Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) are two subtypes of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. A number of studies have evaluated associations between risk factors and CLL/SLL risk. However, these associations remain inconsistent or lacked confirmation. This may be due, in part, to the inadequate sample size of CLL/SLL cases.
We performed a pooled analysis of 2440 CLL/SLL cases and 15186 controls from 13 case-control studies from Europe, North America, and Australia. We evaluated associations of medical history, family history, lifestyle, and occupational risk factors with CLL/SLL risk. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
We confirmed prior inverse associations with any atopic condition and recreational sun exposure. We also confirmed prior elevated associations with usual adult height, hepatitis C virus seropositivity, living or working on a farm, and family history of any hematological malignancy. Novel associations were identified with hairdresser occupation (OR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.05 to 2.98) and blood transfusion history (OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.66 to 0.94). We also found smoking to have modest protective effect (OR = 0.9, 95% CI = 0.81 to 0.99). All exposures showed evidence of independent effects.
We have identified or confirmed several independent risk factors for CLL/SLL supporting a role for genetics (through family history), immune function (through allergy and sun), infection (through hepatitis C virus), and height, and other pathways of immune response. Given that CLL/SLL has more than 30 susceptibility loci identified to date, studies evaluating the interaction among genetic and nongenetic factors are warranted.
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), the most common hematologic malignancy, consists of numerous subtypes. The etiology of NHL is incompletely understood, and increasing evidence suggests that risk factors may vary by NHL subtype. However, small numbers of cases have made investigation of subtype-specific risks challenging. The International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium therefore undertook the NHL Subtypes Project, an international collaborative effort to investigate the etiologies of NHL subtypes. This article describes in detail the project rationale and design.
We pooled individual-level data from 20 case-control studies (17471 NHL cases, 23096 controls) from North America, Europe, and Australia. Centralized data harmonization and analysis ensured standardized definitions and approaches, with rigorous quality control.
The pooled study population included 11 specified NHL subtypes with more than 100 cases: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (N = 4667), follicular lymphoma (N = 3530), chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (N = 2440), marginal zone lymphoma (N = 1052), peripheral T-cell lymphoma (N = 584), mantle cell lymphoma (N = 557), lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma/Waldenström macroglobulinemia (N = 374), mycosis fungoides/Sézary syndrome (N = 324), Burkitt/Burkitt-like lymphoma/leukemia (N = 295), hairy cell leukemia (N = 154), and acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (N = 152). Associations with medical history, family history, lifestyle factors, and occupation for each of these 11 subtypes are presented in separate articles in this issue, with a final article quantitatively comparing risk factor patterns among subtypes.
The International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium NHL Subtypes Project provides the largest and most comprehensive investigation of potential risk factors for a broad range of common and rare NHL subtypes to date. The analyses contribute to our understanding of the multifactorial nature of NHL subtype etiologies, motivate hypothesis-driven prospective investigations, provide clues for prevention, and exemplify the benefits of international consortial collaboration in cancer epidemiology.
Follicular lymphoma (FL) has been linked with cigarette smoking and, inconsistently, with other risk factors.
We assessed associations of medical, hormonal, family history, lifestyle, and occupational factors with FL risk in 3530 cases and 22639 controls from 19 case–control studies in the InterLymph consortium. Age-, race/ethnicity-, sex- and study-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression.
Most risk factors that were evaluated showed no association, except for a few modest or sex-specific relationships. FL risk was increased in persons: with a first-degree relative with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (OR = 1.99; 95% CI = 1.55 to 2.54); with greater body mass index as a young adult (OR = 1.15; 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.27 per 5kg/m2 increase); who worked as spray painters (OR = 2.66; 95% CI = 1.36 to 5.24); and among women with Sjögren syndrome (OR = 3.37; 95% CI = 1.23 to 9.19). Lower FL risks were observed in persons: with asthma, hay fever, and food allergy (ORs = 0.79–0.85); blood transfusions (OR = 0.78; 95% CI = 0.68 to 0.89); high recreational sun exposure (OR = 0.74; 95% CI = 0.65 to 0.86, fourth vs first quartile); who worked as bakers or millers (OR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.28 to 0.93) or university/higher education teachers (OR = 0.58; 95% CI = 0.41 to 0.83). Elevated risks specific to women included current and longer duration of cigarette use, whereas reduced risks included current alcohol use, hay fever, and food allergies. Other factors, including other autoimmune diseases, eczema, hepatitis C virus seropositivity, hormonal drugs, hair dye use, sun exposure, and farming, were not associated with FL risk.
The few relationships observed provide clues suggesting a multifactorial etiology of FL but are limited in the extent to which they explain FL occurrence.
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) comprises biologically and clinically heterogeneous subtypes. Previously, study size has limited the ability to compare and contrast the risk factor profiles among these heterogeneous subtypes.
We pooled individual-level data from 17 471 NHL cases and 23 096 controls in 20 case–control studies from the International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium (InterLymph). We estimated the associations, measured as odds ratios, between each of 11 NHL subtypes and self-reported medical history, family history of hematologic malignancy, lifestyle factors, and occupation. We then assessed the heterogeneity of associations by evaluating the variability (Q value) of the estimated odds ratios for a given exposure among subtypes. Finally, we organized the subtypes into a hierarchical tree to identify groups that had similar risk factor profiles. Statistical significance of tree partitions was estimated by permutation-based P values (P
Risks differed statistically significantly among NHL subtypes for medical history factors (autoimmune diseases, hepatitis C virus seropositivity, eczema, and blood transfusion), family history of leukemia and multiple myeloma, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and certain occupations, whereas generally homogeneous risks among subtypes were observed for family history of NHL, recreational sun exposure, hay fever, allergy, and socioeconomic status. Overall, the greatest difference in risk factors occurred between T-cell and B-cell lymphomas (P
NODE < 1.0×10−4), with increased risks generally restricted to T-cell lymphomas for eczema, T-cell-activating autoimmune diseases, family history of multiple myeloma, and occupation as a painter. We further observed substantial heterogeneity among B-cell lymphomas (P
NODE < 1.0×10−4). Increased risks for B-cell-activating autoimmune disease and hepatitis C virus seropositivity and decreased risks for alcohol consumption and occupation as a teacher generally were restricted to marginal zone lymphoma, Burkitt/Burkitt-like lymphoma/leukemia, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and/or lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma/Waldenström macroglobulinemia.
Using a novel approach to investigate etiologic heterogeneity among NHL subtypes, we identified risk factors that were common among subtypes as well as risk factors that appeared to be distinct among individual or a few subtypes, suggesting both subtype-specific and shared underlying mechanisms. Further research is needed to test putative mechanisms, investigate other risk factors (eg, other infections, environmental exposures, and diet), and evaluate potential joint effects with genetic susceptibility.
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) arising in the context of immunosuppression is an important adverse outcome following solid organ transplantation. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most commonly diagnosed subtype of post-transplant NHL, but few studies of transplant recipients have examined subtype-specific risks. Therefore, we examined DLBCL risk in the Transplant Cancer Match Study, including registry-based cancer ascertainment among 96,615 solid organ transplants performed from 2000–2008. We determined standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) comparing DLBCL risk in transplant recipients to that in the general population, and used multivariable Poisson regression models to assess the impact of potential risk factors. We identified 321 incident cases of DLBCL, over 12 times more than expected based on general population rates (SIR=12.6, 95% CI=11.2–14.0). SIRs were highest in young recipients and those receiving a lung or pancreas/kidney-pancreas transplant, and were greatly elevated for extranodal DLBCLs at the site of the transplant compared to other sites. DLBCL risk was highest in the first year following transplant, and SIRs for early-onset DLBCL risk were elevated in association with EBV negative serostatus and use of polyclonal antibody induction therapy. In conclusion, associations between recipient and transplant factors and post-transplant DLBCL risk suggest a complicated interrelationship among multiple risk factors and timing of disease.
organ transplant; non-Hodgkin lymphoma; diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; immunosuppression; Epstein-Barr virus
Thyroid cancer incidence is increasing worldwide. Incorporating 22 years of incidence data through 2009, we extend examination of these trends among a wide array of subgroups defined by patient (age, sex, race/ethnicity, and nativity), tumor (tumor size and stage), and neighborhood (socioeconomic status and residence in ethnic enclaves) characteristics, to identify possible reasons for this increase.
Thyroid cancer incidence data on 10,940 men and 35,147 women were obtained from the California Cancer Registry for 1988–2009. Population data were obtained from the 1990 and 2000 US Census. Incidence rates and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated and incidence trends evaluated using Joinpoint regression to evaluate the timing and magnitude of change (annual percent change (APC) and rate ratios).
The incidence of papillary thyroid cancer continues to increase in both men (APC=5.4, 95% CI: 4.5–6.3 for 1998–2009) and women (APC=3.8, 95% CI: 3.4–4.2 for 1998–2001 and APC=6.3, 95% CI: 5.7–6.9 for 2001–2009). Increasing incidence was observed in all subgroups examined.
While some variation in the magnitude or temporality of the increase in thyroid cancer incidence exists across subgroups, the patterns (1) suggest that changes in diagnostic technology alone do not account for the observed trends and (2) point to the importance of modifiable behavioral, lifestyle, or environmental factors in understanding this epidemic.
Given the dramatic and continued increase in thyroid cancer incidence rates, studies addressing the causes of these trends are critical.
thyroid cancer; incidence rates; temporal trends; surveillance; California
Solid organ transplant recipients have elevated cancer risks, due in part to pharmacologic immunosuppression. However, little is known about risks for hematologic malignancies of myeloid origin. We linked the US Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients with 15 population-based cancer registries to ascertain cancer occurrence among 207,859 solid organ transplants (1987–2009). Solid organ transplant recipients had significantly elevated risk for myeloid neoplasms, with standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of 4.6 (95% confidence interval 3.8–5.6; N=101) for myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), 2.7 (2.2–3.2; N=125) for acute myeloid leukemia (AML), 2.3 (1.6–3.2; N=36) for chronic myeloid leukemia, and 7.2 (5.4–9.3; N=57) for polycythemia vera. SIRs were highest among younger individuals and varied by time since transplantation and organ type (Poisson regression P<0.05 for all comparisons). Azathioprine for initial maintenance immunosuppression increased risk for MDS (P=0.0002) and AML (2–5 years after transplantation, P=0.0163). Overall survival following AML/MDS among transplant recipients was inferior to that of similar patients reported to US cancer registries (log-rank P<0.0001). Our novel finding of increased risks for specific myeloid neoplasms after solid organ transplantation supports a role for immune dysfunction in myeloid neoplasm etiology. The increased risks and inferior survival should heighten clinician awareness of myeloid neoplasms during follow-up of transplant recipients.
Part of the substantial unexplained familial aggregation of breast cancer may be due to interactions between common variants, but few studies have had adequate statistical power to detect interactions of realistic magnitude. We aimed to assess all two-way interactions in breast cancer susceptibility between 70 917 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected primarily based on prior evidence of a marginal effect. Thirty-eight international studies contributed data for 46 450 breast cancer cases and 42 461 controls of European origin as part of a multi-consortium project (COGS). First, SNPs were preselected based on evidence (P < 0.01) of a per-allele main effect, and all two-way combinations of those were evaluated by a per-allele (1 d.f.) test for interaction using logistic regression. Second, all 2.5 billion possible two-SNP combinations were evaluated using Boolean operation-based screening and testing, and SNP pairs with the strongest evidence of interaction (P < 10−4) were selected for more careful assessment by logistic regression. Under the first approach, 3277 SNPs were preselected, but an evaluation of all possible two-SNP combinations (1 d.f.) identified no interactions at P < 10−8. Results from the second analytic approach were consistent with those from the first (P > 10−10). In summary, we observed little evidence of two-way SNP interactions in breast cancer susceptibility, despite the large number of SNPs with potential marginal effects considered and the very large sample size. This finding may have important implications for risk prediction, simplifying the modelling required. Further comprehensive, large-scale genome-wide interaction studies may identify novel interacting loci if the inherent logistic and computational challenges can be overcome.
There are limited data regarding breast cancer subtypes among Hispanic women. The current study assessed the distribution and prognosis of molecular subtypes defined by joint expression of the hormone receptors (HR; estrogen and progesterone) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2).
Using California Cancer Registry data, we identified Hispanic women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer from 2005–2010. Breast cancer subtypes were defined as HR+/HER2−, HR+/HER2+, HR−/HER2+, and HR−/HER2− (triple negative). We estimated breast cancer subtype frequencies and used polytomous logistic regression, Kaplan Meier survival plots and Cox regression to examine differences in relation to demographic and clinical characteristics.
Among 16,380 Hispanic women with breast cancer, HR+/HER− subtype was most common (63%), followed by triple negative (16%), HR+/HER2+ (14%) and HR−/HER2+ (8%). Women in lower SES neighborhoods had greater risk of triple negative and HR−/HER2+ subtypes relative to HR+/HER2− (p<0.05). Hispanic women with triple negative and HR−/HER2+ tumors experienced poorer survival than those with HR+/HER− tumors. Breast cancer-specific mortality increased with decreasing SES, relative to the highest SES quintile, from HR=1.38 for quintile 4 to HR=1.76 for quintile 1 (lowest SES level).
Our findings indicate that Hispanic women residing in low SES neighborhoods had significantly increased risk of developing and dying from HR− than HR+ breast cancers. Similar patterns of subtype frequency and prognosis among California Hispanic women and studies of other racial/ethnic groups underscore the need to better understand the impact of SES on risk factor exposures that increase the risk of breast cancer subtypes with poor prognosis.
breast cancer; Hispanic; Latina; socioeconomic status; triple negative
Insurance status and SES are associated with the stage of melanoma at diagnosis. However, the influence of Medicaid enrollment on melanoma stage has not been studied in detail. This study examined the effect of Medicaid enrollment status and duration on melanoma stage at diagnosis in a large, multi-ethnic California population.
California Cancer Registry records were linked with statewide Medicaid enrollment files to identify 4558 men and women diagnosed with invasive cutaneous and metastatic melanoma during 1998–1999. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between prediagnosis Medicaid enrollment status and late-stage diagnosis and tumor depth at diagnosis.
Late-stage disease was diagnosed in 27% of Medicaid and 9% of non-Medicaid melanoma patients. Those enrolled in Medicaid at diagnosis and those enrolled intermittently during the year prior to diagnosis had significantly greater covariate-adjusted odds of late-stage cancer than those not enrolled in Medicaid (OR 13.64, 95% CI=4.43, 41.98, and OR 2.77, 95% CI=1.28, 5.99, respectively). Participants continuously enrolled during the previous year were not at increased odds for late-stage disease. An increased likelihood of late-stage melanoma was also associated with low SES (p<0.05) and non-Hispanic black race/ ethnicity (p<0.10) after covariate adjustment.
Men and women intermittently enrolled in Medicaid or not enrolled until the month of diagnosis had a significantly increased likelihood of late-stage melanoma. Greater education and outreach, particularly in low-SES areas, are needed to improve melanoma awareness and access to screening.
HIV-infected people have greatly elevated risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), particularly the AIDS-defining NHL subtypes: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, Burkitt lymphoma and primary lymphomas arising in the central nervous system. The goals of this analysis were to comprehensively describe risks of NHL subtypes, especially those not well studied, among HIV/AIDS patients; examine risks specifically in the HAART era; and distinguish risks in HIV-infected individuals prior to diagnosis with AIDS.
Population-based registry linkage study.
We used data from the US HIV/AIDS Cancer Match Study from 1996 to 2010 (N = 273 705) to calculate standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) comparing subtype specific NHL risks in HIV-infected people to those in the general population, and used Poisson regression to test for differences in SIRs between the HIV-only and AIDS periods.
NHL risk was elevated 11-fold compared to the general population, but varied substantially by subtype. AIDS-defining NHL subtypes comprised the majority, and risks were high (SIRs ≥ 17), but risks were also increased for some T-cell lymphomas (SIRs = 3.6–14.2), marginal zone lymphoma (SIR = 2.4), lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma/Waldenström macroglobulinemia (SIR = 3.6), and acute lymphoblastic leuke mia/lymphoma (SIR = 2.4).
HIV-infected people in the HAART era continue to have elevated risk of AIDS-defining NHL subtypes, highlighting the contribution of moderate and severe immunosuppression to their cause. Whereas non-AIDS-defining subtypes are much less common, immunosuppression or other dysregulated immune states likely play a role in the cause of some T-cell lymphomas, marginal zone lymphoma, lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma/Waldenström macroglobulinemia, and acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lym phoma.
AIDS; AIDS-related; epidemiology; HIV; lymphoma; non-Hodgkin lymphoma
Patients with heart failure (HF) are typically designated as having reduced or preserved ejection fraction (HFREF, HFPEF) because of the importance of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) on therapeutic decisions and prognosis. Such designations are not necessarily static, yet few data exist to describe the natural history of LVEF over time.
Methods and Results
We identified 2413 patients from Kaiser Permanente Colorado with a primary discharge diagnosis of HF between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2008, who had ≥2 LVEF measurements separated by ≥30 days. We used multi-state Markov modeling to examine transitions among HFREF, HFPEF, and death. We observed a total of 8183 transitions. Women were more likely than men to transition from HFREF to HFPEF (hazard ratio, 1.85; 95% confidence interval, 1.38–2.47). Patients who were adherent to β-blockers were more likely to transition from HFREF to HFPEF (hazard ratio, 1.53; 95% confidence interval, 1.10–2.13) compared with patients who were nonadherent to β-blockers, whereas angiotensin-converting enzyme or angiotensin II receptor blocker adherence was not associated with LVEF transitions. Patients who had a previous myocardial infarction were more likely to transition from HFPEF to HFREF (hazard ratio, 1.75; 95% confidence interval, 1.26–2.42).
In this cohort of patients with HF, LVEF is a dynamic factor related to sex, coexisting conditions, and drug therapy. These findings have implications for left ventricular systolic function ascertainment in patients with HF and support evidence-based therapy use, especially β-blockers.
heart failure; outcomes assessment; prognosis; ventricular ejection fraction
Risk of developing multiple myeloma (MM) rises with age and is greater among men and blacks than among women and whites, respectively, and possibly increased among obese persons. Other risk factors remain poorly understood. By pooling data from two complementary epidemiologic studies, we assessed whether obesity, smoking, or alcohol consumption alters MM risk and whether female reproductive history might explain the lower occurrence of MM in females than males.
The Los Angeles County MM Case-Control Study (1985-92) included 278 incident cases and 278 controls, matched on age, sex, race, and neighborhood of residence at case’s diagnosis. We estimated MM risk using conditional logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). In the prospective California Teachers Study (CTS), 152 women were diagnosed with incident MM between 1995-2009; we calculated hazard ratios using Cox proportional hazards analysis. Data from the two studies were pooled using a stratified, nested case-control sampling scheme (10:1 match) for the CTS; conditional logistic regression among 430 cases and 1,798 matched controls was conducted.
Obesity and smoking were not associated with MM risk in the individual or combined studies. Alcohol consumption was associated with decreased MM risk among whites only (pooled OR=0.66, 95% CI=0.49-0.90) for ever vs. never drinking). Higher gravidity and parity were associated with increased MM risk, with pooled ORs of 1.38 (95% CI=1.01-1.90) for ≥3 versus 1-2 pregnancies and 1.50 (95% CI=1.09-2.06) for ≥3 versus 1-2 live births.
Female reproductive history may modestly alter MM risk, but appears unlikely to explain the sex disparity in incidence. Further investigation in consortial efforts is warranted.
multiple myeloma; women; reproductive; modifiable; risk factors; association; pooling; case-control; cohort; epidemiology
Transplant recipients have elevated risk for plasma cell neoplasms (PCNs, comprising multiple myeloma and plasmacytoma), but little is known about risk factors in the transplant setting. Through linkage of the U.S. solid organ transplant registry with 15 state/regional cancer registries, we identified 140 PCNs in 202,600 recipients (1987–2009). PCN risk was 1.8-fold increased relative to the general population (standardized incidence ratio [SIR] 1.80, 95%CI 1.51–2.12). Among cases, 102 were multiple myeloma (SIR 1.41) and 38 were plasmacytoma (SIR 7.06). PCN incidence increased with age, but due to the rarity of PCNs in younger people in the general population, SIRs were highest in younger transplant recipients (p=0.03). PCN risk was especially high in recipients who were Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) seronegative at transplantation (SIR 3.93). EBV status was known for 18 tumors, of which 7 (39%) were EBV positive. Following liver transplantation, PCN risk was higher in recipients with cholestatic liver disease (SIR 2.78); 5 of these cases had primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). A role for primary EBV infection after transplantation is supported by the increased PCN risk in young EBV seronegative recipients and the presence of EBV in tumors. PBC may be another risk factor, perhaps by causing chronic immune activation.
multiple myeloma; plasmacytoma; post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder; Epstein-Barr virus; immunosuppression; primary biliary cirrhosis
For decades, non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) incidence has been increasing worldwide. NHL risk is strongly increased among HIV-infected people. Our understanding of trends in NHL incidence has been hampered by difficulties in separating HIV-infected NHL cases from general population rates.
Materials and Methods
NHL incidence data during 1992–2009 were derived from 10 U.S. SEER cancer registries with information on HIV status at NHL diagnosis. The CDC estimated the number of people living with HIV in the registry areas. The proportion of NHL cases with HIV and NHL rates in the total and the HIV-uninfected populations were estimated. Time trends were assessed with Joinpoint analyses.
Of 115,643 NHL cases diagnosed during 1992–2009, 5.9% were HIV-infected. The proportions of NHL cases with HIV were highest for diffuse large B-cell (DLBCL; 7.8%), Burkitt (26.9%), and peripheral T-cell lymphomas (3.2%) with low proportions (≤1.1%) in the other subtypes. NHL rates in the total population increased 0.3% per year during 1992–2009. However, rates of NHL in HIV-uninfected people increased 1.4% per year during 1992–2003, before becoming stable through 2009. Similar trends were observed for DLBCL and follicular lymphoma in HIV-uninfected people; rates increased 2.7% per year until 2003 and 1.7% per year until 2005, respectively, before stabilizing.
NHL incidence rates in the U.S. have plateaued over the last 5–10 years, independent of HIV infection.
Though the causes of the long-term increase in NHL incidence rates in the U.S. remain unknown, general population rates of NHL have stabilized since the early 2000s, independent of HIV.
non-Hodgkin lymphoma; HIV; trends
Breast cancer occurs rarely in men. To the best of our knowledge, there are no population-based estimates of the incidence of HER2-neu-positive breast cancer or of the distribution of breast cancer subtypes among male patients. We explored breast tumor subtype distribution by race/ethnicity among men in the large, ethnically diverse population of California.
We included male breast cancer patients diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between 2005-2009 with known ER, PR and HER2-neu status reported to the California Cancer Registry. Among the patients with hormone receptor (HR)-positive tumors, survival probabilities between groups were compared using log-rank tests.
Six-hundred and six patients were included. Median age at diagnosis was 68 years. Four hundred and ninety four (81.5%) patients had HR+ tumors, defined as ER+ and/or PR+ and HER2-negative. Ninety (14.9%) had HER2-neu-positive, and 22 (3.6%) had triple receptor-negative tumors (TN). Among HR+ patients, Non-Hispanic Blacks and Hispanics were more likely to have PR negative tumors compared to Non-Hispanic Whites. There was a borderline statistically significant difference in survival according to tumor subtype (p=0.088). Differences in survival according to race/ethnicity were seen among all patients (p=0.087) and among those with HR+ tumors (p=0.0170), with Non-Hispanic Blacks having poorer outcomes.
In this large, representative cohort of male breast cancer patients, the distribution of tumor subtypes was different from that reported for females and varied by race/ethnicity. Non-Hispanic Blacks were more likely to have triple receptor-negative tumors and more likely to have ER+/PR- tumors than white men.
Randomized clinical trials (RCT) have demonstrated equivalent survival for breast conserving therapy with radiation (BCT) and mastectomy for early stage breast cancer. We studied a large, population-based series of women who underwent BCT or M to observe whether outcomes of RCT were achieved in the general population, and whether survival differed by surgery type when stratified by age and hormone receptor (HR) status.
We obtained information regarding all women diagnosed in the state of California with stage I or II breast cancer between 1990 and 2004, treated with either BCT or mastectomy and followed for vital status through December 2009. We used Cox proportional hazards modeling to compare overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) between BCT and mastectomy groups. Analyses were stratified by age group (<50 years and ≥50 years) and tumor hormone receptor (HR) status.
112,154 women fulfilled eligibility criteria. Women undergoing BCT had improved OS and DSS when compared to women with mastectomy (adjusted HR for OS entire cohort 0.81, 95% CI 0.80 – 0.83). The DSS benefit with BCT compared to mastectomy was greater among women age≥50 with HR-positive disease (HR 0.86, 95% CI 0.82–0.91) than among women age<50 with HR-negative disease (HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.79–0.98); however, this trend was seen among all subgroups analyzed.
Among patients with early stage breast cancer, BCT was associated with improved DSS. These data provide confidence that BCT remains an effective alternative to mastectomy for early stage disease regardless of age or HR status.
Case reports of Burkitt lymphoma (BL) in transplant recipients suggest that the risk is markedly elevated. Therefore, we investigated the incidence of BL in 203,557 solid organ recipients in the U.S. Transplant Cancer Match Study (1987–2009) and compared it to the general population using standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). We also assessed associations with demographic and clinical characteristics, and treatments used to induce therapeutic immunosuppression. BL incidence was 10.8 per 100,000 person-years, representing 23-fold (95%CI 19–28) greater risk than in the general population, and it peaked 3–8 years after the time of transplantation. In adjusted analyses, BL incidence was higher in recipients transplanted when <18 vs. ≥35 years (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 3.49, 95% CI 2.08–5.68) and in those transplanted with a liver (IRR 2.91, 95% CI 1.68–5.09) or heart (IRR 2.39, 95% CI 1.30–4.31) compared to kidney. BL incidence was lower in females than males (IRR 0.45, 95% CI 0.28–0.71), in blacks than whites (IRR 0.33, 95% CI 0.12–0.74), in those with a baseline Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-seropositive versus EBV-seronegative status (IRR 0.34, 95% CI 0.13–0.93), and in those treated with azathioprine (IRR 0.56, 95% CI 0.34–0.89) or corticosteroids (IRR 0.48, 95% CI 0.29–0.82). Tumors were EBV-positive in 69% of 32 cases with results. EBV positivity was 90% in those aged <18 years and 59% in those aged 18+ years. In conclusion, BL risk is markedly elevated in transplant recipients, and it is associated with certain demographic and clinical features. EBV infection was present in most but not all BL cases.
Burkitt lymphoma; transplantation; immunosuppression; Epstein-Barr virus; non-Hodgkin lymphoma
Alcohol consumption increases breast cancer risk, but its effect may be modified by hormone therapy (HT) use, such that exposure to both may be synergistic. Because many women stopped taking HT after mid-2002, it is important to quantify risks associated with alcohol consumption in the context of HT cessation, as these risks may be more relevant to cancer prevention efforts today.
Among 40,680 eligible postmenopausal California Teachers Study cohort participants, 660 were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer before 2010. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).
Increased breast cancer risk associated with alcohol consumption was observed among postmenopausal women who were current HT users (RR=1.60, 95% CI: 1.13–2.26 and RR=2.11, 95% CI: 1.41–3.15 for <20 and ≥20 g/d of alcohol), with risks being similar by HT preparation. Alcohol did not increase risk among women who had stopped using HT within 3 years or 3–4 years before completing the follow-up questionnaire or in the more distant past. Results were similar for ER+ and ER+PR+ tumors; while power was limited, no increase in risk was observed for ER- tumors.
Following the cessation of HT use, alcohol consumption is not significantly associated with breast cancer risk, although a non-significant increased risk was observed among women who never used HT.
Our findings confirm that concurrent exposure to HT and alcohol has a substantial adverse impact on breast cancer risk. However, after HT cessation, this risk is reduced.
breast cancer; alcohol; hormone therapy; cessation; epidemiology
Young women have poorer survival after breast cancer than do older women. It is unclear whether this survival difference relates to the unique distribution of hormone receptor (HR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-defined molecular breast cancer subtypes among adolescent and young adult (AYA) women aged 15 to 39 years. The purpose of our study was to examine associations between breast cancer subtypes and short-term survival in AYA women, as well as to determine whether the distinct molecular subtype distribution among AYA women explains the unfavorable overall breast cancer survival statistics reported for AYA women compared with older women.
Data for 5,331 AYA breast cancers diagnosed between 2005 and 2009 were obtained from the California Cancer Registry. Survival by subtype (triple-negative; HR+/HER2-; HR+/HER2+; HR-/HER2+) and age-group (AYA versus 40- to 64-year-olds) was analyzed with Cox proportional hazards regression with follow-up through 2010.
With up to 6 years of follow-up and a mean survival time of 3.1 years (SD = 1.5 years), AYA women diagnosed with HR-/HER + and triple-negative breast cancer experienced a 1.6-fold and 2.7-fold increased risk of death, respectively, from all causes (HR-/HER + hazard ratio: 1.55; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10 to 2.18; triple-negative HR: 2.75; 95% CI, 2.06 to 3.66) and breast cancer (HR-/HER + hazard ratio: 1.63; 95% CI, 1.12 to 2.36; triple-negative hazard ratio: 2.71; 95% CI, 1.98 to 3.71) than AYA women with HR+/HER2- breast cancer. AYA women who resided in lower socioeconomic status neighborhoods, had public health insurance, and were of Black, compared with White, race/ethnicity experienced worse survival. This race/ethnicity association was attenuated somewhat after adjusting for breast cancer subtypes (hazard ratio, 1.33; 95% CI, 0.98 to 1.82). AYA women had similar all-cause and breast cancer-specific short-term survival as older women for all breast cancer subtypes and across all stages of disease.
Among AYA women with breast cancer, short-term survival varied by breast cancer subtypes, with the distribution of breast cancer subtypes explaining some of the poorer survival observed among Black, compared with White, AYA women. Future studies should consider whether distribution of breast cancer subtypes and other factors, including differential receipt of treatment regimens, influences long-term survival in young compared with older women.
To evaluate how the association between body size and breast cancer risk varies by tumor receptor subtype, host factors and other exposures among women in the California Teacher Study cohort.
Among 52,642 postmenopausal women, 2,321 developed invasive breast cancer with known estrogen- and progesterone-receptor status (1,652 ER+PR+, 338 ER+PR−, 312 ER−PR−) between 1995 and 2007. In a subset of 35,529 with waist circumference data, 1,377 developed invasive breast cancer with known ERPR status (991 ER+PR+, 208 ER+PR−, 169 ER−PR−) between 1997 and 2007. Multivariate Cox regression was performed to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).
Obesity, adult weight gain of ≥40 pounds, greater abdominal adiposity and greater height increased risk of ER+PR+ breast cancer. The increased risk associated with postmenopausal obesity was limited to those who did not use hormone therapy (HT) at cohort entry (RR=1.37, 95% CI: 1.05–1.78 for BMI ≥30 vs. <25 kg/m2; P-interaction=0.14) and those who were not overweight or obese at age 18 (P-interaction=0.06). The increased risk associated with greater abdominal adiposity was limited to those who were not also overweight or obese (P-interaction=0.01). Neither obesity, abdominal adiposity nor height were associated with the risk of ER−PR− tumors.
The effects of body size on postmenopausal breast cancer risk differed by hormone receptor subtype, and among women with ER+PR+ tumors, by HT use and early adult body size.
breast cancer; obesity; hormone receptor status; abdominal adiposity; hormone therapy
Background Breast cancer incidence is higher among black women than white women before age 40 years, but higher among white women than black women after age 40 years (black–white crossover). We used newly available population-based data to examine whether the age-specific incidences of breast cancer subtypes vary by race and ethnicity.
Methods We classified 91908 invasive breast cancers diagnosed in California between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2009, by subtype based on tumor expression of estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR)—together referred to as hormone receptor (HR)—and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Breast cancer subtypes were classified as ER or PR positive and HER2 negative (HR+/HER2−), ER or PR positive and HER2 positive (HR+/HER2+), ER and PR negative and HER2 positive (HR−/HER2+), and ER, PR, and HER2 negative (triple-negative). We calculated and compared age-specific incidence rates, incidence rate ratios, and 95% confidence intervals by subtype and race (black, white, Hispanic, and Asian). All P values are two-sided.
Results We did not observe an age-related black–white crossover in incidence for any molecular subtype of breast cancer. Compared with white women, black women had statistically significantly higher rates of triple-negative breast cancer at all ages but statistically significantly lower rates of HR+/HER2− breast cancers after age 35 years (all P < .05). The age-specific incidence of HR+/HER2+ and HR−/HER2+ subtypes did not vary markedly between white and black women.
Conclusions The black–white crossover in breast cancer incidence occurs only when all breast cancer subtypes are combined and relates largely to higher rates of triple-negative breast cancers and lower rates of HR+/HER2− breast cancers in black vs white women.
Various common genetic susceptibility loci have been identified for breast cancer; however, it is unclear how they combine with lifestyle/environmental risk factors to influence risk. We undertook an international collaborative study to assess gene-environment interaction for risk of breast cancer. Data from 24 studies of the Breast Cancer Association Consortium were pooled. Using up to 34,793 invasive breast cancers and 41,099 controls, we examined whether the relative risks associated with 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms were modified by 10 established environmental risk factors (age at menarche, parity, breastfeeding, body mass index, height, oral contraceptive use, menopausal hormone therapy use, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, physical activity) in women of European ancestry. We used logistic regression models stratified by study and adjusted for age and performed likelihood ratio tests to assess gene–environment interactions. All statistical tests were two-sided. We replicated previously reported potential interactions between LSP1-rs3817198 and parity (Pinteraction = 2.4×10−6) and between CASP8-rs17468277 and alcohol consumption (Pinteraction = 3.1×10−4). Overall, the per-allele odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for LSP1-rs3817198 was 1.08 (1.01–1.16) in nulliparous women and ranged from 1.03 (0.96–1.10) in parous women with one birth to 1.26 (1.16–1.37) in women with at least four births. For CASP8-rs17468277, the per-allele OR was 0.91 (0.85–0.98) in those with an alcohol intake of <20 g/day and 1.45 (1.14–1.85) in those who drank ≥20 g/day. Additionally, interaction was found between 1p11.2-rs11249433 and ever being parous (Pinteraction = 5.3×10−5), with a per-allele OR of 1.14 (1.11–1.17) in parous women and 0.98 (0.92–1.05) in nulliparous women. These data provide first strong evidence that the risk of breast cancer associated with some common genetic variants may vary with environmental risk factors.
Breast cancer involves combined effects of numerous genetic, environmental, and behavioral risk factors that are unique to each individual. High risk genes, such as BRCA1 and BRCA2, account for only a small proportion of disease occurrence. Recent genome-wide research has identified more than 20 common genetic variants, which individually alter breast cancer risk very moderately. We undertook an international collaborative study to determine whether the effect of these genetic variants vary with environmental factors, such as parity, body mass index (BMI), height, oral contraceptive use, menopausal hormone therapy use, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and physical activity, which are known to affect risk of developing breast cancer. Using pooled data from 24 studies of the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC), we provide first convincing evidence that the breast cancer risk associated with a genetic variant in LSP1 differs with the number of births and that the risk associated with a CASP8 variant is altered by high alcohol consumption. The effect of an additional genetic variant might also be modified by reproductive factors. This knowledge will stimulate new research towards a better understanding of breast cancer development.
Kaiser Permanente Colorado has been responding to the financial challenges of its members by providing a medical financial assistance (MFA) program since 1992. However, there have been no evaluations of the effect of this program on members’ use of health services or their health outcomes.
A prospective cohort study of 308 MFA program members who were enrolled between May 16, 2008, and May 16, 2009, examined changes in their use of health services, costs, and self-reported physical and mental health after enrollment in the MFA program. Use of services was analyzed with multiple regression, and costs of services with generalized linear models.
MFA increased members’ access to health services. There were no changes in physical or mental health status. For each health care visit before the MFA award, patients used the health care system 0.23 visits less. The MFA amount was not associated with an increase or decrease in use. There was no significant difference in total overall cost. Hospital costs were lower, but costs for clinic visits, pharmacy services, phone calls, and radiology services were significantly higher, resulting in service cost neutrality, possibly because financial barriers before MFA award led to accumulated demand for services.
Use of services decreased after MFA was received. There was no significant change in total service cost. MFA improved members’ ability to pay for medical services and increased their satisfaction with health services.