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1.  GOUT AND THE RISK OF PARKINSON’S DISEASE IN DENMARK 
European journal of epidemiology  2013;28(4):359-360.
doi:10.1007/s10654-013-9791-1
PMCID: PMC3655156  PMID: 23456139
gout; parkinson
2.  Statin use and Parkinson’s disease in Denmark 
Neurology  2008;70(16 0 2):1418-1422.
Objective
To investigate whether statin (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor) use is associated with risk of Parkinson’s disease (PD) in Denmark.
Methods
We identified 1,931 patients with a first time diagnosis of PD reported in hospital or outpatient clinic records between 2001– 2006. We density matched to these patients 9,651 population controls by birth year and sex relying on the Danish population register. For every participant, we identified pharmacy records of statin and anti-Parkinson drug prescriptions since 1995 and prior to index date from a prescription medication use database for all Danish residents. Whenever applicable, the index dates for cases and their corresponding controls were advanced to the date of first recorded prescription for anti-Parkinson drugs. In our primary analyses, we excluded all statin prescriptions 2-years before PD diagnosis.
Results
In unconditional logistic regression analyses adjusting for matching factors and co-morbidities, we observed none to slightly inverse associations between PD diagnosis and statin prescription drug use. Inverse associations with statin use were only observed for short-term (≤1 yrs) statin users (2-year lag OR 0.57; 95% CI 0.36 to 0.89); and suggested at higher intensity statin use (2-year lag OR 0.69; 95% CI 0.45–1.04). No associations were seen among longer-term users and no difference by sex, age, or type of statins used (lipophilic/hydrophilic).
Conclusion
We found little evidence for a neuroprotective role of statins in PD except for short-term or high intensity users. Yet, further investigations into the contributions of intensity, duration, and lag periods of statin use may still be warranted.
doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000286942.14552.51
PMCID: PMC3690297  PMID: 18184918
3.  Asthma and lung cancer risk: a systematic investigation by the International Lung Cancer Consortium 
Carcinogenesis  2011;33(3):587-597.
Asthma has been hypothesized to be associated with lung cancer (LC) risk. We conducted a pooled analysis of 16 studies in the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO) to quantitatively assess this association and compared the results with 36 previously published studies. In total, information from 585 444 individuals was used. Study-specific measures were combined using random effects models. A meta-regression and subgroup meta-analyses were performed to identify sources of heterogeneity. The overall LC relative risk (RR) associated with asthma was 1.28 [95% confidence intervals (CIs) = 1.16–1.41] but with large heterogeneity (I2 = 73%, P < 0.001) between studies. Among ILCCO studies, an increased risk was found for squamous cell (RR = 1.69, 95%, CI = 1.26–2.26) and for small-cell carcinoma (RR = 1.71, 95% CI = 0.99–2.95) but was weaker for adenocarcinoma (RR = 1.09, 95% CI = 0.88–1.36). The increased LC risk was strongest in the 2 years after asthma diagnosis (RR = 2.13, 95% CI = 1.09–4.17) but subjects diagnosed with asthma over 10 years prior had no or little increased LC risk (RR = 1.10, 95% CI = 0.94–1.30). Because the increased incidence of LC was chiefly observed in small cell and squamous cell lung carcinomas, primarily within 2 years of asthma diagnosis and because the association was weak among never smokers, we conclude that the association may not reflect a causal effect of asthma on the risk of LC.
doi:10.1093/carcin/bgr307
PMCID: PMC3291861  PMID: 22198214
4.  Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug Use and the Risk of Parkinson's Disease 
Neuroepidemiology  2011;36(3):155-161.
Background
Experimental evidence supports a preventative role for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in Parkinson's disease (PD).
Methods
We investigated associations between use of aspirin, nonaspirin NSAIDs, and acetaminophen and PD in a large population-based case-control study using Danish health and pharmacy registries. We identified 1,931 PD cases reported in hospital or outpatient clinic records who had received a primary diagnosis of PD between 2001 and 2006, and 9,651 age- and sex-matched controls from the Danish population register. Prescription medication use was documented in a pharmacy database covering all residents of Denmark since 1995.
Results
Adjusting for age, sex, use of cardiovascular disease drugs, diagnosis of chronic pulmonary obstructive disorder, and Charlson comorbidity scores, and excluding prescriptions filled within 5 years before diagnosis, we found no evidence for an association between PD and either aspirin use (OR = 0.97; 95% CI 0.82, 1.14) or nonaspirin NSAID use (OR = 0.97; 95% CI 0.86, 1.09), regardless of intensity of use; further, there was no association between use of ibuprofen or acetaminophen and PD.
Conclusion
Our findings provide no evidence for a protective effect of nonaspirin and aspirin NSAID prescription drug use shortly before PD onset.
doi:10.1159/000325653
PMCID: PMC3095838  PMID: 21508649
Parkinson's disease; Case-control study; Anti-inflammatory drugs
5.  Statin use and Parkinson’s disease in Denmark 
Objective
To investigate whether statin (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor) use is associated with risk of Parkinson’s disease (PD) in Denmark.
Methods
We identified 1,931 patients with a first time diagnosis of PD reported in hospital or outpatient clinic records between 2001– 2006. We density matched to these patients 9,651 population controls by birth year and sex relying on the Danish population register. For every participant, we identified pharmacy records of statin and anti-Parkinson drug prescriptions since 1995 and prior to index date from a prescription medication use database for all Danish residents. Whenever applicable, the index dates for cases and their corresponding controls were advanced to the date of first recorded prescription for anti-Parkinson drugs. In our primary analyses, we excluded all statin prescriptions 2-years before PD diagnosis.
Results
In unconditional logistic regression analyses adjusting for matching factors and co-morbidities, we observed none to slightly inverse associations between PD diagnosis and statin prescription drug use. Inverse associations with statin use were only observed for short-term (≤1 yrs) statin users (2-year lag OR 0.57; 95% CI 0.36 to 0.89); and suggested at higher intensity statin use (2-year lag OR 0.69; 95% CI 0.45–1.04). No associations were seen among longer-term users and no difference by sex, age, or type of statins used (lipophilic/hydrophilic).
Conclusion
We found little evidence for a neuroprotective role of statins in PD except for short-term or high intensity users. Yet, further investigations into the contributions of intensity, duration, and lag periods of statin use may still be warranted.
doi:10.1002/mds.23102
PMCID: PMC2910157  PMID: 20629142
6.  L-Type Calcium Channel blockers and Parkinson’s Disease in Denmark 
Annals of neurology  2010;67(5):600-606.
Objective
Investigate L-type calcium channel blockers of the dihydropyridine class for association with Parkinson’s disease because these drugs traverse the blood brain barrier, are potentially neuroprotective, and have previously been evaluated for impact on PD risk.
Methods
We identified 1,931 patients with a first time diagnosis for PD between 2001 and 2006 as reported in the Danish national hospital/outpatient database and density matched them by birth year and sex to 9,651 controls from the population register. Index date for cases and their corresponding controls was advanced to date of first recorded prescription for anti-Parkinson drugs, if prior to first PD diagnosis in the hospital records. Prescriptions were determined from the national pharmacy database. In our primary analyses, we excluded all calcium channel blockers prescriptions 2-years before index date/PD diagnosis.
Results
Employing logistic regression analysis adjusting for age, sex, diagnosis of chronic pulmonary obstructive disorder, and Charlson co-morbidity score we found that subjects prescribed centrally acting calcium channel blockers (excludes amlodipine) between 1995 and two years prior to the index date were less likely to develop Parkinson’s disease (Odds Ratio 0.73; 95% Confidence Interval 0.54-0.97); this 27% risk reduction did not differ with length or intensity of use. Risk estimates were close to null for the peripherally acting drug amlodipine and for other antihypertensive medications.
Interpretation
Our data suggest a potential neuroprotective role for centrally acting L-type calcium channel blockers of the dihydropyridine class in PD that should be further investigated in studies that can distinguish between types of L-Type channel blockers.
doi:10.1002/ana.21937
PMCID: PMC2917467  PMID: 20437557
7.  Aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in relation to Hodgkin lymphoma risk in Northern Denmark 
There are few known modifiable risk factors for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), but the recent finding of an inverse association between routine regular-strength aspirin use and HL risk suggests that aspirin may protect against HL development. To further investigate this association using prospectively collected data, we conducted a population-based case-control study in Northern Denmark. A total of 478 incident HL cases were identified in nationwide health care databases from 1991 through 2008. Ten population controls were matched to each case on age, sex, and county using risk-set sampling. Use of aspirin, selective cyclooxygenase-2 (sCOX-2) inhibitors, and other NSAIDs from 1989 through 2007 was ascertained by linkage to a population-based prescription database. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for associations between medication use and risk of HL. The OR for ever use (>2 prescriptions) compared with never/rare use (≤2 prescriptions) of low-dose aspirin was 0.7 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.5–1.2). The association with low-dose aspirin use did not vary appreciably by recentness, duration, or intensity of use. Recent use (>2 prescriptions in the 1–2 years before the index date), short-term use (<7 years), and medium/high-intensity use (≥25% of duration of use covered by prescription) of sCOX-2 inhibitors or other NSAIDs was associated with increased HL risk, possibly due to prodromal symptoms among cases. In conclusion, our results provide some evidence of a protective effect of low-dose aspirin, but not other NSAIDs, against HL development.
doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-09-0909
PMCID: PMC2837543  PMID: 20056623
non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; Hodgkin lymphoma; epidemiology; risk; prevention

Results 1-7 (7)