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1.  A genome-wide association study of marginal zone lymphoma shows association to the HLA region 
Vijai, Joseph | Wang, Zhaoming | Berndt, Sonja I. | Skibola, Christine F. | Slager, Susan L. | de Sanjose, Silvia | Melbye, Mads | Glimelius, Bengt | Bracci, Paige M. | Conde, Lucia | Birmann, Brenda M. | Wang, Sophia S. | Brooks-Wilson, Angela R. | Lan, Qing | de Bakker, Paul I. W. | Vermeulen, Roel C. H. | Portlock, Carol | Ansell, Stephen M. | Link, Brian K. | Riby, Jacques | North, Kari E. | Gu, Jian | Hjalgrim, Henrik | Cozen, Wendy | Becker, Nikolaus | Teras, Lauren R. | Spinelli, John J. | Turner, Jenny | Zhang, Yawei | Purdue, Mark P. | Giles, Graham G. | Kelly, Rachel S. | Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne | Ennas, Maria Grazia | Monnereau, Alain | Bertrand, Kimberly A. | Albanes, Demetrius | Lightfoot, Tracy | Yeager, Meredith | Chung, Charles C. | Burdett, Laurie | Hutchinson, Amy | Lawrence, Charles | Montalvan, Rebecca | Liang, Liming | Huang, Jinyan | Ma, Baoshan | Villano, Danylo J. | Maria, Ann | Corines, Marina | Thomas, Tinu | Novak, Anne J. | Dogan, Ahmet | Liebow, Mark | Thompson, Carrie A. | Witzig, Thomas E. | Habermann, Thomas M. | Weiner, George J. | Smith, Martyn T. | Holly, Elizabeth A. | Jackson, Rebecca D. | Tinker, Lesley F. | Ye, Yuanqing | Adami, Hans-Olov | Smedby, Karin E. | De Roos, Anneclaire J. | Hartge, Patricia | Morton, Lindsay M. | Severson, Richard K. | Benavente, Yolanda | Boffetta, Paolo | Brennan, Paul | Foretova, Lenka | Maynadie, Marc | McKay, James | Staines, Anthony | Diver, W. Ryan | Vajdic, Claire M. | Armstrong, Bruce K. | Kricker, Anne | Zheng, Tongzhang | Holford, Theodore R. | Severi, Gianluca | Vineis, Paolo | Ferri, Giovanni M. | Ricco, Rosalia | Miligi, Lucia | Clavel, Jacqueline | Giovannucci, Edward | Kraft, Peter | Virtamo, Jarmo | Smith, Alex | Kane, Eleanor | Roman, Eve | Chiu, Brian C. H. | Fraumeni, Joseph F. | Wu, Xifeng | Cerhan, James R. | Offit, Kenneth | Chanock, Stephen J. | Rothman, Nathaniel | Nieters, Alexandra
Nature Communications  2015;6:5751.
Marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) is the third most common subtype of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Here we perform a two-stage GWAS of 1,281 MZL cases and 7,127 controls of European ancestry and identify two independent loci near BTNL2 (rs9461741, P=3.95 × 10−15) and HLA-B (rs2922994, P=2.43 × 10−9) in the HLA region significantly associated with MZL risk. This is the first evidence that genetic variation in the major histocompatibility complex influences MZL susceptibility.
Marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) is a common subtype of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Here the authors carry out a two-stage genome-wide association study in over 8,000 Europeans and identify two new MZL risk loci at chromosome 6p, implicating the major histocompatibility complex in the disease for the first time.
doi:10.1038/ncomms6751
PMCID: PMC4287989  PMID: 25569183
2.  Prevalence and Risk Factors for Neutralizing Antibodies to Human Papillomavirus Types 16 and 18 in HIV-positive Men who have Sex with Men 
Objective
HPV vaccination is routinely recommended in HIV-positive MSM ≤ 26 years old. Levels of prior HPV exposure in older HIV-positive MSM are assumed to be too high to warrant routine HPV vaccination. However, little is known about the prevalence of and risk factors for neutralizing antibody seropositivity to HPV-16 or HPV-18, a key measure of prior exposure to these types.
Methods
Cross-sectional analysis of baseline visit for 296 HIV-positive MSM participating in a prospective cohort study of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASIL) at a university-based research clinic. Participants completed a questionnaire detailing behaviors and medical history. Phlebotomy, anal cytology, HPV DNA testing with quantitation, and high resolution anoscopy with biopsy were performed. A pseudovirion-based neutralizing antibody (PBNA) assay was used to measure HPV-16 and HPV-18 neutralizing antibodies.
Results
132/296 (45%) men were HPV-16-seropositive and 141/296 (48%) were HPV-18-seropositive. 175/296 (59%) of the men were positive for HPV-16 antibodies or DNA, and 167/296 (56%) were positive for HPV-18 antibodies or DNA. In multivariable analysis, HPV-16 seropositivity did not correlate with age, years of HIV positivity, CD4+ level or HIV viral load. Significant risk factors included HPV-16 DNA positivity with higher DNA levels (ptrend<.001) and higher number of receptive sexual partners in the last year (ptrend=.012).
Conclusions
A high proportion of HIV-positive MSM >26 years are DNA-negative and seronegative to HPV-16 and HPV-18 even when using a sensitive PBNA assay. Prospective studies are needed to determine the clinical- and cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccination in HIV-positive MSM > 26 years old.
doi:10.1097/QAI.0b013e3182a7acd2
PMCID: PMC4287402  PMID: 24231786
Human papillomavirus; pseudovirions; neutralizing antibodies; HIV; MSM
3.  Genes-environment interactions in obesity- and diabetes-associated pancreatic cancer: A GWAS data analysis 
Background
Obesity and diabetes are potentially alterable risk factors for pancreatic cancer. Genetic factors that modify the associations of obesity and diabetes with pancreatic cancer have previously not been examined at the genome-wide level.
Methods
Using GWAS genotype and risk factor data from the Pancreatic Cancer Case Control Consortium, we conducted a discovery study of 2,028 cases and 2,109 controls to examine gene-obesity and gene-diabetes interactions in relation to pancreatic cancer risk by employing the likelihood ratio test (LRT) nested in logistic regression models and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA).
Results
After adjusting for multiple comparisons, a significant interaction of the chemokine signaling pathway with obesity (P = 3.29 × 10−6) and a near significant interaction of calcium signaling pathway with diabetes (P = 1.57 × 10−4) in modifying the risk of pancreatic cancer was observed. These findings were supported by results from IPA analysis of the top genes with nominal interactions. The major contributing genes to the two top pathways include GNGT2, RELA, TIAM1 and GNAS. None of the individual genes or SNPs except one SNP remained significant after adjusting for multiple testing. Notably, SNP rs10818684 of the PTGS1 gene showed an interaction with diabetes (P = 7.91 × 10−7) at a false discovery rate of 6%.
Conclusions
Genetic variations in inflammatory response and insulin resistance may affect the risk of obesity and diabetes-related pancreatic cancer. These observations should be replicated in additional large datasets.
Impact
Gene-environment interaction analysis may provide new insights into the genetic susceptibility and molecular mechanisms of obesity- and diabetes-related pancreatic cancer.
doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-13-0437-T
PMCID: PMC3947145  PMID: 24136929
GWAS; obesity; diabetes; interaction; pancreatic cancer; genetic susceptibility
4.  Social Stress and CRF–Dopamine Interactions in the VTA: Role in Long-Term Escalation of Cocaine Self-Administration 
The Journal of Neuroscience  2014;34(19):6659-6667.
The nature of neuroadaptations in the genesis of escalated cocaine taking remains a topic of considerable interest. Intermittent social defeat stress induces both locomotor and dopaminergic cross-sensitization to cocaine, as well as escalated cocaine self-administration. The current study examines the role of corticotropin releasing factor receptor subtypes 1 and 2 (CRFR1, CRFR2) within the ventral tegmental area (VTA) during social defeat stress. This study investigated whether injecting either a CRFR1 or CRFR2 antagonist directly into the VTA before each social defeat would prevent the development of later (1) locomotor sensitization, (2) dopaminergic sensitization, and (3) escalated cocaine self-administration in rats. CRFR1 antagonist CP376395 (50 or 500 ng/side), CRFR2 antagonist Astressin2-B (100 or 1000 ng/side), or vehicle (aCSF) was microinjected into the VTA 20 min before social defeat stress (or handling) on days 1, 4, 7, and 10. Ten days later, rats were injected with cocaine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) and assessed for either locomotor sensitization, measured by walking activity, or dopaminergic sensitization, measured by extracellular dopamine (DA) in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcSh) through in vivo microdialysis. Locomotor sensitization testing was followed by intravenous cocaine self-administration. Intra-VTA antagonism of CRFR1, but not CRFR2, inhibited the induction of locomotor cross-sensitization to cocaine, whereas both prevented dopaminergic cross-sensitization and escalated cocaine self-administration during a 24 h “binge.” This may suggest dissociation between locomotor sensitization and cocaine taking. These data also suggest that interactions between CRF and VTA DA neurons projecting to the NAcSh are essential for the development of dopaminergic cross-sensitization to cocaine.
doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3942-13.2014
PMCID: PMC4012317  PMID: 24806691
5.  Allergies and Risk of Pancreatic Cancer: A Pooled Analysis From the Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium 
American Journal of Epidemiology  2013;178(5):691-700.
In order to quantify the risk of pancreatic cancer associated with history of any allergy and specific allergies, to investigate differences in the association with risk according to age, gender, smoking status, or body mass index, and to study the influence of age at onset, we pooled data from 10 case-control studies. In total, there were 3,567 cases and 9,145 controls. Study-specific odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age, gender, smoking status, and body mass index. Between-study heterogeneity was assessed by using the Cochran Q statistic. Study-specific odds ratios were pooled by using a random-effects model. The odds ratio for any allergy was 0.79 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.62, 1.00) with heterogeneity among studies (P < 0.001). Heterogeneity was attributable to one study; with that study excluded, the pooled odds ratio was 0.73 (95% CI: 0.64, 0.84) (Pheterogeneity = 0.23). Hay fever (odds ratio = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.56, 0.96) and allergy to animals (odds ratio = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.41, 0.94) were related to lower risk, while there was no statistically significant association with other allergies or asthma. There were no major differences among subgroups defined by age, gender, smoking status, or body mass index. Older age at onset of allergies was slightly more protective than earlier age.
doi:10.1093/aje/kwt052
PMCID: PMC3755648  PMID: 23820785
allergic rhinitis; case-control studies; hypersensitivity; pancreatic neoplasms
6.  Polymorphisms in genes related to one-carbon metabolism are not related to pancreatic cancer in PanScan and PanC4 
Cancer causes & control : CCC  2013;24(3):595-602.
Purpose
The evidence of a relation between folate intake and one-carbon metabolism (OCM) with pancreatic cancer (PanCa) is inconsistent. In this study, the association between genes and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to OCM and PanCa was assessed.
Methods
Using biochemical knowledge of the OCM pathway, we identified thirty-seven genes and 834 SNPs to examine in association with PanCa. Our study included 1,408 cases and 1,463 controls nested within twelve cohorts (PanScan). The ten SNPs and five genes with lowest p values (<0.02) were followed up in 2,323 cases and 2,340 controls from eight case-control studies (PanC4) that participated in PanScan2. The correlation of SNPs with metabolite levels was assessed for 649 controls from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.
Results
When both stages were combined, we observed suggestive associations with PanCa for rs10887710 (MAT1A) (OR 1.13, 95%CI 1.04-1.23), rs1552462 (SYT9) (OR 1.27, 95%CI 1.02-1.59), and rs7074891 (CUBN) (OR 1.91, 95%CI 1.12-3.26). After correcting for multiple comparisons, no significant associations were observed in either the first or second stage. The three suggested SNPs showed no correlations with one-carbon biomarkers.
Conclusions
This is the largest genetic study to date to examine the relation between germline variations in OCM-related genes polymorphisms and the risk of PanCa. Suggestive evidence for an association between polymorphisms and PanCa was observed among the cohort-nested studies, but this did not replicate in the case-control studies. Our results do not strongly support the hypothesis that genes related to OCM play a role in pancreatic carcinogenesis.
doi:10.1007/s10552-012-0138-0
PMCID: PMC4127987  PMID: 23334854
Pancreatic cancer; One-carbon metabolism; Polymorphisms; Biomarkers; Epidemiology
7.  Concomitant anal and cervical human papillomavirusV infections and intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-infected and uninfected women 
AIDS (London, England)  2013;27(11):1743-1751.
Objective
To assess factors associated with concomitant anal and cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in HIV-infected and at-risk women.
Design
A study nested within the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), a multi-center longitudinal study of HIV-1 infection in women conducted in six centers within the United States.
Methods
Four hundred and seventy HIV-infected and 185 HIV-uninfected WIHS participants were interviewed and examined with anal and cervical cytology testing. Exfoliated cervical and anal specimens were assessed for HPV using PCR and type-specific HPV testing. Women with abnormal cytologic results had colposcopy or anoscopy-guided biopsy of visible lesions. Logistic regression analyses were performed and odds ratios (ORs) measured the association for concomitant anal and cervical HPV infection.
Results
One hundred and sixty-three (42%) HIV-infected women had detectable anal and cervical HPV infection compared with 12 (8%) of the HIV-uninfected women (P <0.001). HIV-infected women were more likely to have the same human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype in the anus and cervix than HIV-uninfected women (18 vs. 3%, P <0.001). This was true for both oncogenic (9 vs. 2%, P = 0.003) and nononcogenic (12 vs. 1%, P <0.001) HPV types. In multivariable analysis, the strongest factor associated with both oncogenic and nononcogenic concomitant HPV infection was being HIV-infected (OR = 4.6 and OR = 16.9, respectively). In multivariable analysis of HIV-infected women, CD4+ cell count of less than 200 was the strongest factor associated with concomitant oncogenic (OR = 4.2) and nononcogenic (OR = 16.5) HPV infection.
Conclusion
HIV-infected women, particularly those women with low CD4+ cell counts, may be good candidates for HPV screening and monitoring for both cervical and anal disease
doi:10.1097/QAD.0b013e3283601b09
PMCID: PMC3917497  PMID: 23803793
anal intraepithelial neoplasia; cervical intraepithelial neoplasia; HIV-infection; human papillomavirus; women
8.  Personal Use of Hair Dye and the Risk of Certain Subtypes of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma 
American journal of epidemiology  2008;167(11):1321-1331.
Personal use of hair dye has been inconsistently linked to risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), perhaps because of small samples or a lack of detailed information on personal hair-dye use in previous studies. This study included 4,461 NHL cases and 5,799 controls from the International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium 1988–2003. Increased risk of NHL (odds ratio (OR) = 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1, 1.4) associated with hair-dye use was observed among women who began using hair dye before 1980. Analyses by NHL subtype showed increased risk for follicular lymphoma (FL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL) but not for other NHL subtypes. The increased risks of FL (OR = 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.9) and CLL/SLL (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.0) were mainly observed among women who started using hair dyes before 1980. For women who began using hair dye in 1980 or afterward, increased FL risk was limited to users of dark-colored dyes (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.0). These results indicate that personal hair-dye use may play a role in risks of FL and CLL/SLL in women who started use before 1980 and that increased risk of FL among women who started use during or after 1980 cannot be excluded.
doi:10.1093/aje/kwn058
PMCID: PMC4025953  PMID: 18408225
case-control studies; hair dyes; lymphoma; non-Hodgkin
9.  Hepatitis C and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Among 4784 Cases and 6269 Controls From the International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium 
Background & Aims
Increasing evidence points towards a role of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in causing malignant lymphomas. We pooled case-control study data to provide robust estimates of the risk of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) subtypes after HCV infection.
Methods
The analysis included 7 member studies from the International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium (InterLymph) based in Europe, North America, and Australia. Adult cases of NHL (n = 4784) were diagnosed between 1988 and 2004 and controls (n = 6269) were matched by age, sex, and study center. All studies used third-generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to test for antibodies against HCV in serum samples. Participants who were human immunodeficiency virus positive or were organ-transplant recipients were excluded.
Results
HCV infection was detected in 172 NHL cases (3.60%) and in 169 (2.70%) controls (odds ratio [OR], 1.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.40–2.25). In subtype-specific analyses, HCV prevalence was associated with marginal zone lymphoma (OR, 2.47; 95% CI, 1.44–4.23), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (OR, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.68–2.99), and lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (OR, 2.57; 95% CI, 1.14–5.79). Notably, risk estimates were not increased for follicular lymphoma (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.65–1.60).
Conclusions
These results confirm the association between HCV infection and NHL and specific B-NHL subtypes (diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, marginal zone lymphoma, and lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma).
doi:10.1016/j.cgh.2008.02.011
PMCID: PMC3962672  PMID: 18387498
10.  Non-Hodgkin lymphoma and Obesity: a pooled analysis from the InterLymph consortium 
Nutritional status is known to alter immune function, a suspected risk factor for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). To investigate whether long-term over, or under, nutrition is associated with NHL self-reported anthropometric data on weight and height from over 10000 cases of NHL and 16000 controls were pooled across 18 case-control studies identified through the International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium. Study-specific odds ratios (OR) were estimated using logistic regression and combined using a random-effects model. Severe obesity, defined as BMI of 40 kg m−2 or more, was not associated with NHL overall (pooled OR=1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.70–1.41) or the majority of NHL subtypes. An excess was however observed for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (pooled OR=1.80, 95% CI 1.24–2.62), although not all study-specific ORs were raised. Among the overweight (BMI 25–29.9 kg m−2) and obese (BMI 30–39.9 kg m−2), associations were elevated in some studies and decreased in others, while no association was observed among the underweight (BMI<18.5 kg m−2). There was little suggestion of increasing ORs for NHL or its subtypes with every 5 kg m−2 rise in BMI above 18.5 kg m−2. BMI components height and weight were also examined, and the tallest men, but not women, were at marginally increased risk (pooled OR=1.19, 95% CI 1.06–1.34). In summary, whilst we conclude that there is no evidence to support the hypothesis that obesity is a determinant of all types of NHL combined, the association between severe obesity and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma may warrant further investigation.
doi:10.1002/ijc.23344
PMCID: PMC3928289  PMID: 18167059
non-Hodgkin lymphoma; lymphoma; body mass index; weight; height; epidemiology
11.  Genome-wide Association Study Identifies Multiple Risk Loci for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia 
Berndt, Sonja I. | Skibola, Christine F. | Joseph, Vijai | Camp, Nicola J. | Nieters, Alexandra | Wang, Zhaoming | Cozen, Wendy | Monnereau, Alain | Wang, Sophia S. | Kelly, Rachel S. | Lan, Qing | Teras, Lauren R. | Chatterjee, Nilanjan | Chung, Charles C. | Yeager, Meredith | Brooks-Wilson, Angela R. | Hartge, Patricia | Purdue, Mark P. | Birmann, Brenda M. | Armstrong, Bruce K. | Cocco, Pierluigi | Zhang, Yawei | Severi, Gianluca | Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne | Lawrence, Charles | Burdette, Laurie | Yuenger, Jeffrey | Hutchinson, Amy | Jacobs, Kevin B. | Call, Timothy G. | Shanafelt, Tait D. | Novak, Anne J. | Kay, Neil E. | Liebow, Mark | Wang, Alice H. | Smedby, Karin E | Adami, Hans-Olov | Melbye, Mads | Glimelius, Bengt | Chang, Ellen T. | Glenn, Martha | Curtin, Karen | Cannon-Albright, Lisa A. | Jones, Brandt | Diver, W. Ryan | Link, Brian K. | Weiner, George J. | Conde, Lucia | Bracci, Paige M. | Riby, Jacques | Holly, Elizabeth A. | Smith, Martyn T. | Jackson, Rebecca D. | Tinker, Lesley F. | Benavente, Yolanda | Becker, Nikolaus | Boffetta, Paolo | Brennan, Paul | Foretova, Lenka | Maynadie, Marc | McKay, James | Staines, Anthony | Rabe, Kari G. | Achenbach, Sara J. | Vachon, Celine M. | Goldin, Lynn R | Strom, Sara S. | Lanasa, Mark C. | Spector, Logan G. | Leis, Jose F. | Cunningham, Julie M. | Weinberg, J. Brice | Morrison, Vicki A. | Caporaso, Neil E. | Norman, Aaron D. | Linet, Martha S. | De Roos, Anneclaire J. | Morton, Lindsay M. | Severson, Richard K. | Riboli, Elio | Vineis, Paolo | Kaaks, Rudolph | Trichopoulos, Dimitrios | Masala, Giovanna | Weiderpass, Elisabete | Chirlaque, María-Dolores | Vermeulen, Roel C H | Travis, Ruth C. | Giles, Graham G. | Albanes, Demetrius | Virtamo, Jarmo | Weinstein, Stephanie | Clavel, Jacqueline | Zheng, Tongzhang | Holford, Theodore R | Offit, Kenneth | Zelenetz, Andrew | Klein, Robert J. | Spinelli, John J. | Bertrand, Kimberly A. | Laden, Francine | Giovannucci, Edward | Kraft, Peter | Kricker, Anne | Turner, Jenny | Vajdic, Claire M. | Ennas, Maria Grazia | Ferri, Giovanni M. | Miligi, Lucia | Liang, Liming | Sampson, Joshua | Crouch, Simon | Park, Ju-hyun | North, Kari E. | Cox, Angela | Snowden, John A. | Wright, Josh | Carracedo, Angel | Lopez-Otin, Carlos | Bea, Silvia | Salaverria, Itziar | Martin, David | Campo, Elias | Fraumeni, Joseph F. | de Sanjose, Silvia | Hjalgrim, Henrik | Cerhan, James R. | Chanock, Stephen J. | Rothman, Nathaniel | Slager, Susan L.
Nature genetics  2013;45(8):868-876.
doi:10.1038/ng.2652
PMCID: PMC3729927  PMID: 23770605
12.  Blunted accumbal dopamine response to cocaine following chronic social stress in female rats: exploring a link between depression and drug abuse 
Psychopharmacology  2011;218(1):271-279.
Rationale
Women have twice the risk as men to develop depression. Approximately, 24% of major depression disorder cases have comorbid disorders with substance abuse. Several central systems, including dopaminergic and serotonergic pathways, are thought to be involved in such comorbidity.
Objectives
The present study established a chronic social stress model in female rats, which produces some cardinal features of depressive-like symptoms. Further, we examined the effects of acute cocaine on dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) using this model.
Methods
Female Long-Evans rats confronted a nursing dam in its home cage for 30 min twice daily for 21 days. The non-stressed control group was handled daily throughout the experiment. During the 21 days of stress, behaviors during confrontations, weight, preference for saccharin, and estrous cycles were measured. Ten days after the last confrontation, the experimental rat was challenged with 10 mg/kg of cocaine, and levels of DA and 5-HT in the NAc were measured using in vivo microdialysis.
Results
During the course of daily confrontations for 21 days, the experimental females significantly increased the duration of immobility, reduced weight gain and the preference for saccharin, and disrupted estrous cycles during the stress. Chronic social stress significantly attenuated cocaine-induced DA levels, and to some extent, attenuated a percent change of 5-HT compared to the non-stressed control group.
Conclusions
Chronic social defeat stress for 21 days induced physiological and behavioral depression-relevant deficits and blunted response of dopaminergic and to some extent, serotonergic neurons to cocaine challenge in females.
doi:10.1007/s00213-011-2364-7
PMCID: PMC3901580  PMID: 21638221
Cocaine; Chronic social stress; Depression; Dopamine; Estrous cycles; Females; Nucleus accumbens; Serotonin
13.  Smoking, variation in N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) and 2 (NAT2), and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a pooled analysis within the InterLymph consortium 
Cancer causes & control : CCC  2012;24(1):125-134.
Purpose
Studies of smoking and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) have yielded inconsistent results, possibly due to subtype heterogeneity and/or genetic variation impacting the metabolism of tobacco-derived carcinogens, including substrates of the N-acetyltransferase enzymes NAT1 and NAT2.
Methods
We conducted a pooled analysis of 5,026 NHL cases and 4,630 controls from seven case–control studies in the international lymphoma epidemiology consortium to examine associations between smoking, variation in the N-acetyltransferase genes NAT1 and NAT2, and risk of NHL subtypes. Smoking data were harmonized across studies, and genetic variants in NAT1 and NAT2 were used to infer acetylation phenotype of the NAT1 and NAT2 enzymes, respectively. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs) for risk of NHL and subtypes were calculated using joint fixed effects unconditional logistic regression models.
Results
Current smoking was associated with a significant 30 % increased risk of follicular lymphoma (n = 1,176) but not NHL overall or other NHL subtypes. The association was similar among NAT2 slow (OR 1.36; 95 % CI 1.07–1.75) and intermediate/rapid (OR 1.27; 95 % CI 0.95–1.69) acetylators (pinteraction = 0.82) and also did not differ by NAT1*10 allelotype. Neither NAT2 phenotype nor NAT1*10 allelotype was associated with risk of NHL overall or NHL subtypes.
Conclusion
The current findings provide further evidence for a modest association between current smoking and follicular lymphoma risk and suggest that this association may not be influenced by variation in the N-acetyltransferase enzymes.
doi:10.1007/s10552-012-0098-4
PMCID: PMC3529854  PMID: 23160945
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma; Gene environment interaction; Cigarette smoking; N-acetyltransferase; Follicular lymphoma
14.  A functional TNFRSF5 polymorphism and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, a pooled analysis 
Interaction between CD40 and its ligand, CD154, has a key function in immune regulation. Recent experimental data support a role of deregulated CD40 signalling in lymphomagenesis. Data from earlier studies that are part of this pooling study implicate a functional polymorphism (−1C>T, rs1883832) in the TNFRSF5 gene encoding CD40 in the etiology of follicular lymphoma. Here, the association of this variant with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) risk was replicated in a European multicenter study of 855 NHL cases and 1,206 controls. In the combined analysis of 2,617 cases and 3,605 controls, carrying the TT genotype was associated with an increased risk for all NHL (OR = 1.4; p for linear trend = 0.00009), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (OR = 1.6; p for linear trend = 0.002) and follicular lymphoma (OR = 1.6; p for linear trend = 0.001). These data suggest a possible role of this functional polymorphism in lymphomas originating within the germinal center.
doi:10.1002/ijc.25420
PMCID: PMC3876741  PMID: 20473910
lymphoma; TNFRSF5; CD40; polymorphism; epidemiology
15.  Obesity and survival in population-based patients with pancreatic cancer in the San Francisco Bay Area 
Cancer causes & control : CCC  2012;23(12):1929-1937.
Background
Obesity has been consistently associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer incidence and mortality. However, studies of obesity and overall survival in patients with pancreatic cancer are notably lacking, especially in population-based studies.
Methods
Active and passive follow-up were used to determine vital status and survival for 510 pancreatic cancer patients diagnosed from 1995–1999 in a large population-based case-control study in the San Francisco Bay Area. Survival rates were computed using Kaplan-Meier methods. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated in multivariable Cox proportional hazards models as measures of the association between pre-diagnostic obesity and pancreatic cancer survival.
Results
An elevated hazard ratio of 1.3 (95% CI, 0.91–1.81) was observed for obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥30) compared with normal range BMI (<25) patients. Associations between overall survival and known pancreatic cancer prognostic and risk factors did not significantly vary by BMI (all P-interaction ≥0.18), yet elevated HRs consistently were observed for obese compared with normal BMI patients [localized disease at diagnosis (HR, 3.1), surgical resection (HR, 1.6), ever smokers (HR, 1.6), diabetics (HR, 3.3)]. Poor survival was observed among men, older patients, more recent and current smokers, whereas improved survival was observed for Asian/Pacific Islanders.
Conclusions
Our results in general provide limited support for an association between prediagnostic obesity and decreased survival in patients with pancreatic cancer. Patterns of reduced survival associated with obesity in some patient subgroups could be due to chance and require assessment in larger pooled studies.
doi:10.1007/s10552-012-0070-3
PMCID: PMC3506392  PMID: 23015286
Pancreatic cancer; obesity; survival; population-based cohort
16.  Parental Smoking and Risk of Childhood Brain Tumors by Functional Polymorphisms in Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Metabolism Genes 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(11):e79110.
Background
A recent meta-analysis suggested an association between exposure to paternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood brain tumor risk, but no studies have evaluated whether this association differs by polymorphisms in genes that metabolize tobacco-smoke chemicals.
Methods
We assessed 9 functional polymorphisms in 6 genes that affect the metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) to evaluate potential interactions with parental smoking during pregnancy in a population-based case-control study of childhood brain tumors. Cases (N = 202) were ≤10 years old, diagnosed from 1984–1991 and identified in three Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registries in the western U.S. Controls in the same regions (N = 286) were frequency matched by age, sex, and study center. DNA for genotyping was obtained from archived newborn dried blood spots.
Results
We found positive interaction odds ratios (ORs) for both maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy, EPHX1 H139R, and childhood brain tumors (Pinteraction = 0.02; 0.10), such that children with the high-risk (greater PAH activation) genotype were at a higher risk of brain tumors relative to children with the low-risk genotype when exposed to tobacco smoke during pregnancy. A dose-response pattern for paternal smoking was observed among children with the EPHX1 H139R high-risk genotype only (ORno exposure = 1.0; OR≤3 hours/day = 1.32, 95% CI: 0.52–3.34; OR>3hours/day = 3.18, 95% CI: 0.92–11.0; Ptrend = 0.07).
Conclusion
Parental smoking during pregnancy may be a risk factor for childhood brain tumors among genetically susceptible children who more rapidly activate PAH in tobacco smoke.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0079110
PMCID: PMC3832498  PMID: 24260161
17.  Self-reported history of infections and the risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: an InterLymph pooled analysis 
We performed a pooled analysis of data on self-reported history of infections in relation to the risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) from 17 case-control studies that included 12,585 cases and 15,416 controls aged 16–96 years at recruitment. Pooled odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated in two-stage random-effect or joint fixed-effect models, adjusting for age, sex and study centre. Data from the two years prior to diagnosis (or date of interview for controls) were excluded. A self-reported history of infectious mononucleosis (IM) was associated with an excess risk of NHL (OR=1.26, 95% CI=1.01–1.57 based on data from 16 studies); study-specific results indicate significant (I2=51%, p=0.01) heterogeneity. A self-reported history of measles or whooping cough was associated with an approximate 15% reduction in risk. History of other infection was not associated with NHL. We find little clear evidence of an association between NHL risk and infection although the limitations of data based on self-reported medical history (particularly of childhood illness reported by older people) are well recognised.
doi:10.1002/ijc.27438
PMCID: PMC3406230  PMID: 22266776
18.  Sex differences in behavioral and neural cross-sensitization and escalated cocaine taking as a result of episodic social defeat stress in rats 
Psychopharmacology  2012;224(1):179-188.
RATIONALE
Episodic social defeat stress results in cross-sensitization to cocaine, characterized by augmentation of locomotor activation, dopamine (DA) levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), and cocaine self-administration during a 24-hour “binge” in male rats. However, females are more vulnerable than males at each phase of cocaine addiction, and while these sex differences have been replicated in rats, the role of social stress in females remains largely neglected.
OBJECTIVE
This study examined sex and estrous cycle differences in behavioral and dopaminergic cross-sensitization to cocaine, as well as cocaine taking in an unlimited access self-administration “binge.”
METHODS
Long-Evans rats underwent episodic social defeat and were assessed ten days later for either (1)behavioral sensitization, as determined by locomotor activity in response to acute cocaine (10 mg/kg, ip), (2)neural sensitization, as determined by in vivo microdialysis of DA in the NAc shell in response to acute cocaine, or (3)intravenous self-administration of cocaine (0.3 mg/kg/infusion) in an unlimited access “binge.”
RESULTS
Social defeat stress resulted in behavioral and dopaminergic cross-sensitization in both sexes, but the effect was larger and longer lasting in stressed females. Furthermore, while stress engendered a longer “binge” in both sexes, females had a significantly longer “binge” duration than males.
CONCLUSIONS
These data suggest that socially stressed females exhibit a larger and longer lasting behavioral and neural cross-sensitization, as well as more dysregulated cocaine taking, than males possibly due to different alterations in the dopaminergic response in the NAc. Furthermore, estrogens appear to play a facilitatory role in both behavioral and dopaminergic sensitization.
doi:10.1007/s00213-012-2846-2
PMCID: PMC3684960  PMID: 22926005
social stress; sex differences; cocaine; dopamine; behavioral sensitization; neural sensitization; self-administration; microdialysis
19.  An Absolute Risk Model to Identify Individuals at Elevated Risk for Pancreatic Cancer in the General Population 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(9):e72311.
Purpose
We developed an absolute risk model to identify individuals in the general population at elevated risk of pancreatic cancer.
Patients and Methods
Using data on 3,349 cases and 3,654 controls from the PanScan Consortium, we developed a relative risk model for men and women of European ancestry based on non-genetic and genetic risk factors for pancreatic cancer. We estimated absolute risks based on these relative risks and population incidence rates.
Results
Our risk model included current smoking (multivariable adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval: 2.20 [1.84–2.62]), heavy alcohol use (>3 drinks/day) (OR: 1.45 [1.19–1.76]), obesity (body mass index >30 kg/m2) (OR: 1.26 [1.09–1.45]), diabetes >3 years (nested case-control OR: 1.57 [1.13–2.18], case-control OR: 1.80 [1.40–2.32]), family history of pancreatic cancer (OR: 1.60 [1.20–2.12]), non-O ABO genotype (AO vs. OO genotype) (OR: 1.23 [1.10–1.37]) to (BB vs. OO genotype) (OR 1.58 [0.97–2.59]), rs3790844(chr1q32.1) (OR: 1.29 [1.19–1.40]), rs401681(5p15.33) (OR: 1.18 [1.10–1.26]) and rs9543325(13q22.1) (OR: 1.27 [1.18–1.36]). The areas under the ROC curve for risk models including only non-genetic factors, only genetic factors, and both non-genetic and genetic factors were 58%, 57% and 61%, respectively. We estimate that fewer than 3/1,000 U.S. non-Hispanic whites have more than a 5% predicted lifetime absolute risk.
Conclusion
Although absolute risk modeling using established risk factors may help to identify a group of individuals at higher than average risk of pancreatic cancer, the immediate clinical utility of our model is limited. However, a risk model can increase awareness of the various risk factors for pancreatic cancer, including modifiable behaviors.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0072311
PMCID: PMC3772857  PMID: 24058443
20.  Pathway analysis of genome-wide association study data highlights pancreatic development genes as susceptibility factors for pancreatic cancer 
Carcinogenesis  2012;33(7):1384-1390.
Four loci have been associated with pancreatic cancer through genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Pathway-based analysis of GWAS data is a complementary approach to identify groups of genes or biological pathways enriched with disease-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) whose individual effect sizes may be too small to be detected by standard single-locus methods. We used the adaptive rank truncated product method in a pathway-based analysis of GWAS data from 3851 pancreatic cancer cases and 3934 control participants pooled from 12 cohort studies and 8 case–control studies (PanScan). We compiled 23 biological pathways hypothesized to be relevant to pancreatic cancer and observed a nominal association between pancreatic cancer and five pathways (P < 0.05), i.e. pancreatic development, Helicobacter pylori lacto/neolacto, hedgehog, Th1/Th2 immune response and apoptosis (P = 2.0 × 10−6, 1.6 × 10−5, 0.0019, 0.019 and 0.023, respectively). After excluding previously identified genes from the original GWAS in three pathways (NR5A2, ABO and SHH), the pancreatic development pathway remained significant (P = 8.3 × 10−5), whereas the others did not. The most significant genes (P < 0.01) in the five pathways were NR5A2, HNF1A, HNF4G and PDX1 for pancreatic development; ABO for H. pylori lacto/neolacto; SHH for hedgehog; TGFBR2 and CCL18 for Th1/Th2 immune response and MAPK8 and BCL2L11 for apoptosis. Our results provide a link between inherited variation in genes important for pancreatic development and cancer and show that pathway-based approaches to analysis of GWAS data can yield important insights into the collective role of genetic risk variants in cancer.
doi:10.1093/carcin/bgs151
PMCID: PMC3405651  PMID: 22523087
21.  Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation and risk of pancreatic cancer 
Cancer Research  2011;72(3):686-695.
Although the mitochondrial genome exhibits high mutation rates, common mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation has not been consistently associated with pancreatic cancer. Here, we comprehensively examined mitochondrial genomic variation by sequencing the mtDNA of participants (cases=286, controls=283) in a San Francisco Bay Area pancreatic cancer case-control study. Five common variants were associated with pancreatic cancer at nominal statistical significance (p<0.05) with the strongest finding for mt5460g in the ND2 gene (odds ratio (OR)=3.9, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.5–10; p=0.004) which encodes an A331T substitution. Haplogroup K was nominally associated with reduced pancreatic cancer risk (OR = 0.32, CI=0.13–0.76; p=0.01) when compared with the most common haplogroup, H. A total of 19 haplogroup-specific rare variants yielded nominal statistically significant associations (p<0.05) with pancreatic cancer risk, with the majority observed in genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation. Weighted-sum statistics were used to identify an aggregate effect of variants in the 22 mitochondrial tRNAs on pancreatic cancer risk (p=0.02). While the burden of singleton variants in the HV2 and 12S RNA regions was three times higher among European haplogroup N cases than controls, the prevalence of singleton variants in ND4 and ND5 was two to three times higher among African haplogroup L cases than in controls. Together, the results of this study provide evidence that aggregated common and rare variants and the accumulation of singleton variants are important contributors to pancreatic cancer risk.
doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-11-1682
PMCID: PMC3271167  PMID: 22174369
Pancreatic cancer; mitochondrial DNA; oxidative phosphorylation; DNA sequencing; epidemiology
22.  Survival in Population-based Pancreatic Cancer Patients: San Francisco Bay Area, 1995–1999 
American Journal of Epidemiology  2011;174(12):1373-1381.
Patient vital status generally is passively obtained by cancer registries, and no previous population-based studies have used extensive active follow-up to compute a more accurate overall survival rate for pancreatic cancer. Therefore, the authors used multiple active and passive follow-up methods to determine vital status and date of death for 1,954 pancreatic cancer patients diagnosed from 1995 to 1999 in a large population-based study in the San Francisco Bay Area, California. Survival rates were estimated by using Kaplan-Meier methods. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by using multivariable Cox proportional-hazards models. Vital status was confirmed for >99% of 1,954 patients. The overall 5-year survival rate was 1.3% and was greater in patients who were younger and who had localized disease, well-differentiated tumors, and surgical resection. Shorter survival was associated with older age at diagnosis, male sex, distant/metastatic disease, and poorly differentiated tumors. Longer survival was observed for Asian/Pacific Islanders compared with non-Hispanic whites and for any active treatment regardless of tumor stage. With an almost complete follow-up, the authors observed a low overall 5-year survival rate. Although the results provide further evidence of poor survival among patients with pancreatic cancer, the data also suggest that within-stage-of-disease patients survived somewhat longer with therapy.
doi:10.1093/aje/kwr267
PMCID: PMC3276299  PMID: 22047824
cohort studies; pancreatic neoplasms; survival
23.  Detectable clonal mosaicism and its relationship to aging and cancer 
Jacobs, Kevin B | Yeager, Meredith | Zhou, Weiyin | Wacholder, Sholom | Wang, Zhaoming | Rodriguez-Santiago, Benjamin | Hutchinson, Amy | Deng, Xiang | Liu, Chenwei | Horner, Marie-Josephe | Cullen, Michael | Epstein, Caroline G | Burdett, Laurie | Dean, Michael C | Chatterjee, Nilanjan | Sampson, Joshua | Chung, Charles C | Kovaks, Joseph | Gapstur, Susan M | Stevens, Victoria L | Teras, Lauren T | Gaudet, Mia M | Albanes, Demetrius | Weinstein, Stephanie J | Virtamo, Jarmo | Taylor, Philip R | Freedman, Neal D | Abnet, Christian C | Goldstein, Alisa M | Hu, Nan | Yu, Kai | Yuan, Jian-Min | Liao, Linda | Ding, Ti | Qiao, You-Lin | Gao, Yu-Tang | Koh, Woon-Puay | Xiang, Yong-Bing | Tang, Ze-Zhong | Fan, Jin-Hu | Aldrich, Melinda C | Amos, Christopher | Blot, William J | Bock, Cathryn H | Gillanders, Elizabeth M | Harris, Curtis C | Haiman, Christopher A | Henderson, Brian E | Kolonel, Laurence N | Le Marchand, Loic | McNeill, Lorna H | Rybicki, Benjamin A | Schwartz, Ann G | Signorello, Lisa B | Spitz, Margaret R | Wiencke, John K | Wrensch, Margaret | Wu, Xifeng | Zanetti, Krista A | Ziegler, Regina G | Figueroa, Jonine D | Garcia-Closas, Montserrat | Malats, Nuria | Marenne, Gaelle | Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila | Baris, Dalsu | Schwenn, Molly | Johnson, Alison | Landi, Maria Teresa | Goldin, Lynn | Consonni, Dario | Bertazzi, Pier Alberto | Rotunno, Melissa | Rajaraman, Preetha | Andersson, Ulrika | Freeman, Laura E Beane | Berg, Christine D | Buring, Julie E | Butler, Mary A | Carreon, Tania | Feychting, Maria | Ahlbom, Anders | Gaziano, J Michael | Giles, Graham G | Hallmans, Goran | Hankinson, Susan E | Hartge, Patricia | Henriksson, Roger | Inskip, Peter D | Johansen, Christoffer | Landgren, Annelie | McKean-Cowdin, Roberta | Michaud, Dominique S | Melin, Beatrice S | Peters, Ulrike | Ruder, Avima M | Sesso, Howard D | Severi, Gianluca | Shu, Xiao-Ou | Visvanathan, Kala | White, Emily | Wolk, Alicja | Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne | Zheng, Wei | Silverman, Debra T | Kogevinas, Manolis | Gonzalez, Juan R | Villa, Olaya | Li, Donghui | Duell, Eric J | Risch, Harvey A | Olson, Sara H | Kooperberg, Charles | Wolpin, Brian M | Jiao, Li | Hassan, Manal | Wheeler, William | Arslan, Alan A | Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, H | Fuchs, Charles S | Gallinger, Steven | Gross, Myron D | Holly, Elizabeth A | Klein, Alison P | LaCroix, Andrea | Mandelson, Margaret T | Petersen, Gloria | Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine | Bracci, Paige M | Canzian, Federico | Chang, Kenneth | Cotterchio, Michelle | Giovannucci, Edward L | Goggins, Michael | Bolton, Judith A Hoffman | Jenab, Mazda | Khaw, Kay-Tee | Krogh, Vittorio | Kurtz, Robert C | McWilliams, Robert R | Mendelsohn, Julie B | Rabe, Kari G | Riboli, Elio | Tjønneland, Anne | Tobias, Geoffrey S | Trichopoulos, Dimitrios | Elena, Joanne W | Yu, Herbert | Amundadottir, Laufey | Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z | Kraft, Peter | Schumacher, Fredrick | Stram, Daniel | Savage, Sharon A | Mirabello, Lisa | Andrulis, Irene L | Wunder, Jay S | García, Ana Patiño | Sierrasesúmaga, Luis | Barkauskas, Donald A | Gorlick, Richard G | Purdue, Mark | Chow, Wong-Ho | Moore, Lee E | Schwartz, Kendra L | Davis, Faith G | Hsing, Ann W | Berndt, Sonja I | Black, Amanda | Wentzensen, Nicolas | Brinton, Louise A | Lissowska, Jolanta | Peplonska, Beata | McGlynn, Katherine A | Cook, Michael B | Graubard, Barry I | Kratz, Christian P | Greene, Mark H | Erickson, Ralph L | Hunter, David J | Thomas, Gilles | Hoover, Robert N | Real, Francisco X | Fraumeni, Joseph F | Caporaso, Neil E | Tucker, Margaret | Rothman, Nathaniel | Pérez-Jurado, Luis A | Chanock, Stephen J
Nature genetics  2012;44(6):651-658.
In an analysis of 31,717 cancer cases and 26,136 cancer-free controls drawn from 13 genome-wide association studies (GWAS), we observed large chromosomal abnormalities in a subset of clones from DNA obtained from blood or buccal samples. Mosaic chromosomal abnormalities, either aneuploidy or copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity, of size >2 Mb were observed in autosomes of 517 individuals (0.89%) with abnormal cell proportions between 7% and 95%. In cancer-free individuals, the frequency increased with age; 0.23% under 50 and 1.91% between 75 and 79 (p=4.8×10−8). Mosaic abnormalities were more frequent in individuals with solid-tumors (0.97% versus 0.74% in cancer-free individuals, OR=1.25, p=0.016), with a stronger association for cases who had DNA collected prior to diagnosis or treatment (OR=1.45, p=0.0005). Detectable clonal mosaicism was common in individuals for whom DNA was collected at least one year prior to diagnosis of leukemia compared to cancer-free individuals (OR=35.4, p=3.8×10−11). These findings underscore the importance of the role and time-dependent nature of somatic events in the etiology of cancer and other late-onset diseases.
doi:10.1038/ng.2270
PMCID: PMC3372921  PMID: 22561519
24.  Childhood Brain Tumors and Maternal Cured Meat Consumption in Pregnancy: Differential Effect by Glutathione S-Transferases 
Background
Some epidemiologic studies suggest that maternal consumption of cured meat during pregnancy may increase risk of brain tumors in offspring. We explored whether this possible association was modified by fetal genetic polymorphisms in genes coding for glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) that may inactivate nitroso compounds.
Methods
We assessed six GST variants: GSTM1 null, GSTT1 null, GSTP1I105V (rs1695), GSTP1A114V (rs1138272), GSTM3*B (3 bp deletion), and GSTM3A-63C (rs1332018) within a population-based case-control study with data on maternal prenatal cured meat consumption (202 cases and 286 controls born in California or Washington, 1978-1990).
Results
Risk of childhood brain tumor increased with increasing cured meat intake by the mother during pregnancy among children without GSTT1 (odds ratio [OR]=1.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07-1.57 for each increase in the frequency of consumption per week) or with potentially reduced GSTM3 (any -63C allele, OR=1.14, 95% CI 1.03-1.26), whereas no increased risk was observed among those with GSTT1 or presumably normal GSTM3 levels (interaction p=0.01 for each).
Conclusions
Fetal ability to deactivate nitrosoureas may modify the association between childhood brain tumors and maternal prenatal consumption of cured meats.
Impact
These results support the hypothesis that maternal avoidance during pregnancy of sources of some nitroso compounds or their precursors may reduce risk of brain tumors in some children.
doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-11-0196
PMCID: PMC3397426  PMID: 21914837
brain neoplasms; child; glutathione transferase; meat; nitro compounds
25.  Biologic markers of sun exposure and melanoma risk in women: pooled case-control analysis 
A model has been proposed whereby melanomas arise through two distinct pathways dependent upon the relative influence of host susceptibility and sun exposure. Such pathways may explain site-specific patterns of melanoma occurrence. To explore this model, we investigated the relationship between melanoma risk and general markers of acute (recalled sunburns) and chronic (prevalent solar keratoses) sun exposure, stratified by anatomic site and host phenotype. Our working hypothesis was that head and neck melanomas have stronger associations with solar keratoses and weaker associations with sunburn than trunk melanomas. We conducted a collaborative analysis using original data from women subjects of 11 case–control studies of melanoma (2575 cases, 3241 controls). We adjusted for potential confounding effects of sunlamp use and sunbathing. The magnitude of sunburn associations did not differ significantly by melanoma site, nevus count or histologic sub-type of melanoma. Across all sites, relative risk of melanoma increased with an increasing number of reported lifetime ‘painful’ sunburns, lifetime ‘severe’ sunburns and ‘severe’ sunburns in youth (ptrend<0.001), with pooled odds ratios for the highest category of sunburns vs no sunburns of 3.22 (95%CI 2.04–5.09) for lifetime ‘painful’ sunburns, 2.10 (95%CI 1.30–3.38) for lifetime ‘severe’ sunburns, and 2.43 (95%CI 1.61–3.65) for ‘severe’ sunburns in youth. Solar keratoses strongly increased the risk of head and neck melanoma (pOR 4.91, 95% CI 2.10–11.46), but data were insufficient to assess risk for other sites. Reported sunburn is strongly associated with melanoma on all major body sites.
doi:10.1002/ijc.25691
PMCID: PMC3035752  PMID: 20857492

Results 1-25 (51)