Radiotherapy exerts part of its antineoplastic effect by generating oxidative stress, therefore genetic variation in
oxidative stress-related enzymes may influence survival of rectal
cancer patients. We hypothesized that genetic polymorphisms
associated with higher amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS)
that exaggerate cytotoxic activity could improve survival after
radiotherapy. We followed 114 rectal cancer patients who received
radiotherapy for an average of 42.5 months. Associations between
genotypes (GSTP1, GSTM1,
MnSOD, MPO and
eNOS) and overall survival were assessed using
Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards regression. As
hypothesized, patients carrying low ROS producing
eNOS Glu298Asp asparagine allele showed an
increased hazard of death compared to homozygous carriers of the
glutamine allele (hazard ratio (HR): 2.10, 95% confidence
interval (CI): 1.01–4.38). However, carriers of low ROS
producing MPO G463A A allele had a decreased
hazard of death compared to patients homozygous for the G allele
(HR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.21–0.93) although patients
homozygous for the A allele had a slightly increased hazard (HR:
1.12, 95% CI: 0.25–5.08). This explorative study
provides first results and highlights the need for further, larger
studies to investigate association between genetic variation in
oxidative stress genes and survival of rectal cancer patients who
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is the fifth most common cancer in the U.S. and few causes have been identified. Genetic association studies may help identify environmental risk factors and enhance our understanding of disease mechanisms.
768 coding and haplotype tagging SNPs in 146 genes were examined using Illumina GoldenGate technology in a large population-based case-control study of NHL in the San Francisco Bay Area (1,292 cases 1,375 controls are included here). Statistical analyses were restricted to HIV- participants of white non-Hispanic origin. Genes involved in steroidogenesis, immune function, cell signaling, sunlight exposure, xenobiotic metabolism/oxidative stress, energy balance, and uptake and metabolism of cholesterol, folate and vitamin C were investigated. Sixteen SNPs in eight pathways and nine haplotypes were associated with NHL after correction for multiple testing at the adjusted q<0.10 level. Eight SNPs were tested in an independent case-control study of lymphoma in Germany (494 NHL cases and 494 matched controls). Novel associations with common variants in estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) and in the vitamin C receptor and matrix metalloproteinase gene families were observed. Four ESR1 SNPs were associated with follicular lymphoma (FL) in the U.S. study, with rs3020314 remaining associated with reduced risk of FL after multiple testing adjustments [odds ratio (OR) = 0.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.23–0.77) and replication in the German study (OR = 0.24, 95% CI = 0.06–0.94). Several SNPs and haplotypes in the matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP3) and MMP9 genes and in the vitamin C receptor genes, solute carrier family 23 member 1 (SLC23A1) and SLC23A2, showed associations with NHL risk.
Our findings suggest a role for estrogen, vitamin C and matrix metalloproteinases in the pathogenesis of NHL that will require further validation.
Vitamin D receptor (VDR) genotypes may influence breast cancer risk by altering potential anticarcinogenic effects of vitamin D, but epidemiological studies have been inconsistent. Effect modification by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25 [OH]D), the biomarker for vitamin D status in humans, has rarely been examined.
We assessed the effects of two frequently analyzed polymorphisms (FokI and TaqI) and two potentially functional variants (VDR-5132 and Cdx2) in the VDR gene, which thus far have not been analyzed with respect to breast cancer risk, on postmenopausal breast cancer risk in a population-based, case-control study including 1,408 patients (cases) and 2,612 control individuals (controls) matched for year of birth. Odds ratios (ORs) for breast cancer adjusted for potential confounders were calculated for genotypes and estimated haplotypes.
No differences in serum 25(OD)D concentrations by VDR genotype were observed. None of the analyzed polymorphisms was associated with overall risk for postmenopausal breast cancer. However, the TaqI polymorphism was associated with a significantly increased risk for oestrogen receptor positive tumours (OR = 1.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.00 to 1.38, comparing t allele carriers with noncarriers) but not for oestrogen receptor negative tumours (OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.69 to 1.13; P for interaction = 0.04). Haplotype analysis revealed the haplotype FtCA (FokI F, TaqI t, VDR-5132 C, Cdx2 A), which contains the TaqI t allele, to be associated with a significantly greater breast cancer risk as compared with the most frequent haplotype FTCG (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.00 to 2.05). No significant interaction between VDR genotypes or haplotypes and 25(OH)D was observed.
Our results support potential effects of VDR polymorphisms on postmenopausal breast cancer risk and possible differential effects of receptor status of the tumour. However, further studies focusing on the influence of polymorphisms and haplotypes on VDR functionality, activity and concentration are needed.
Current evidence suggests that high red meat intake is associated with increased colorectal cancer risk. High fish intake may be associated with a decreased risk, but the existing evidence is less convincing.
We prospectively followed 478 040 men and women from 10 European countries who were free of cancer at enrollment between 1992 and 1998. Information on diet and lifestyle was collected at baseline. After a mean follow-up of 4.8 years, 1329 incident colorectal cancers were documented. We examined the relationship between intakes of red and processed meat, poultry, and fish and colorectal cancer risk using a proportional hazards model adjusted for age, sex, energy (nonfat and fat sources), height, weight, work-related physical activity, smoking status, dietary fiber and folate, and alcohol consumption, stratified by center. A calibration substudy based on 36 994 subjects was used to correct hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for diet measurement errors. All statistical tests were two-sided.
Colorectal cancer risk was positively associated with intake of red and processed meat (highest [>160 g/day] versus lowest [<20 g/day] intake, HR = 1.35, 95% CI = 0.96 to 1.88; Ptrend=.03) and inversely associated with intake of fish (>80 g/day versus <10 g/day, HR = 0.69, 95 % CI = 0.54 to 0.88; Ptrend<.001), but was not related to poultry intake. Correcting for measurement error strengthened the associations between colorectal cancer and red and processed meat intake (per 100-g increase HR = 1.25, 95% CI =1.09 to 1.41, Ptrend= .001 and HR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.19 to 2.02, Ptrend= .001 before and after calibration, respectively) and forfish (per 100 g increase HR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.57 to 0.87, Ptrend<.001 and HR = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.27 to 0.77, Ptrend= .003; before and after correction, respectively). In this study population, the absolute risk of development of colorectal cancer within 10 years for a study subject aged 50 years was 1.71% for the highest category of red meat intake and 1.28% for the lowest category of intake and was 1.86% for subjects in the lowest category of fish intake and 1.28% for subjects in the highest category of fish intake.
Our data confirm that colorectal cancer risk is positively associated with high consumption of red and processed meat and support an inverse association with fish intake.
Adult; Aged; Animals; Colorectal Neoplasms; epidemiology; etiology; Dietary Fiber; administration & dosage; Europe; epidemiology; Female; Fishes; Food Habits; Humans; Life Style; Male; Meat; Middle Aged; Multivariate Analysis; Odds Ratio; Poultry; Proportional Hazards Models; Prospective Studies; Questionnaires; Risk Assessment; Risk Factors
To analyze the relationship between exposure to chlorinated and aromatic organic solvents and malignant lymphoma in a multi-centre, population-based case-control study.
Male and female patients with malignant lymphoma (n = 710) between 18 and 80 years of age were prospectively recruited in six study regions in Germany (Ludwigshafen/Upper Palatinate, Heidelberg/Rhine-Neckar-County, Würzburg/Lower Frankonia, Hamburg, Bielefeld/Gütersloh, and Munich). For each newly recruited lymphoma case, a gender, region and age-matched (± 1 year of birth) population control was drawn from the population registers. In a structured personal interview, we elicited a complete occupational history, including every occupational period that lasted at least one year. On the basis of job task-specific supplementary questionnaires, a trained occupational physician assessed the exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbons (trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, dichloromethane, carbon tetrachloride) and aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, xylene, styrene). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using conditional logistic regression analysis, adjusted for smoking (in pack years) and alcohol consumption. To increase the statistical power, patients with specific lymphoma subentities were additionally compared with the entire control group using unconditional logistic regression analysis.
We observed a statistically significant association between high exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbons and malignant lymphoma (Odds ratio = 2.1; 95% confidence interval 1.1–4.3). In the analysis of lymphoma subentities, a pronounced risk elevation was found for follicular lymphoma and marginal zone lymphoma. When specific substances were considered, the association between trichloroethylene and malignant lymphoma was of borderline statistical significance. Aromatic hydrocarbons were not significantly associated with the lymphoma diagnosis.
In accordance with the literature, this data point to a potential etiologic role of chlorinated hydrocarbons (particularly trichloroethylene) and malignant lymphoma. Chlorinated hydrocarbons might affect specific lymphoma subentities differentially. Our study does not support a strong association between aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, xylene, or styrene) and the diagnosis of a malignant lymphoma.