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1.  Variation in NF-κB Signaling Pathways and Survival in Invasive Epithelial Ovarian Cancer 
Block, Matthew S. | Charbonneau, Bridget | Vierkant, Robert A. | Fogarty, Zachary | Bamlet, William R. | Pharoah, Paul D.P. | Chenevix-Trench, Georgia | Rossing, Mary Anne | Cramer, Daniel | Pearce, Celeste Leigh | Schildkraut, Joellen | Menon, Usha | Kjaer, Susanne K. | Levine, Douglas A. | Gronwald, Jacek | Culver, Hoda Anton | Whittemore, Alice S. | Karlan, Beth Y. | Lambrechts, Diether | Wentzensen, Nicolas | Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta | Chang-Claude, Jenny | Bandera, Elisa V. | Hogdall, Estrid | Heitz, Florian | Kaye, Stanley B. | Fasching, Peter A. | Campbell, Ian | Goodman, Marc T. | Pejovic, Tanja | Bean, Yukie T. | Hays, Laura E. | Lurie, Galina | Eccles, Diana | Hein, Alexander | Beckmann, Matthias W. | Ekici, Arif B. | Paul, James | Brown, Robert | Flanagan, James M. | Harter, Philipp | du Bois, Andreas | Schwaab, Ira | Hogdall, Claus K. | Lundvall, Lene | Olson, Sara H. | Orlow, Irene | Paddock, Lisa E. | Rudolph, Anja | Eilber, Ursula | Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka | Rzepecka, Iwona K. | Ziolkowska-Seta, Izabela | Brinton, Louise A. | Yang, Hannah | Garcia-Closas, Montserrat | Despierre, Evelyn | Lambrechts, Sandrina | Vergote, Ignace | Walsh, Christine S. | Lester, Jenny | Sieh, Weiva | McGuire, Valerie | Rothstein, Joseph H. | Ziogas, Argyrios | Lubiński, Jan | Cybulski, Cezary | Menkiszak, Janusz | Jensen, Allan | Gayther, Simon A. | Ramus, Susan J. | Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra | Berchuck, Andrew | Wu, Anna H. | Pike, Malcolm C. | Van Den Berg, David | Terry, Kathryn L. | Vitonis, Allison F. | Ramirez, Starr M. | Rider, David N. | Knutson, Keith L. | Sellers, Thomas A. | Phelan, Catherine M. | Doherty, Jennifer A. | Johnatty, Sharon E. | deFazio, Anna | Song, Honglin | Tyrer, Jonathan | Kalli, Kimberly R. | Fridley, Brooke L. | Cunningham, Julie M. | Goode, Ellen L.
Survival in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is influenced by the host immune response, yet the key genetic determinants of inflammation and immunity that impact prognosis are not known. The nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) transcription factor family plays an important role in many immune and inflammatory responses, including the response to cancer. We studied common inherited variation in 210 genes in the NF-κB family in 10,084 patients with invasive EOC (5,248 high grade serous, 1,452 endometrioid, 795 clear cell, and 661 mucinous) from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. Associations between genotype and overall survival were assessed using Cox regression for all patients and by major histology, adjusting for known prognostic factors and correcting for multiple testing (threshold for statistical significance—p < 2.5×10−5). Results were statistically significant when assessed for patients of a single histology. Key associations were with CARD11 (caspase recruitment domain family, member 11) rs41324349 in patients with mucinous EOC (HR 1.82, 95% CI 1.41-2.35, p=4.13×10−6) and TNFRSF13B (tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 13B) rs7501462 in patients with endometrioid EOC (HR 0.68, 95% CI 0.56-0.82, p=2.33×10−5). Other associations of note included TRAF2 (TNF receptor-associated factor 2) rs17250239 in patients with high-grade serous EOC (HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.77-0.92, p=6.49×10−5) and PLCG1 (phospholipase C, gamma 1) rs11696662 in patients with clear cell EOC (HR 0.43, 95% CI 0.26-0.73, p=4.56×10−4). These associations highlight the potential importance of genes associated with host inflammation and immunity in modulating clinical outcomes in distinct EOC histologies.
doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-13-0962
PMCID: PMC4082406  PMID: 24740199
single nucleotide polymorphism; recurrence; survival; ovarian neoplasms
2.  Variation in NF-κB Signaling Pathways and Survival in Invasive Epithelial Ovarian Cancer 
Block, Matthew S. | Charbonneau, Bridget | Vierkant, Robert A. | Fogarty, Zachary | Bamlet, William R. | Pharoah, Paul D.P. | Chenevix-Trench, Georgia | Rossing, Mary Anne | Cramer, Daniel | Pearce, Celeste Leigh | Schildkraut, Joellen | Menon, Usha | Kjaer, Susanne K. | Levine, Douglas A. | Gronwald, Jacek | Culver, Hoda Anton | Whittemore, Alice S. | Karlan, Beth Y. | Lambrechts, Diether | Wentzensen, Nicolas | Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta | Chang-Claude, Jenny | Bandera, Elisa V. | Hogdall, Estrid | Heitz, Florian | Kaye, Stanley B. | Fasching, Peter A. | Campbell, Ian | Goodman, Marc T. | Pejovic, Tanja | Bean, Yukie T. | Hays, Laura E. | Lurie, Galina | Eccles, Diana | Hein, Alexander | Beckmann, Matthias W. | Ekici, Arif B. | Paul, James | Brown, Robert | Flanagan, James M. | Harter, Philipp | du Bois, Andreas | Schwaab, Ira | Hogdall, Claus K. | Lundvall, Lene | Olson, Sara H. | Orlow, Irene | Paddock, Lisa E. | Rudolph, Anja | Eilber, Ursula | Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka | Rzepecka, Iwona K. | Ziolkowska-Seta, Izabela | Brinton, Louise A. | Yang, Hannah | Garcia-Closas, Montserrat | Despierre, Evelyn | Lambrechts, Sandrina | Vergote, Ignace | Walsh, Christine S. | Lester, Jenny | Sieh, Weiva | McGuire, Valerie | Rothstein, Joseph H. | Ziogas, Argyrios | Lubiński, Jan | Cybulski, Cezary | Menkiszak, Janusz | Jensen, Allan | Gayther, Simon A. | Ramus, Susan J. | Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra | Berchuck, Andrew | Wu, Anna H. | Pike, Malcolm C. | Van Den Berg, David | Terry, Kathryn L. | Vitonis, Allison F. | Ramirez, Starr M. | Rider, David N. | Knutson, Keith L. | Sellers, Thomas A. | Phelan, Catherine M. | Doherty, Jennifer A. | Johnatty, Sharon E. | deFazio, Anna | Song, Honglin | Tyrer, Jonathan | Kalli, Kimberly R. | Fridley, Brooke L. | Cunningham, Julie M. | Goode, Ellen L.
Survival in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is influenced by the host immune response, yet the key genetic determinants of inflammation and immunity that impact prognosis are not known. The nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) transcription factor family plays an important role in many immune and inflammatory responses, including the response to cancer. We studied common inherited variation in 210 genes in the NF-κB family in 10,084 patients with invasive EOC (5,248 high grade serous, 1,452 endometrioid, 795 clear cell, and 661 mucinous) from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. Associations between genotype and overall survival were assessed using Cox regression for all patients and by major histology, adjusting for known prognostic factors and correcting for multiple testing (threshold for statistical significance—p < 2.5×10−5). Results were statistically significant when assessed for patients of a single histology. Key associations were with CARD11 (caspase recruitment domain family, member 11) rs41324349 in patients with mucinous EOC (HR 1.82, 95% CI 1.41–2.35, p=4.13×10−6) and TNFRSF13B (tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 13B) rs7501462 in patients with endometrioid EOC (HR 0.68, 95% CI 0.56–0.82, p=2.33×10−5). Other associations of note included TRAF2 (TNF receptor-associated factor 2) rs17250239 in patients with high-grade serous EOC (HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.77–0.92, p=6.49×10−5) and PLCG1 (phospholipase C, gamma 1) rs11696662 in patients with clear cell EOC (HR 0.43, 95% CI 0.26–0.73, p=4.56×10−4). These associations highlight the potential importance of genes associated with host inflammation and immunity in modulating clinical outcomes in distinct EOC histologies.
doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-13-0962
PMCID: PMC4082406  PMID: 24740199
single nucleotide polymorphism; recurrence; survival; ovarian neoplasms
3.  APOBEC3B upregulation and genomic mutation patterns in serous ovarian carcinoma 
Cancer research  2013;73(24):10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-13-1753.
Ovarian cancer is a clinically and molecularly heterogeneous disease. The driving forces behind this variability are unknown. Here we report wide variation in expression of the DNA cytosine deaminase APOBEC3B, with elevated expression in a majority of ovarian cancer cell lines (3 standard deviations above the mean of normal ovarian surface epithelial cells) and high grade primary ovarian cancers. APOBEC3B is active in the nucleus of several ovarian cancer cell lines and elicits a biochemical preference for deamination of cytosines in 5′TC dinucleotides. Importantly, examination of whole-genome sequence from 16 ovarian cancers reveals that APOBEC3B expression correlates with total mutation load as well as elevated levels of transversion mutations. In particular, high APOBEC3B expression correlates with C-to-A and C-to-G transversion mutations within 5′TC dinucleotide motifs in early-stage high grade serous ovarian cancer genomes, suggesting that APOBEC3B-catalyzed genomic uracil lesions are further processed by downstream DNA ‘repair’ enzymes including error-prone translesion polymerases. These data identify a potential role for APOBEC3B in serous ovarian cancer genomic instability.
doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-13-1753
PMCID: PMC3867573  PMID: 24154874
APOBEC3B; DNA cytosine deamination; genomic uracil; ovarian cancer; transversion mutations
4.  FCGR2A and FCGR3A polymorphisms in classical Hodgkin lymphoma by EBV status 
Leukemia & lymphoma  2013;54(11):2571-2573.
doi:10.3109/10428194.2013.796048
PMCID: PMC3999590  PMID: 23597143
FCGR2A; FCGR3A; polymorphism; EBV; Hodgkin Lymphoma
5.  Telomere length varies by DNA extraction method: Implications for epidemiologic research 
Background
Both shorter and longer telomeres in peripheral blood leukocyte (PBL) DNA have been associated with cancer risk. However, associations remain inconsistent across studies of the same cancer type. This study compares DNA preparation methods to determine telomere length from colorectal cancer patients.
Methods
We examined PBL relative telomere length (RTL) measured by quantitative PCR (qPCR) in 1,033 colorectal cancer patients and 2,952 healthy controls. DNA was extracted with Phenol/Chloroform, PureGene or QIAamp.
Results
We observed differences in RTL depending on DNA extraction method (p<0.001). Phenol/Chloroform extracted DNA had a mean RTL (T/S ratio) of 0.78 (range 0.01-6.54) ) compared to PureGene extracted DNA (mean RTL of 0.75; range 0.00-12.33). DNA extracted by QIAamp yielded a mean RTL of 0.38 (range 0.02-3.69). We subsequently compared RTL measured by qPCR from an independent set of 20 colorectal cancer cases and 24 normal controls in PBL DNA extracted by each of the three extraction methods. The range of RTL measured by qPCR from QIAamp-extracted DNA (0.17-0.58-) was smaller than from either PureGene or Phenol/Chloroform (ranges:0.04-2.67 and 0.32-2.81, respectively).
Conclusions
RTL measured by qPCR from QIAamp-extracted DNA was smaller than from either PureGene or Phenol/Chloroform (p<0.001).
Impact
Differences in DNA extraction method may contribute to the discrepancies between studies seeking to find an association between the risk of cancer or other diseases and RTL.
doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-13-0409
PMCID: PMC3827976  PMID: 24019396
Telomere length; extraction methods; colorectal cancer
6.  Polymorphisms in Metabolism/Antioxidant Genes May Mediate the Effect of Dietary Intake on Pancreatic Cancer Risk 
Pancreas  2013;42(7):1043-1053.
Objectives
A source of variation for inconsistent dietary-pancreatic cancer associations may be individuals carrying constitutional metabolism/antioxidant gene variants differentially benefit compared to homozygous individuals. Seventy-six tag SNPs were genotyped in thirteen candidate genes to test differential associations with pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
Methods
A clinic-based case-control design was used to rapidly ascertain 251 cases and 970 frequency matched controls who provided blood samples and completed a 144-item food frequency questionnaire. SNPs were evaluated using a dominant genetic model and dietary categories split on controls’ median intake. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals, adjusted for potential confounders.
Results
Significant increased associations (Bonferroni corrected P ≤ 0.0007) were observed for carriers of ≥ 1 minor allele for rs3816257 (glucosidase, alpha; acid [GAA]) and lower intake of deep-yellow vegetables (1.90[1.28,2.83]); and carriers of no minor allele for rs12807961 (catalyase [CAT]) and high total grains intake (2.48[1.50,4.09]) while those with ≥ 1 minor allele had a decreasing slope (across grains). The reference group was no minor alleles with low dietary intake.
Conclusions
Inter-individual variation in metabolism/antioxidant genes could interact with dietary intake to influence pancreatic cancer risk.
doi:10.1097/MPA.0b013e3182968e00
PMCID: PMC3779344  PMID: 24051964
Pancreatic cancer; dietary risk factors; interaction; case-control; genetic risk factors
7.  ABCB1 (MDR1) polymorphisms and ovarian cancer progression and survival: A comprehensive analysis from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium and The Cancer Genome Atlas 
Gynecologic oncology  2013;131(1):8-14.
Objective
ABCB1 encodes the multi-drug efflux pump P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and has been implicated in multi-drug resistance. We comprehensively evaluated this gene and flanking regions for an association with clinical outcome in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC).
Methods
The best candidates from fine-mapping analysis of 21 ABCB1 SNPs tagging C1236T (rs1128503), G2677T/A (rs2032582), and C3435T (rs1045642) were analysed in 4,616 European invasive EOC patients from thirteen Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC) studies and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Additionally we analysed 1,562 imputed SNPs around ABCB1 in patients receiving cytoreductive surgery and either ‘standard’ first-line paclitaxel-carboplatin chemotherapy (n=1,158) or any first-line chemotherapy regimen (n=2,867). We also evaluated ABCB1 expression in primary tumours from 143 EOC patients.
Result
Fine-mapping revealed that rs1128503, rs2032582, and rs1045642 were the best candidates in optimally debulked patients. However, we observed no significant association between any SNP and either progression-free survival or overall survival in analysis of data from 14 studies. There was a marginal association between rs1128503 and overall survival in patients with nil residual disease (HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.77-1.01; p=0.07). In contrast, ABCB1 expression in the primary tumour may confer worse prognosis in patients with sub-optimally debulked tumours.
Conclusion
Our study represents the largest analysis of ABCB1 SNPs and EOC progression and survival to date, but has not identified additional signals, or validated reported associations with progression-free survival for rs1128503, rs2032582, and rs1045642. However, we cannot rule out the possibility of a subtle effect of rs1128503, or other SNPs linked to it, on overall survival.
doi:10.1016/j.ygyno.2013.07.107
PMCID: PMC3795832  PMID: 23917080
8.  Large-Scale Evaluation of Common Variation in Regulatory T Cell-Related Genes and Ovarian Cancer Outcome 
Charbonneau, Bridget | Moysich, Kirsten B. | Kalli, Kimberly R. | Oberg, Ann L. | Vierkant, Robert A. | Fogarty, Zachary C. | Block, Matthew S. | Maurer, Matthew J. | Goergen, Krista M. | Fridley, Brooke L. | Cunningham, Julie M. | Rider, David N. | Preston, Claudia | Hartmann, Lynn C. | Lawrenson, Kate | Wang, Chen | Tyrer, Jonathan | Song, Honglin | deFazio, Anna | Johnatty, Sharon E. | Doherty, Jennifer A. | Phelan, Catherine M. | Sellers, Thomas A. | Ramirez, Starr M. | Vitonis, Allison F. | Terry, Kathryn L. | Van Den Berg, David | Pike, Malcolm C. | Wu, Anna H. | Berchuck, Andrew | Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra | Ramus, Susan J. | Diergaarde, Brenda | Shen, Howard | Jensen, Allan | Menkiszak, Janusz | Cybulski, Cezary | Lubiński, Jan | Ziogas, Argyrios | Rothstein, Joseph H. | McGuire, Valerie | Sieh, Weiva | Lester, Jenny | Walsh, Christine | Vergote, Ignace | Lambrechts, Sandrina | Despierre, Evelyn | Garcia-Closas, Montserrat | Yang, Hannah | Brinton, Louise A. | Spiewankiewicz, Beata | Rzepecka, Iwona K. | Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka | Seibold, Petra | Rudolph, Anja | Paddock, Lisa E. | Orlow, Irene | Lundvall, Lene | Olson, Sara H. | Hogdall, Claus K. | Schwaab, Ira | du Bois, Andreas | Harter, Philipp | Flanagan, James M. | Brown, Robert | Paul, James | Ekici, Arif B. | Beckmann, Matthias W. | Hein, Alexander | Eccles, Diana | Lurie, Galina | Hays, Laura E. | Bean, Yukie T. | Pejovic, Tanja | Goodman, Marc T. | Campbell, Ian | Fasching, Peter A. | Konecny, Gottfried | Kaye, Stanley B. | Heitz, Florian | Hogdall, Estrid | Bandera, Elisa V. | Chang-Claude, Jenny | Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta | Wentzensen, Nicolas | Lambrechts, Diether | Karlan, Beth Y. | Whittemore, Alice S. | Culver, Hoda Anton | Gronwald, Jacek | Levine, Douglas A. | Kjaer, Susanne K. | Menon, Usha | Schildkraut, Joellen M. | Pearce, Celeste Leigh | Cramer, Daniel W. | Rossing, Mary Anne | Chenevix-Trench, Georgia | Pharoah, Paul D.P. | Gayther, Simon A. | Ness, Roberta B. | Odunsi, Kunle | Sucheston, Lara E. | Knutson, Keith L. | Goode, Ellen L.
Cancer immunology research  2014;2(4):332-340.
The presence of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in solid tumors is known to play a role in patient survival in ovarian cancer and other malignancies. We assessed inherited genetic variations via 749 tag SNPs in 25 Treg-associated genes (CD28, CTLA4, FOXP3, IDO1, IL10, IL10RA, IL15, 1L17RA, IL23A, IL23R, IL2RA, IL6, IL6R, IL8, LGALS1, LGALS9, MAP3K8, STAT5A, STAT5B, TGFB1, TGFB2, TGFB3, TGFBR1, TGRBR2, and TGFBR3) in relation to ovarian cancer survival. We analyzed genotype and overall survival in 10,084 women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer, including 5,248 high-grade serous, 1,452 endometrioid, 795 clear cell, and 661 mucinous carcinoma cases of European descent across 28 studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). The strongest associations were found for endometrioid carcinoma and IL2RA SNPs rs11256497 [HR=1.42, 95% CI: 1.22-1.64; p=5.7 × 10−6], rs791587 [HR=1.36, 95% CI:1.17-1.57; p=6.2 × 10−5], rs2476491 [HR=1.40, 95% CI: 1.19-1.64; p=5.6 × 10−5], and rs10795763 [HR=1.35, 95% CI: 1.17-1.57; p=7.9 × 10−5], and for clear cell carcinoma and CTLA4 SNP rs231775 [HR=0.67, 95% CI: 0.54-0.82; p=9.3 × 10−5] after adjustment for age, study site, population stratification, stage, grade, and oral contraceptive use. The rs231775 allele associated with improved survival in our study also results in an amino acid change in CTLA4 and previously has been reported to be associated with autoimmune conditions. Thus, we found evidence that SNPs in genes related to Tregs appear to play a role in ovarian cancer survival, particularly in patients with clear cell and endometrioid EOC.
doi:10.1158/2326-6066.CIR-13-0136
PMCID: PMC4000890  PMID: 24764580
clear cell; endometrioid; gynecologic neoplasms; single nucleotide polymorphism
9.  Large-Scale Evaluation of Common Variation in Regulatory T Cell-Related Genes and Ovarian Cancer Outcome 
Charbonneau, Bridget | Moysich, Kirsten B. | Kalli, Kimberly R. | Oberg, Ann L. | Vierkant, Robert A. | Fogarty, Zachary C. | Block, Matthew S. | Maurer, Matthew J. | Goergen, Krista M. | Fridley, Brooke L. | Cunningham, Julie M. | Rider, David N. | Preston, Claudia | Hartmann, Lynn C. | Lawrenson, Kate | Wang, Chen | Tyrer, Jonathan | Song, Honglin | deFazio, Anna | Johnatty, Sharon E. | Doherty, Jennifer A. | Phelan, Catherine M. | Sellers, Thomas A. | Ramirez, Starr M. | Vitonis, Allison F. | Terry, Kathryn L. | Van Den Berg, David | Pike, Malcolm C. | Wu, Anna H. | Berchuck, Andrew | Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra | Ramus, Susan J. | Diergaarde, Brenda | Shen, Howard | Jensen, Allan | Menkiszak, Janusz | Cybulski, Cezary | Lubiński, Jan | Ziogas, Argyrios | Rothstein, Joseph H. | McGuire, Valerie | Sieh, Weiva | Lester, Jenny | Walsh, Christine | Vergote, Ignace | Lambrechts, Sandrina | Despierre, Evelyn | Garcia-Closas, Montserrat | Yang, Hannah | Brinton, Louise A. | Spiewankiewicz, Beata | Rzepecka, Iwona K. | Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka | Seibold, Petra | Rudolph, Anja | Paddock, Lisa E. | Orlow, Irene | Lundvall, Lene | Olson, Sara H. | Hogdall, Claus K. | Schwaab, Ira | du Bois, Andreas | Harter, Philipp | Flanagan, James M. | Brown, Robert | Paul, James | Ekici, Arif B. | Beckmann, Matthias W. | Hein, Alexander | Eccles, Diana | Lurie, Galina | Hays, Laura E. | Bean, Yukie T. | Pejovic, Tanja | Goodman, Marc T. | Campbell, Ian | Fasching, Peter A. | Konecny, Gottfried | Kaye, Stanley B. | Heitz, Florian | Hogdall, Estrid | Bandera, Elisa V. | Chang-Claude, Jenny | Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta | Wentzensen, Nicolas | Lambrechts, Diether | Karlan, Beth Y. | Whittemore, Alice S. | Culver, Hoda Anton | Gronwald, Jacek | Levine, Douglas A. | Kjaer, Susanne K. | Menon, Usha | Schildkraut, Joellen M. | Pearce, Celeste Leigh | Cramer, Daniel W. | Rossing, Mary Anne | Chenevix-Trench, Georgia | Pharoah, Paul D.P. | Gayther, Simon A. | Ness, Roberta B. | Odunsi, Kunle | Sucheston, Lara E. | Knutson, Keith L. | Goode, Ellen L.
Cancer immunology research  2014;2(4):332-340.
The presence of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in solid tumors is known to play a role in patient survival in ovarian cancer and other malignancies. We assessed inherited genetic variations via 749 tag SNPs in 25 Treg-associated genes (CD28, CTLA4, FOXP3, IDO1, IL10, IL10RA, IL15, 1L17RA, IL23A, IL23R, IL2RA, IL6, IL6R, IL8, LGALS1, LGALS9, MAP3K8, STAT5A, STAT5B, TGFB1, TGFB2, TGFB3, TGFBR1, TGRBR2, and TGFBR3) in relation to ovarian cancer survival. We analyzed genotype and overall survival in 10,084 women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer, including 5,248 high-grade serous, 1,452 endometrioid, 795 clear cell, and 661 mucinous carcinoma cases of European descent across 28 studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). The strongest associations were found for endometrioid carcinoma and IL2RA SNPs rs11256497 [HR=1.42, 95% CI: 1.22–1.64; p=5.7 × 10−6], rs791587 [HR=1.36, 95% CI:1.17–1.57; p=6.2 × 10−5], rs2476491 [HR=1.40, 95% CI: 1.191.64; p=5.6 × 10−5], and rs10795763 [HR=1.35, 95% CI: 1.17–1.57; p=7.9 × 10−5], and for clear cell carcinoma and CTLA4 SNP rs231775 [HR=0.67, 95% CI: 0.54–0.82; p=9.3 × 10−5] after adjustment for age, study site, population stratification, stage, grade, and oral contraceptive use. The rs231775 allele associated with improved survival in our study also results in an amino acid change in CTLA4 and previously has been reported to be associated with autoimmune conditions. Thus, we found evidence that SNPs in genes related to Tregs appear to play a role in ovarian cancer survival, particularly in patients with clear cell and endometrioid EOC.
doi:10.1158/2326-6066.CIR-13-0136
PMCID: PMC4000890  PMID: 24764580
clear cell; endometrioid; gynecologic neoplasms; single nucleotide polymorphism
10.  Biomarker-based ovarian carcinoma typing: a histological investigation in the Ovarian Tumor Tissue Analysis consortium 
Background
Ovarian carcinoma is composed of five major histological types which associate with outcome and predict therapeutic response. Our aim was to evaluate histological type assessments across centres participating in the Ovarian Tumor Tissue Analysis (OTTA) consortium using an immunohistochemical (IHC) prediction model.
Methods
Tissue microarrays (TMAs) and clinical data were available for 524 pathologically confirmed ovarian carcinomas. Centralized IHC was performed for ARID1A, CDKN2A, DKK1, HNF1B, MDM2, PGR, TP53, TFF3, VIM, and WT1, and three histological type assessments were compared: the original pathologic type, an IHC-based calculated type (termed TB_COSPv2), and a WT1-assisted TMA core review.
Results
The concordance between TB_COSPv2 type and original type was 73%. Applying WT1-assisted core review, the remaining 27% discordant cases subdivided into unclassifiable (6%), TB_COSPv2 error (6%), and original type error (15%). The largest discordant subgroup was classified as endometrioid carcinoma (EC) by original type and as high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) by TB_COSPv2. When TB_COSPv2 classification was used, the difference in overall survival of EC compared to HGSC became significant (RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.37–0.93, p=0.021), consistent with previous reports. In addition, 71 cases with unclear original type could be histologically classified by TB_COSPv2.
Conclusions
Research cohorts, particularly those across different centres within consortia, show significant variability in original histological type diagnosis. Our IHC-based reclassification produced more homogeneous types with respect to outcome than original type.
Impact
Biomarker-based classification of ovarian carcinomas is feasible, improves comparability of results across research studies, and can reclassify cases which lack reliable original pathology.
doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-13-0391
PMCID: PMC3955399  PMID: 23880734
ovarian cancer; type; biomarker; immunohistochemistry; typing
11.  CXCR5 polymorphisms in non-Hodgkin lymphoma risk and prognosis 
CXCR5 [chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 5; also known as Burkitt lymphoma receptor 1 (BCR1)] is expressed on mature B-cells, subsets of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, and skin-derived migratory dendritic cells. Together with its ligand, CXCL13, CXCR5 is involved in guiding B-cells into the B-cell zones of secondary lymphoid organs as well as T-cell migration. This study evaluated the role of common germline genetic variation in CXCR5 in the risk and prognosis of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) using a clinic-based study of 1521 controls and 2694 NHL cases including 710 chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL), 586 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), 588 follicular lymphoma (FL), 137 mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), 230 marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) and 158 peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL). Of the ten CXCR5 tag SNPs in our study, five were associated with risk of NHL, with rs1790192 having the strongest association (OR=1.19, 95%CI 1.08–1.30; p=0.0003). This SNP was most strongly associated with the risk of FL (OR=1.44, 95%CI 1.25–1.66; p=3.1×10−7), with a lower degree of association with DLBCL (OR=1.16, 95%CI 1.01–1.33; p=0.04) and PTCL (OR=1.29, 95%CI 1.02–1.64; p=0.04) but no association with the risk of MCL or MZL. For FL patients that were observed as initial disease management, the number of minor alleles of rs1790192 was associated with better event-free survival (EFS) (HR=0.64; 95%CI 0.47–0.87; p=0.004). These results provide additional evidence for a role of host genetic variation in CXCR5 in lymphomagenesis, particularly for FL.
doi:10.1007/s00262-013-1452-4
PMCID: PMC3758443  PMID: 23812490
non-Hodgkin lymphoma; SNPs; prognosis; prospective cohort; case-control
12.  Epigenome-wide ovarian cancer analysis identifies a methylation profile differentiating clear-cell histology with epigenetic silencing of the HERG K+ channel 
Human Molecular Genetics  2013;22(15):3038-3047.
Ovarian cancer remains the leading cause of death in women with gynecologic malignancies, despite surgical advances and the development of more effective chemotherapeutics. As increasing evidence indicates that clear-cell ovarian cancer may have unique pathogenesis, further understanding of molecular features may enable us to begin to understand the underlying biology and histology-specific information for improved outcomes. To study epigenetics in clear-cell ovarian cancer, fresh frozen tumor DNA (n = 485) was assayed on Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChips. We identified a clear-cell ovarian cancer tumor methylation profile (n = 163) which we validated in two independent replication sets (set 1, n = 163; set 2, n = 159), highlighting 22 CpG loci associated with nine genes (VWA1, FOXP1, FGFRL1, LINC00340, KCNH2, ANK1, ATXN2, NDRG21 and SLC16A11). Nearly all of the differentially methylated CpGs showed a propensity toward hypermethylation among clear-cell cases. Several loci methylation inversely correlated with tumor gene expression, most notably KCNH2 (HERG, a potassium channel) (P = 9.5 × 10−7), indicating epigenetic silencing. In addition, a predicted methylation class mainly represented by the clear-cell cases (20 clear cell out of 23 cases) had improved survival time. Although these analyses included only 30 clear-cell carcinomas, results suggest that loss of expression of KCNH2 (HERG) by methylation could be a good prognostic marker, given that overexpression of the potassium (K+) channel Eag family members promotes increased proliferation and results in poor prognosis. Validation in a bigger cohort of clear-cell tumors of the ovary is warranted.
doi:10.1093/hmg/ddt160
PMCID: PMC3699065  PMID: 23571109
13.  Identification of Novel Variants in Colorectal Cancer Families by High-Throughput Exome Sequencing 
Background
Colorectal cancer (CRC) in densely affected families without Lynch Syndrome may be due to mutations in undiscovered genetic loci. Familial linkage analyses have yielded disparate results; the use of exome sequencing in coding regions may identify novel segregating variants.
Methods
We completed exome sequencing on 40 affected cases from 16 multi-case pedigrees to identify novel loci. Variants shared among all sequenced cases within each family were identified and filtered to exclude common variants and single nucleotide variants (SNVs) predicted to be benign.
Results
We identified 32 nonsense or splice-site SNVs, 375 missense SNVs, 1,394 synonymous or non-coding SNVs, and 50 indels in the 16 families. Of particular interest are two validated and replicated missense variants in CENPE and KIF23, which are both located within previously reported CRC linkage regions, on chromosomes 1 and 15, respectively.
Conclusions
Whole-exome sequencing identified DNA variants in multiple genes. Additional sequencing of these genes in additional samples will further elucidate the role of variants in these regions in colorectal cancer susceptibility.
Impact
Exome sequencing of familial CRC cases can identify novel rare variants that may influence disease risk.
doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-12-1226
PMCID: PMC3704223  PMID: 23637064
colorectal cancer; familial and hereditary cancers; exome sequencing; rare variants; family study design
14.  Functional and Clinical Significance of Variants Localized to 8q24 in Colon Cancer 
Multiple GWAS have identified several susceptibility variants for colon cancer at 8q24. However, the functional roles of these variants have yet to be elucidated. Here, we evaluated the potential role of these markers in tumor progression and examined association with commonly observed structural abnormalities in this region, c-MYC amplification and chromosome fragility at FRA8C and FRA8D. We first replicated the previously reported association by testing 1178 cases and 1009 clinic-based controls with eight markers localized to three specific regions at 8q24. We observed significant associations with colon cancer risk with markers rs13254738 (ordinal OR=0.82, 95% CI=0.072-0.94, Ptrend=0.0037) and rs6983267 (ordinal OR=1.17, 95% CI=1.03-1.32, Ptrend=0.013). Survival analysis was performed using a separate set of 460 cases to evaluate the clinical significance of these markers. Overall, univariate analysis did not detect survival differences for any of the markers. We also tested a subset of the 460 cases (N=380) for structural abnormalities at or near the c-MYC locus using FISH analysis. Furthermore, we evaluated a small number of cases homozygous for the rs6983267 alleles to test for differences in fragile site induction. None of the 8q markers correlated with amplification at the c-MYC locus as detected by FISH, and no clear pattern of breakage was observed at the FRA8C and FRA8D sites. In this study, we confirm the association for several SNPs at 8q24 in colon cancer but have not detected any structural role relating to c-MYC amplification or chromosomal fragility. Finally, these risk alleles do not appear to be associated with survival.
doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-09-0362
PMCID: PMC4059694  PMID: 19690179
8q; SNP; association; survival; FISH; fragile site; c-MYC
15.  Survival Is Associated With Genetic Variation in Inflammatory Pathway Genes among Patients with Resected and Unresected Pancreatic Cancer 
Annals of surgery  2013;257(6):1096-1102.
Objective
To test if the association between inflammation and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PC) is facilitated by host susceptibility, specifically by genetic polymorphisms in inflammation-related genes.
Summary Background Data
Inflammation has been linked to PC. Reports have cited an increased expression of proinflammatory mediators, such as NF-κB and COX, in PC but not in normal adjacent tissue, suggesting a possible role in carcinogenesis. We sought to further understand the role that genetic variants in the NF-κB inflammatory pathway play in the development and progression of PC.
Methods
We genotyped 1536 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 102 candidate genes of multiple inflammatory pathways in 1308 Caucasian patients with PC who were divided into three groups based on extent of disease: resected for cure (n = 400), locally advanced/unresected (n = 443), and metastatic (n = 465). Survival analysis was performed using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards regression models. Statistical significance was set at <0.001, to control for multiple testing.
Results
Median age was 67 (28.0–91.0) years, and 57% were male. Median survival for each of the three groups (resected, locally advanced, and metastatic) was 23.7, 9.4, 6.6 months, respectively (p<0.0001). In the resected group, carriers of a minor allele for either rs3824872 (MAPK8IP1) or rs8064821 (SOCS3) were associated with a 10 - and 6-month survival advantage compared to non-carriers in patients with resected disease, with an additional 2-year survival if both minor alleles were present. With locally advanced disease, SNP rs1124736 (IGF1R) was associated with improved survival if they had a copy of the G allele, hazard ratio (HR) 0.57 (0.42– 0.77) p = 0.0002. Additionally, four SNPs in patients with metastatic disease were found to be associated with worse survival and two associated with improved overall survival but the differences in survival were deemed not clinically significant.
Conclusion
SNPs in the inflammatory pathway genes MAPK8IP1 and SOCS3 were associated with increased overall survival in patients undergoing potentially curative resection and may be used in the future as markers to predict survival. Future research is needed to determine the functional relevance of these loci.
doi:10.1097/SLA.0b013e318275b7e5
PMCID: PMC3677709  PMID: 23360921
survival; SOCS3; NFKB; MAPKI8P1; pancreatic cancer; single nucleotide polymorphisms; inflammation
16.  Associations between hormone receptor expression and ovarian cancer survival: an Ovarian Tumor Tissue Analysis consortium study 
The lancet oncology  2013;14(9):853-862.
Background
Ovarian cancer is a lethal disease comprised of distinct histopathological types. There are few established biomarkers of ovarian cancer prognosis, in part because subtype-specific associations may have been obscured in studies combining all subtypes. We examined whether progesterone receptor (PR) and estrogen receptor (ER) protein expression were associated with subtype-specific survival in the international Ovarian Tumor Tissue Analysis (OTTA) consortium.
Methods
PR and ER were assessed by central immunohistochemical analysis of tissue microarrays for 2933 women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer from 12 study sites. Negative, weak, and strong expression were defined as positive staining in <1%, 1–50%, and ≥50% of tumor cell nuclei, respectively. Hazard ratios (HRs) for ovarian cancer death were estimated using Cox regression stratified by site and adjusted for age, stage, and grade.
Results
PR expression was associated with improved survival for endometrioid (EC; p<0·0001) and high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC; p=0·0006), and ER expression was associated with improved EC survival (p<0·0001); no significant associations were found for mucinous, clear cell, or low-grade serous carcinoma. EC patients with hormone receptor (PR and/or ER) positive (weak or strong) versus negative tumors had significantly reduced risk of dying from their disease, independent of clinical factors (HR, 0·33; 95% CI, 0·21–0·51; p<0·0001). HGSC patients with strong versus weak or negative tumor PR expression had significantly reduced risk of dying from their disease, independent of clinical factors (HR, 0·71; 95% CI, 0·55–0·91; p=0·0061).
Interpretation
PR and ER are prognostic biomarkers for endometrioid and high-grade serous ovarian cancers. Clinical trials, stratified by subtype and biomarker status, are needed to determine whether hormone receptor status predicts response to endocrine therapy, and can guide personalized treatment for ovarian cancer.
Funding
Carraressi Foundation, US National Institutes of Health, National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia, UK National Institute for Health Research, and others.
doi:10.1016/S1470-2045(13)70253-5
PMCID: PMC4006367  PMID: 23845225
17.  Methylation of leukocyte DNA and ovarian cancer: relationships with disease status and outcome 
BMC Medical Genomics  2014;7:21.
Background
Genome-wide interrogation of DNA methylation (DNAm) in blood-derived leukocytes has become feasible with the advent of CpG genotyping arrays. In epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), one report found substantial DNAm differences between cases and controls; however, many of these disease-associated CpGs were attributed to differences in white blood cell type distributions.
Methods
We examined blood-based DNAm in 336 EOC cases and 398 controls; we included only high-quality CpG loci that did not show evidence of association with white blood cell type distributions to evaluate association with case status and overall survival.
Results
Of 13,816 CpGs, no significant associations were observed with survival, although eight CpGs associated with survival at p < 10-3, including methylation within a CpG island located in the promoter region of GABRE (p = 5.38 x 10-5, HR = 0.95). In contrast, 53 CpG methylation sites were significantly associated with EOC risk (p <5 x10-6). The top association was observed for the methylation probe cg04834572 located approximately 315 kb upstream of DUSP13 (p = 1.6 x10-14). Other disease-associated CpGs included those near or within HHIP (cg14580567; p =5.6x10-11), HDAC3 (cg10414058; p = 6.3x10-12), and SCR (cg05498681; p = 4.8x10-7).
Conclusions
We have identified several CpGs in leukocytes that are differentially methylated by case-control status. Since a retrospective study design was used, we cannot differentiate whether DNAm was etiologic or resulting from EOC; thus, prospective studies of EOC-associated loci are the critical next step.
doi:10.1186/1755-8794-7-21
PMCID: PMC4102255  PMID: 24774302
DNA methylation; CpG genotyping arrays; Epithelial ovarian cancer; Pathway; Etiology; Overall survival
18.  Combined and interactive effects of environmental and GWAS-identified risk factors in ovarian cancer 
Background
There are several well-established environmental risk factors for ovarian cancer, and recent genome-wide association studies have also identified six variants that influence disease risk. However, the interplay between such risk factors and susceptibility loci has not been studied.
Methods
Data from 14 ovarian cancer case-control studies were pooled, and stratified analyses by each environmental risk factor with tests for heterogeneity were conducted to determine the presence of interactions for all histological subtypes. A genetic “risk score” was created to consider the effects of all six variants simultaneously. A multivariate model was fit to examine the association between all environmental risk factors and genetic risk score on ovarian cancer risk.
Results
Among 7,374 controls and 5,566 cases, there was no statistical evidence of interaction between the six SNPs or genetic risk score and the environmental risk factors on ovarian cancer risk. In a main effects model, women in the highest genetic risk score quartile had a 65% increased risk of ovarian cancer compared to women in the lowest (95% CI 1.48-1.84). Analyses by histological subtype yielded risk differences across subtype for endometriosis (phet<0.001), parity (phet<0.01), and tubal ligation (phet=0.041).
Conclusions
The lack of interactions suggests that a multiplicative model is the best fit for these data. Under such a model, we provide a robust estimate of each risk factor's effect, which sets the stage for absolute risk prediction modeling that considers both environmental and genetic risk factors. Further research into the observed differences in risk across histological subtype is warranted.
doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-12-1030-T
PMCID: PMC3963289  PMID: 23462924
Gene-environment interactions; ovarian cancer; epidemiology; histological subtype; pooled analysis
19.  Mapping of the IRF8 gene identifies a 3’ UTR variant associated with risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia but not other common non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes 
Background
Our genome-wide association study (GWAS) of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) identified 4 highly-correlated intronic variants within the IRF8 gene that were associated with CLL. These results were further supported by a recent meta-analysis of our GWAS with two other GWAS of CLL, supporting the IRF8 gene as a strong candidate for CLL risk.
Methods
To refine the genetic association of CLL risk, we performed Sanger sequencing of IRF8 in 94 CLL cases and 96 controls. We then performed fine-mapping by genotyping 39 variants (of which 10 were identified from sequencing) in 745 CLL cases and 1521 controls. We also assessed these associations with risk of other non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) subtypes.
Results
The strongest association with CLL risk was observed with a common SNP located within the 3’ UTR of IRF8 (rs1044873, log additive odds ratio = 0.7, P=1.81×10−6). This SNP was not associated with the other NHL subtypes (all P>0.05).
Conclusions
We provide evidence that rs1044873 in the IRF8 gene accounts for the initial GWAS signal for CLL risk. This association appears to be unique to CLL with little support for association with other common NHL subtypes. Future work is needed to assess functional role of IRF8 in CLL etiology.
Impact
These data provide support that a functional variant within the 3’ UTR of IRF8 may be driving the GWAS signal seen on 16q24.1 for CLL risk.
doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-12-1217
PMCID: PMC3596428  PMID: 23307532
CLL; NHL; SNPs; IRF8; risk locus
20.  The Association of Telomere Length with Colorectal Cancer Differs by the Age of Cancer Onset 
OBJECTIVES:
Telomeres are nucleoprotein structures that cap the end of chromosomes and shorten with sequential cell divisions in normal aging. Short telomeres are also implicated in the incidence of many cancers, but the evidence is not conclusive for colorectal cancer (CRC). Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the association of CRC and telomere length.
METHODS:
In this case–control study, we measured relative telomere length from peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) DNA with quantitative PCR in 598 CRC patients and 2,212 healthy controls.
RESULTS:
Multivariate analysis indicated that telomere length was associated with risk for CRC, and this association varied in an age-related manner; younger individuals (≤50 years of age) with longer telomeres (80–99 percentiles) had a 2–6 times higher risk of CRC, while older individuals (>50 years of age) with shortened telomeres (1–10 percentiles) had 2–12 times the risk for CRC. The risk for CRC varies with extremes in telomere length in an age-associated manner.
CONCLUSIONS:
Younger individuals with longer telomeres or older individuals with shorter telomeres are at higher risk for CRC. These findings indicate that the association of PBL telomere length varies according to the age of cancer onset and that CRC is likely associated with at minimum two different mechanisms of telomere dynamics.
doi:10.1038/ctg.2014.3
PMCID: PMC3972691  PMID: 24598784
21.  Variants in inflammation genes are implicated in risk of lung cancer in never smokers exposed to second-hand smoke 
Cancer discovery  2011;1(5):420-429.
Lung cancer in lifetime never smokers is distinct from that in smokers, but the role of separate or overlapping carcinogenic pathways has not been explored. We therefore evaluated a comprehensive panel of 11,737 SNPs in inflammatory-pathway genes in a discovery phase (451 lung cancer cases, 508 controls from Texas). SNPs that were significant were evaluated in a second external population (303 cases, 311 controls from the Mayo Clinic). An intronic SNP in the ACVR1B gene, rs12809597, was replicated with significance and restricted to those reporting adult exposure to environmental tobacco smoke Another promising candidate was a SNP in NR4A1, although the replication OR did not achieve statistical significance. ACVR1B belongs to the TGFR-β superfamily, contributing to resolution of inflammation and initiation of airway remodeling. An inflammatory microenvironment, (second hand smoking, asthma, or hay fever) is necessary for risk from these gene variants to be expressed. These findings require further replication, followed by targeted resequencing, and functional validation.
doi:10.1158/2159-8290.CD-11-0080
PMCID: PMC3919666  PMID: 22586632
lung cancer; never smokers; inflammation genes; sidestream exposure
22.  Genome-wide Association Study Identifies Multiple Risk Loci for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia 
Berndt, Sonja I. | Skibola, Christine F. | Joseph, Vijai | Camp, Nicola J. | Nieters, Alexandra | Wang, Zhaoming | Cozen, Wendy | Monnereau, Alain | Wang, Sophia S. | Kelly, Rachel S. | Lan, Qing | Teras, Lauren R. | Chatterjee, Nilanjan | Chung, Charles C. | Yeager, Meredith | Brooks-Wilson, Angela R. | Hartge, Patricia | Purdue, Mark P. | Birmann, Brenda M. | Armstrong, Bruce K. | Cocco, Pierluigi | Zhang, Yawei | Severi, Gianluca | Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne | Lawrence, Charles | Burdette, Laurie | Yuenger, Jeffrey | Hutchinson, Amy | Jacobs, Kevin B. | Call, Timothy G. | Shanafelt, Tait D. | Novak, Anne J. | Kay, Neil E. | Liebow, Mark | Wang, Alice H. | Smedby, Karin E | Adami, Hans-Olov | Melbye, Mads | Glimelius, Bengt | Chang, Ellen T. | Glenn, Martha | Curtin, Karen | Cannon-Albright, Lisa A. | Jones, Brandt | Diver, W. Ryan | Link, Brian K. | Weiner, George J. | Conde, Lucia | Bracci, Paige M. | Riby, Jacques | Holly, Elizabeth A. | Smith, Martyn T. | Jackson, Rebecca D. | Tinker, Lesley F. | Benavente, Yolanda | Becker, Nikolaus | Boffetta, Paolo | Brennan, Paul | Foretova, Lenka | Maynadie, Marc | McKay, James | Staines, Anthony | Rabe, Kari G. | Achenbach, Sara J. | Vachon, Celine M. | Goldin, Lynn R | Strom, Sara S. | Lanasa, Mark C. | Spector, Logan G. | Leis, Jose F. | Cunningham, Julie M. | Weinberg, J. Brice | Morrison, Vicki A. | Caporaso, Neil E. | Norman, Aaron D. | Linet, Martha S. | De Roos, Anneclaire J. | Morton, Lindsay M. | Severson, Richard K. | Riboli, Elio | Vineis, Paolo | Kaaks, Rudolph | Trichopoulos, Dimitrios | Masala, Giovanna | Weiderpass, Elisabete | Chirlaque, María-Dolores | Vermeulen, Roel C H | Travis, Ruth C. | Giles, Graham G. | Albanes, Demetrius | Virtamo, Jarmo | Weinstein, Stephanie | Clavel, Jacqueline | Zheng, Tongzhang | Holford, Theodore R | Offit, Kenneth | Zelenetz, Andrew | Klein, Robert J. | Spinelli, John J. | Bertrand, Kimberly A. | Laden, Francine | Giovannucci, Edward | Kraft, Peter | Kricker, Anne | Turner, Jenny | Vajdic, Claire M. | Ennas, Maria Grazia | Ferri, Giovanni M. | Miligi, Lucia | Liang, Liming | Sampson, Joshua | Crouch, Simon | Park, Ju-hyun | North, Kari E. | Cox, Angela | Snowden, John A. | Wright, Josh | Carracedo, Angel | Lopez-Otin, Carlos | Bea, Silvia | Salaverria, Itziar | Martin, David | Campo, Elias | Fraumeni, Joseph F. | de Sanjose, Silvia | Hjalgrim, Henrik | Cerhan, James R. | Chanock, Stephen J. | Rothman, Nathaniel | Slager, Susan L.
Nature genetics  2013;45(8):868-876.
doi:10.1038/ng.2652
PMCID: PMC3729927  PMID: 23770605
23.  Integrative genomic analysis identifies epigenetic marks that mediate genetic risk for epithelial ovarian cancer 
Background
Both genetic and epigenetic factors influence the development and progression of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). However, there is an incomplete understanding of the interrelationship between these factors and the extent to which they interact to impact disease risk. In the present study, we aimed to gain insight into this relationship by identifying DNA methylation marks that are candidate mediators of ovarian cancer genetic risk.
Methods
We used 214 cases and 214 age-matched controls from the Mayo Clinic Ovarian Cancer Study. Pretreatment, blood-derived DNA was profiled for genome-wide methylation (Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation27 BeadArray) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, Illumina Infinium HD Human610-Quad BeadArray). The Causal Inference Test (CIT) was implemented to distinguish CpG sites that mediate genetic risk, from those that are consequential or independently acted on by genotype.
Results
Controlling for the estimated distribution of immune cells and other key covariates, our initial epigenome-wide association analysis revealed 1,993 significantly differentially methylated CpGs that between cases and controls (FDR, q < 0.05). The relationship between methylation and case-control status for these 1,993 CpGs was found to be highly consistent with the results of previously published, independent study that consisted of peripheral blood DNA methylation signatures in 131 pretreatment cases and 274 controls. Implementation of the CIT test revealed 17 CpG/SNP pairs, comprising 13 unique CpGs and 17 unique SNPs, which represent potential methylation-mediated relationships between genotype and EOC risk. Of these 13 CpGs, several are associated with immune related genes and genes that have been previously shown to exhibit altered expression in the context of cancer.
Conclusions
These findings provide additional insight into EOC etiology and may serve as novel biomarkers for EOC susceptibility.
doi:10.1186/1755-8794-7-8
PMCID: PMC3916313  PMID: 24479488
Integrative genomics; Ovarian cancer; Blood-based DNA methylation
24.  Association of the PDYN gene with alcohol dependence and the propensity to drink in negative emotional states 
Synthetic kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) agonists induce dysphoric and pro-depressive effects, and variations in the KOR (OPRK1) and prodynorphin (PDYN) genes have been shown to be associated with alcohol dependence. We genotyped 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the PDYN and OPRK1 genes in 816 alcohol dependent subjects and investigated their association with (1) negative craving measured by a subscale of the Inventory of Drug Taking Situations (IDTS); (2), a self-reported history of depression; and, (3) the intensity of depressive symptoms measured by the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI). In addition, 13 of the 23 PDYN and OPRK1 SNPs, which were previously genotyped in a set of 1248 controls, were used to evaluate association with alcohol dependence. SNP and haplotype tests of association were performed. Analysis of a haplotype spanning the PDYN gene (rs6045784, rs910080, rs2235751, rs2281285) revealed significant association with alcohol dependence (p=0.00079) and with negative craving (p=0.0499). A candidate haplotype containing the PDYN rs2281285-rs1997794 SNPs that was previously associated with alcohol dependence was also associated with negative craving (p=0.024) and alcohol dependence (p=0.0008) in this study. A trend for association between depression severity and PDYN variation was detected. No associations of OPRK1 gene variation with alcohol dependence or other studied phenotypes were found. These findings support the hypothesis that sequence variation in the PDYN gene contributes to both alcohol dependence and the induction of negative craving in alcohol dependent subjects.
doi:10.1017/S1461145712001137
PMCID: PMC3901318  PMID: 23101464
OPRK1; PDYN; Alcohol dependence; Craving; Depression
25.  Epigenetic analysis leads to identification of HNF1B as a subtype-specific susceptibility gene for ovarian cancer 
Shen, Hui | Fridley, Brooke L. | Song, Honglin | Lawrenson, Kate | Cunningham, Julie M. | Ramus, Susan J. | Cicek, Mine S. | Tyrer, Jonathan | Stram, Douglas | Larson, Melissa C. | Köbel, Martin | Ziogas, Argyrios | Zheng, Wei | Yang, Hannah P. | Wu, Anna H. | Wozniak, Eva L. | Woo, Yin Ling | Winterhoff, Boris | Wik, Elisabeth | Whittemore, Alice S. | Wentzensen, Nicolas | Weber, Rachel Palmieri | Vitonis, Allison F. | Vincent, Daniel | Vierkant, Robert A. | Vergote, Ignace | Van Den Berg, David | Van Altena, Anne M. | Tworoger, Shelley S. | Thompson, Pamela J. | Tessier, Daniel C. | Terry, Kathryn L. | Teo, Soo-Hwang | Templeman, Claire | Stram, Daniel O. | Southey, Melissa C. | Sieh, Weiva | Siddiqui, Nadeem | Shvetsov, Yurii B. | Shu, Xiao-Ou | Shridhar, Viji | Wang-Gohrke, Shan | Severi, Gianluca | Schwaab, Ira | Salvesen, Helga B. | Rzepecka, Iwona K. | Runnebaum, Ingo B. | Rossing, Mary Anne | Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna | Risch, Harvey A. | Renner, Stefan P. | Poole, Elizabeth M. | Pike, Malcolm C. | Phelan, Catherine M. | Pelttari, Liisa M. | Pejovic, Tanja | Paul, James | Orlow, Irene | Omar, Siti Zawiah | Olson, Sara H. | Odunsi, Kunle | Nickels, Stefan | Nevanlinna, Heli | Ness, Roberta B. | Narod, Steven A. | Nakanishi, Toru | Moysich, Kirsten B. | Monteiro, Alvaro N.A. | Moes-Sosnowska, Joanna | Modugno, Francesmary | Menon, Usha | McLaughlin, John R. | McGuire, Valerie | Matsuo, Keitaro | Adenan, Noor Azmi Mat | Massuger, Leon F.A. G. | Lurie, Galina | Lundvall, Lene | Lubiński, Jan | Lissowska, Jolanta | Levine, Douglas A. | Leminen, Arto | Lee, Alice W. | Le, Nhu D. | Lambrechts, Sandrina | Lambrechts, Diether | Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta | Krakstad, Camilla | Konecny, Gottfried E. | Kjaer, Susanne Krüger | Kiemeney, Lambertus A. | Kelemen, Linda E. | Keeney, Gary L. | Karlan, Beth Y. | Karevan, Rod | Kalli, Kimberly R. | Kajiyama, Hiroaki | Ji, Bu-Tian | Jensen, Allan | Jakubowska, Anna | Iversen, Edwin | Hosono, Satoyo | Høgdall, Claus K. | Høgdall, Estrid | Hoatlin, Maureen | Hillemanns, Peter | Heitz, Florian | Hein, Rebecca | Harter, Philipp | Halle, Mari K. | Hall, Per | Gronwald, Jacek | Gore, Martin | Goodman, Marc T. | Giles, Graham G. | Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra | Garcia-Closas, Montserrat | Flanagan, James M. | Fasching, Peter A. | Ekici, Arif B. | Edwards, Robert | Eccles, Diana | Easton, Douglas F. | Dürst, Matthias | du Bois, Andreas | Dörk, Thilo | Doherty, Jennifer A. | Despierre, Evelyn | Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka | Cybulski, Cezary | Cramer, Daniel W. | Cook, Linda S. | Chen, Xiaoqing | Charbonneau, Bridget | Chang-Claude, Jenny | Campbell, Ian | Butzow, Ralf | Bunker, Clareann H. | Brueggmann, Doerthe | Brown, Robert | Brooks-Wilson, Angela | Brinton, Louise A. | Bogdanova, Natalia | Block, Matthew S. | Benjamin, Elizabeth | Beesley, Jonathan | Beckmann, Matthias W. | Bandera, Elisa V. | Baglietto, Laura | Bacot, François | Armasu, Sebastian M. | Antonenkova, Natalia | Anton-Culver, Hoda | Aben, Katja K. | Liang, Dong | Wu, Xifeng | Lu, Karen | Hildebrandt, Michelle A.T. | Schildkraut, Joellen M. | Sellers, Thomas A. | Huntsman, David | Berchuck, Andrew | Chenevix-Trench, Georgia | Gayther, Simon A. | Pharoah, Paul D.P. | Laird, Peter W. | Goode, Ellen L. | Pearce, Celeste Leigh
Nature communications  2013;4:10.1038/ncomms2629.
HNF1B is overexpressed in clear cell epithelial ovarian cancer, and we observed epigenetic silencing in serous epithelial ovarian cancer, leading us to hypothesize that variation in this gene differentially associates with epithelial ovarian cancer risk according to histological subtype. Here we comprehensively map variation in HNF1B with respect to epithelial ovarian cancer risk and analyse DNA methylation and expression profiles across histological subtypes. Different single-nucleotide polymorphisms associate with invasive serous (rs7405776 odds ratio (OR) = 1.13, P = 3.1 × 10−10) and clear cell (rs11651755 OR = 0.77, P = 1.6 × 10−8) epithelial ovarian cancer. Risk alleles for the serous subtype associate with higher HNF1B-promoter methylation in these tumours. Unmethylated, expressed HNF1B, primarily present in clear cell tumours, coincides with a CpG island methylator phenotype affecting numerous other promoters throughout the genome. Different variants in HNF1B associate with risk of serous and clear cell epithelial ovarian cancer; DNA methylation and expression patterns are also notably distinct between these subtypes. These findings underscore distinct mechanisms driving different epithelial ovarian cancer histological subtypes.
doi:10.1038/ncomms2629
PMCID: PMC3848248  PMID: 23535649

Results 1-25 (120)