Cardiovascular disease and obesity are now becoming leading causes of morbidity and mortality in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We investigated the relationship between prevalent heart disease (HD) and current anthropometric indices and body size perception over time from adolescence to adulthood in Iran.
We present a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a prospective study of adults in Golestan Province, Iran. Demographics, cardiac history, and current anthropometric indices—body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist to hip ratio (WHR)—were recorded. Body size perception for age 15, age 30, and at the time of interview was assessed via pictograms. Associations of these factors and temporal change in perceived body size with HD were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression models.
Complete data were available for 50,044 participants; 6.1% reported having HD. Higher BMI, WC, and WHR were associated with HD (p < 0.001). Men had a U-shaped relationship between HD and body size perception at younger ages. For change in body size perception, men and women demonstrated a U-shaped relationship with prevalent HD from adolescence to early adulthood, but a J-shaped pattern from early to late adulthood.
HD was associated with anthropometric indices and change in body size perception over time for men and women in Iran. Due to the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in LMICs, interventions focused on decreasing the cumulative burden of risk factors throughout the life course may be an important component of cardiovascular risk reduction.
body size perception; body mass index; heart disease; prevalence; middle-income country
Studies of related individuals have consistently demonstrated notable familial aggregation of cancer. We aim to estimate the heritability and genetic correlation attributable to the additive effects of common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for cancer at 13 anatomical sites.
Between 2007 and 2014, the US National Cancer Institute has generated data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for 49 492 cancer case patients and 34 131 control patients. We apply novel mixed model methodology (GCTA) to this GWAS data to estimate the heritability of individual cancers, as well as the proportion of heritability attributable to cigarette smoking in smoking-related cancers, and the genetic correlation between pairs of cancers.
GWAS heritability was statistically significant at nearly all sites, with the estimates of array-based heritability, hl
2, on the liability threshold (LT) scale ranging from 0.05 to 0.38. Estimating the combined heritability of multiple smoking characteristics, we calculate that at least 24% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 14% to 37%) and 7% (95% CI = 4% to 11%) of the heritability for lung and bladder cancer, respectively, can be attributed to genetic determinants of smoking. Most pairs of cancers studied did not show evidence of strong genetic correlation. We found only four pairs of cancers with marginally statistically significant correlations, specifically kidney and testes (ρ = 0.73, SE = 0.28), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and pediatric osteosarcoma (ρ = 0.53, SE = 0.21), DLBCL and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) (ρ = 0.51, SE =0.18), and bladder and lung (ρ = 0.35, SE = 0.14). Correlation analysis also indicates that the genetic architecture of lung cancer differs between a smoking population of European ancestry and a nonsmoking Asian population, allowing for the possibility that the genetic etiology for the same disease can vary by population and environmental exposures.
Our results provide important insights into the genetic architecture of cancers and suggest new avenues for investigation.
The reported associations with gastric adenocarcinoma and seropositivity to different H. pylori antigens using multiplex serology have not been consistent across studies. We aimed to investigate the association between fifteen different multiplex serology antigens and the risk of gastric cardia (GCA) and gastric non-cardia (GNCA) adenocarcinomas in northeastern Iran, a population with high rates of gastric adenocarcinoma. We included 272 cases of gastric adenocarcinoma (142 GCA, 103 GNCA, and 27 unspecified) and 524 controls who were individually matched to cases for age, sex, and place of residence in a population-based case-control study. Seropositivity to H. pylori was assessed using both multiplex serology and H. pylori IgG ELISA. 95% of controls were seropositive to H. pylori. Of the 15 antibodies in the multiplex assay, 11 showed no significant association with gastric adenocarcinomas. CagA and VacA were associated with a significantly increased risk of all gastric adenocarcinoma and GNCA in multivariate models. Surprisingly, GroEL and NapA were significantly associated with a reduced risk of these tumors. Only CagA antigen was associated with significantly elevated risk of GCA. We found no associations between H. pylori seropositivity overall either by whole-cell ELISA test or multiplex serology, likely due to the high prevalence of seropositivity. Individual antigen testing showed that CagA positivity was associated with increased risk of both noncardia and cardia adenocarcinoma, which is similar to some other Asian populations, while two antigens were associated with lower risk of gastric cancer. This latter result was unexpected and should be re-tested in other populations.
NBS1, also known as NBN, plays an important role in maintaining genomic stability. Interestingly, rs2735383 G > C, located in a microRNA binding site in the 3′-untranslated region (UTR) of NBS1, was shown to be associated with increased susceptibility to lung and colorectal cancer. However, the relation between rs2735383 and susceptibility to breast cancer is not yet clear. Therefore, we genotyped rs2735383 in 1,170 familial non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer cases and 1,077 controls using PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP-PCR) analysis, but found no association between rs2735383CC and breast cancer risk (OR = 1.214, 95% CI = 0.936–1.574, P = 0.144). Because we could not exclude a small effect size due to a limited sample size, we further analyzed imputed rs2735383 genotypes (r2 > 0.999) of 47,640 breast cancer cases and 46,656 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). However, rs2735383CC was not associated with overall breast cancer risk in European (OR = 1.014, 95% CI = 0.969–1.060, P = 0.556) nor in Asian women (OR = 0.998, 95% CI = 0.905–1.100, P = 0.961). Subgroup analyses by age, age at menarche, age at menopause, menopausal status, number of pregnancies, breast feeding, family history and receptor status also did not reveal a significant association. This study therefore does not support the involvement of the genotype at NBS1 rs2735383 in breast cancer susceptibility.
LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposons are a notable endogenous source of mutagenesis in mammals. Notably, cancer cells can support unusual L1 retrotransposition and L1-associated sequence rearrangement mechanisms following DNA damage. Recent reports suggest that L1 is mobile in epithelial tumours and neural cells but, paradoxically, not in brain cancers.
Here, using retrotransposon capture sequencing (RC-seq), we surveyed L1 mutations in 14 tumours classified as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) or as a lower grade glioma. In four GBM tumours, we characterised one probable endonuclease-independent L1 insertion, two L1-associated rearrangements and one likely Alu-Alu recombination event adjacent to an L1. These mutations included PCR validated intronic events in MeCP2 and EGFR. Despite sequencing L1 integration sites at up to 250× depth by RC-seq, we found no tumour-specific, endonuclease-dependent L1 insertions. Whole genome sequencing analysis of the tumours carrying the MeCP2 and EGFR L1 mutations also revealed no endonuclease-dependent L1 insertions. In a complementary in vitro assay, wild-type and endonuclease mutant L1 reporter constructs each mobilised very inefficiently in four cultured GBM cell lines.
These experiments altogether highlight the consistent absence of canonical L1 retrotransposition in GBM tumours and cultured cell lines, as well as atypical L1-associated sequence rearrangements following DNA damage in vivo.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13100-016-0076-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
An internal septum within a basilar artery aneurysm is an infrequent anomaly and is very rarely reported in the literature. We report a 62-year-old lady that was incidentally diagnosed with basilar tip aneurysm. Further imaging with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed internal septation within this aneurysm which was later confirmed with digital subtraction angiography (DSA). She underwent coil embolisation, which involved technical manipulation of the microcatheter and the balloon to enable coiling of each separate aneurysm compartment. We present this case to illustrate the effect of this anatomical variation on the selection of endovascular treatment strategy.
Experimental and epidemiological data suggest that vitamin D play a role in pathogenesis and progression of cancer, but prospective data on head and neck cancer (HNC) and oesophagus cancer are limited. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study recruited 385,747 participants with blood samples between 1992 and 2000. This analysis includes 497 case-control pairs of the head and neck and oesophagus, as well as 443 additional controls. Circulating 25(OH)D3 were measured in pre-diagnostic samples and evaluated in relation to HNC and oesophagus cancer risk and post-diagnosis all-cause mortality. After controlling for risk factors, a doubling of 25(OH)D3 was associated with 30% lower odds of HNC (OR 0.70, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.56–0.88, Ptrend = 0.001). Subsequent analyses by anatomical sub-site indicated clear inverse associations with risk of larynx and hypopharynx cancer combined (OR 0.55, 95CI% 0.39–0.78) and oral cavity cancer (OR 0.60, 95CI% 0.42–0.87). Low 25(OH)D3 concentrations were also associated with higher risk of death from any cause among HNC cases. No clear association was seen with risk or survival for oesophageal cancer. Study participants with elevated circulating concentrations of 25(OH)D3 had decreased risk of HNC, as well as improved survival following diagnosis.
The severity of seizures presenting to the emergency department ranges from benign to life threatening. There are also a wide number of possible etiologies. Computed tomography (CT) emergency imaging may be required at presentation to elucidate a possible cause and assess signs of intracranial trauma. This case describes a serious seizure episode in a young man while on holiday. A CT brain showed a skull fracture as a consequence of seizure-related head trauma but unexpectedly there were image findings consistent with encephalocraniocutaneous lipomatosis. The important radiological features of encephalocraniocutaneous lipomatosis and a differential diagnosis are presented.
ABO blood group has been associated with risk of cancers of the pancreas, stomach, ovary, kidney and skin, but has not been evaluated in relation to risk of aggressive prostate cancer.
We used three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs8176746, rs505922, and rs8176704) to determine ABO genotype in 2,774 aggressive prostate cancer cases and 4,443 controls from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3). Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate age and study adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between blood type, genotype and risk of aggressive prostate cancer (Gleason score ≥8 or locally advanced/metastatic disease (stage T3/T4/N1/M1).
We found no association between ABO blood type and risk of aggressive prostate cancer (Type A: OR=0.97, 95% CI=0.87-1.08; Type B: OR=0.92, 95% CI=0.77-1.09; Type AB: OR=1.25, 95% CI=0.98-1.59, compared to Type O, respectively). Similarly, there was no association between ‘dose’ of A or B alleles and aggressive prostate cancer risk.
ABO blood type was not associated with risk of aggressive prostate cancer.
ABO; blood type; prostate cancer; genetic epidemiology
The rs588765-rs16969968 haplotype modifies lung cancer risk more than effects from individual variations at rs16969968 or rs588765, and therefore may be a marker of genetic susceptibility to lung cancer even among never-smokers. This knowledge may facilitate our understanding of lung cancer etiology.
The role of haplotypes and the interaction of haplotypes and smoking in lung cancer risk have not been well characterized. We analyzed data from an Italian population-based, case–control study with 1815 lung cancer patients and 1959 healthy controls in discovery, and performed a validation using a case–control study with 2983 lung cancer patients and 3553 healthy controls of European ancestry for replication. Sliding window haplotype analysis within chromosome 15, evaluating 4722250 haplotypes and pair-wise haplotype analysis identified that CHRNA5 rs588765-rs16969968 was the most significant haplotype associated with lung cancer risk (omnibus P = 8.35×10−15 in discovery and 7.26×10−14 in replication), and improved the prediction of case status over that provided by the individual SNPs rs16969968 or rs588765 (likelihood ratio test P = 0.006 for rs16969968 and 3.83×10−14 for rs588765 in discovery, 0.009 for rs16969968 and 4.62×10−13 for rs588765 in replication, compared with rs588765-rs16969968). Compared with the wild-type homozygous diplotype, CA/CA homozygote exhibited an approximately 2-fold increase risk for lung cancer (OR = 2.12; 95% CI 1.46–3.07 in discovery, and OR = 2.01; 95% CI 1.51–2.67 in replication). Even among never-smokers, CA/CA homozygote showed an increased risk of lung cancer with borderline significance in discovery (adjusted OR = 1.75, 95% CI 0.96–3.19) and statistical significance in replication (adjusted OR = 2.10, 95% CI 1.12–3.96), compared with combined genotypes (CG/CG + CG/TG). Accordingly, rs588765-rs16969968 may be a genetic marker to lung cancer risk, even among never-smokers.
Using information including variant physical and functional properties, we applied multiple variant prioritization techniques in 13 lung cancer genomic studies. We identified and validated novel regions highlighting the utility of using prioritization analyses to search for robust signals.
Large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have likely uncovered all common variants at the GWAS significance level. Additional variants within the suggestive range (0.0001> P > 5×10−8) are, however, still of interest for identifying causal associations. This analysis aimed to apply novel variant prioritization approaches to identify additional lung cancer variants that may not reach the GWAS level. Effects were combined across studies with a total of 33456 controls and 6756 adenocarcinoma (AC; 13 studies), 5061 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC; 12 studies) and 2216 small cell lung cancer cases (9 studies). Based on prior information such as variant physical properties and functional significance, we applied stratified false discovery rates, hierarchical modeling and Bayesian false discovery probabilities for variant prioritization. We conducted a fine mapping analysis as validation of our methods by examining top-ranking novel variants in six independent populations with a total of 3128 cases and 2966 controls. Three novel loci in the suggestive range were identified based on our Bayesian framework analyses: KCNIP4 at 4p15.2 (rs6448050, P = 4.6×10−7) and MTMR2 at 11q21 (rs10501831, P = 3.1×10−6) with SCC, as well as GAREM at 18q12.1 (rs11662168, P = 3.4×10−7) with AC. Use of our prioritization methods validated two of the top three loci associated with SCC (P = 1.05×10−4 for KCNIP4, represented by rs9799795) and AC (P = 2.16×10−4 for GAREM, represented by rs3786309) in the independent fine mapping populations. This study highlights the utility of using prior functional data for sequence variants in prioritization analyses to search for robust signals in the suggestive range.
Inflammation has been hypothesized to increase the risk of cancer development as an initiator or promoter, yet no large-scale study of inherited variation across cancer sites has been conducted.
We conducted a cross-cancer genomic analysis for the inflammation pathway based on 48 genome-wide association studies within the National Cancer Institute GAME-ON Network across five common cancer sites, with a total of 64 591 cancer patients and 74 467 control patients. Subset-based meta-analysis was used to account for possible disease heterogeneity, and hierarchical modeling was employed to estimate the effect of the subcomponents within the inflammation pathway. The network was visualized by enrichment map. All statistical tests were two-sided.
We identified three pleiotropic loci within the inflammation pathway, including one novel locus in Ch12q24 encoding SH2B3 (rs3184504), which reached GWAS significance with a P value of 1.78 x 10–8, and it showed an association with lung cancer (P = 2.01 x 10–6), colorectal cancer (GECCO P = 6.72x10-6; CORECT P = 3.32x10-5), and breast cancer (P = .009). We also identified five key subpathway components with genetic variants that are relevant for the risk of these five cancer sites: inflammatory response for colorectal cancer (P = .006), inflammation related cell cycle gene for lung cancer (P = 1.35x10-6), and activation of immune response for ovarian cancer (P = .009). In addition, sequence variations in immune system development played a role in breast cancer etiology (P = .001) and innate immune response was involved in the risk of both colorectal (P = .022) and ovarian cancer (P = .003).
Genetic variations in inflammation and its related subpathway components are keys to the development of lung, colorectal, ovary, and breast cancer, including SH2B3, which is associated with lung, colorectal, and breast cancer.
BET bromodomains are unique targeting modules that mediate primary transcription response.
Bromodomains (BRDs) have emerged as compelling targets for cancer therapy. The development of selective and potent BET (bromo and extra-terminal) inhibitors and their significant activity in diverse tumor models have rapidly translated into clinical studies and have motivated drug development efforts targeting non-BET BRDs. However, the complex multidomain/subunit architecture of BRD protein complexes complicates predictions of the consequences of their pharmacological targeting. To address this issue, we developed a promiscuous BRD inhibitor [bromosporine (BSP)] that broadly targets BRDs (including BETs) with nanomolar affinity, creating a tool for the identification of cellular processes and diseases where BRDs have a regulatory function. As a proof of principle, we studied the effects of BSP on leukemic cell lines known to be sensitive to BET inhibition and found, as expected, strong antiproliferative activity. Comparison of the modulation of transcriptional profiles by BSP after a short exposure to the inhibitor resulted in a BET inhibitor signature but no significant additional changes in transcription that could account for inhibition of other BRDs. Thus, nonselective targeting of BRDs identified BETs, but not other BRDs, as master regulators of context-dependent primary transcription response.
Bromodomains; inhibition; epigenetics; leukemias; BET
Lung cancer etiology is multifactorial, and growing evidence has indicated that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are important players in lung carcinogenesis. We performed a large-scale meta-analysis of 690,564 SNPs in 15,531 autosomal lncRNAs by using datasets from six previously published genome-wide association studies (GWASs) from the Transdisciplinary Research in Cancer of the Lung (TRICL) consortium in populations of European ancestry. Previously unreported significant SNPs (P value < 1 × 10−7) were further validated in two additional independent lung cancer GWAS datasets from Harvard University and deCODE. In the final meta-analysis of all eight GWAS datasets with 17,153 cases and 239,337 controls, a novel risk SNP rs114020893 in the lncRNA NEXN-AS1 region at 1p31.1 remained statistically significant (odds ratio = 1.17; 95% confidence interval = 1.11–1.24; P = 8.31 × 10−9). In further in silico analysis, rs114020893 was predicted to change the secondary structure of the lncRNA. Our finding indicates that SNP rs114020893 of NEXN-AS1 at 1p31.1 may contribute to lung cancer susceptibility.
We analyzed 3,872 common genetic variants across the
ESR1 locus (encoding estrogen receptor α) in
118,816 subjects from three international consortia. We found evidence for at
least five independent causal variants, each associated with different phenotype
sets, including estrogen receptor (ER+ or
ER−) and human ERBB2 (HER2+ or
HER2−) tumor subtypes, mammographic density and tumor
grade. The best candidate causal variants for ER− tumors lie
in four separate enhancer elements, and their risk alleles reduce expression of
ESR1, RMND1 and CCDC170,
whereas the risk alleles of the strongest candidates for the remaining
independent causal variant disrupt a silencer element and putatively increase
ESR1 and RMND1 expression.
A locus at 19p13 is associated with breast cancer (BC) and ovarian cancer (OC) risk. Here we analyse 438 SNPs in this region in 46,451 BC and 15,438 OC cases, 15,252 BRCA1 mutation carriers and 73,444 controls and identify 13 candidate causal SNPs associated with serous OC (P=9.2 × 10−20), ER-negative BC (P=1.1 × 10−13), BRCA1-associated BC (P=7.7 × 10−16) and triple negative BC (P-diff=2 × 10−5). Genotype-gene expression associations are identified for candidate target genes ANKLE1 (P=2 × 10−3) and ABHD8 (P<2 × 10−3). Chromosome conformation capture identifies interactions between four candidate SNPs and ABHD8, and luciferase assays indicate six risk alleles increased transactivation of the ADHD8 promoter. Targeted deletion of a region containing risk SNP rs56069439 in a putative enhancer induces ANKLE1 downregulation; and mRNA stability assays indicate functional effects for an ANKLE1 3′-UTR SNP. Altogether, these data suggest that multiple SNPs at 19p13 regulate ABHD8 and perhaps ANKLE1 expression, and indicate common mechanisms underlying breast and ovarian cancer risk.
A region on chromosome 19p13 is associated with the risk of developing ovarian and breast cancer. Here, the authors genotyped SNPs in this region in thousands of breast and ovarian cancer patients and identified SNPs associated with three genes, which were analysed with functional studies.
Only a few studies analyzed the role of allium vegetables with reference to head and neck cancers (HNC), with mixed results.
We investigated the potential favorable role of garlic and onion within the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) Consortium.
Methods and results
We analyzed pooled individual-level data from eight case-control studies, including 4590 cases and 7082 controls. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between garlic and onion intakes and HNC risk. Compared with no or low garlic use, the ORs of HNC were 0.95 (95% CI 0.71–1.27) for intermediate and 0.74 (95% CI 0.55–0.99) for high garlic use (p for trend= 0.02). The ORs of HNC for increasing categories of onion intake were 0.91 (95% CI 0.68–1.21) for >1 to ≤3 portions per week, and 0.83 (95% CI 0.60–1.13) for >3 portions per week (p for trend= 0.02), as compared to <1 portion per week. We found an inverse association between high onion intake and laryngeal cancer risk (OR=0.69; 95% CI 0.54–0.88), but no significant association for other subsites.
The results of this pooled-analysis support a possible moderate inverse association between garlic and onion intake and HNC risk.
Head and Neck Neoplasms; Allium vegetables; onion; garlic; diet
The Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility genome-wide association study (GWAS) originally identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs11249433 at 1p11.2 associated with breast cancer risk. To fine-map this locus, we genotyped 92 SNPs in a 900kb region (120,505,799–121,481,132) flanking rs11249433 in 45,276 breast cancer cases and 48,998 controls of European, Asian and African ancestry from 50 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Genotyping was done using iCOGS, a custom-built array. Due to the complicated nature of the region on chr1p11.2: 120,300,000–120,505,798, that lies near the centromere and contains seven duplicated genomic segments, we restricted analyses to 429 SNPs excluding the duplicated regions (42 genotyped and 387 imputed). Per-allelic associations with breast cancer risk were estimated using logistic regression models adjusting for study and ancestry-specific principal components. The strongest association observed was with the original identified index SNP rs11249433 (minor allele frequency (MAF) 0.402; per-allele odds ratio (OR) = 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08–1.13, P = 1.49 x 10-21). The association for rs11249433 was limited to ER-positive breast cancers (test for heterogeneity P≤8.41 x 10-5). Additional analyses by other tumor characteristics showed stronger associations with moderately/well differentiated tumors and tumors of lobular histology. Although no significant eQTL associations were observed, in silico analyses showed that rs11249433 was located in a region that is likely a weak enhancer/promoter. Fine-mapping analysis of the 1p11.2 breast cancer susceptibility locus confirms this region to be limited to risk to cancers that are ER-positive.
To examine the diversity of somatic alterations and clonal evolution according to aggressiveness of disease, nineteen tumor-blood pairs of ‘formerly bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma (BAC)’ which had been reclassified into preinvasive lesion (adenocarcinoma in situ; AIS), focal invasive lesion (minimally invasive adenocarcinoma; MIA), and invasive lesion (lepidic predominant adenocarcinoma; LPA and non-lepidic predominant adenocarcinoma; non-LPA) according to IASLC/ATS/ERS 2011 classification were explored by whole exome sequencing. Several distinct somatic alterations were observed compare to the lung adenocarcinoma study from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). There were higher numbers of tumors with significant APOBEC mutation fold enrichment (73% vs. 58% TCGA). The frequency of KRAS mutations was lower in our study (5% vs. 32% TCGA), while a higher number of mutations of RNA-splicing genes, RBM10 and U2AF1, were found (37% vs. 11% TCGA). We found neither mutational pattern nor somatic copy number alterations that were specific to AIS/MIA. We demonstrated that clonal cell fraction was the only distinctive feature that discriminated LPA/non-LPA from AIS/MIA. The broad range of clonal frequency signified a more branched clonal evolution at the time of diagnosis. Assessment of tumor clonal cell fraction might provide critical information for individualized therapy as a prognostic factor, however this needs further study.
Body mass index (BMI) is inversely associated with lung cancer risk in observational studies, even though it increases the risk of several other cancers, which could indicate confounding by tobacco smoking or reverse causality. We used the two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) approach to circumvent these limitations of observational epidemiology by constructing a genetic instrument for BMI, based on results from the GIANT consortium, which was evaluated in relation to lung cancer risk using GWAS results on 16,572 lung cancer cases and 21,480 controls. Results were stratified by histological subtype, smoking status and sex. An increase of one standard deviation (SD) in BMI (4.65 Kg/m2) raised the risk for lung cancer overall (OR = 1.13; P = 0.10). This was driven by associations with squamous cell (SQ) carcinoma (OR = 1.45; P = 1.2 × 10−3) and small cell (SC) carcinoma (OR = 1.81; P = 0.01). An inverse trend was seen for adenocarcinoma (AD) (OR = 0.82; P = 0.06). In stratified analyses, a 1 SD increase in BMI was inversely associated with overall lung cancer in never smokers (OR = 0.50; P = 0.02). These results indicate that higher BMI may increase the risk of certain types of lung cancer, in particular SQ and SC carcinoma.
Prospective cohort studies have provided some evidence that circulating vitamin D is associated with risk of, and survival from renal cell carcinoma (RCC), but it is unclear whether concentrations of vitamin D at the time of diagnosis of renal cell RCC is associated with prognosis. We conducted a case-cohort study of 630 RCC cases, including 203 deaths) from a multi-centre case-control study in Eastern Europe. Vitamin D was assessed as 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3], and we used weighted Cox models to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) by categories of season-adjusted 25(OH)D3. Higher concentrations of 25(OH)D3 were associated with lower risk of death after adjusting for stage, age, sex, and country (HR highest versus lowest category 0.57, 95% CI [0.34, 0.97]). The inverse associations of 25(OH)D3 with death were most notable among those who died from non-RCC causes and those diagnosed with early stage disease. In summary, 25(OH)D3 concentration at diagnosis of RCC was inversely associated with all-cause mortality rates, but not specifically with RCC outcome.
Vitamin D; 25-Hydroxyvitamin D; Kidney cancer; prognosis; survival; case-cohort
The histone acetyltransferases CBP/p300 are involved in recurrent
leukemia-associated chromosomal translocations and are key regulators of cell
growth. Therefore, efforts to generate inhibitors of CBP/p300 are of clinical
value. We developed a specific and potent acetyl-lysine competitive
protein-protein interaction inhibitor, I-CBP112, that targets the CBP/p300
bromodomains. Exposure of human and mouse leukemic cell lines to I-CBP112
resulted in substantially impaired colony formation and induced cellular
differentiation without significant cytotoxicity. I-CBP112 significantly reduced
the leukemia-initiating potential of MLL-AF9+ AML cells in a dose-dependent
manner in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, I-CBP112 increased the cytotoxic
activity of BET bromodomain inhibitor JQ1 as well as doxorubicin. Collectively
we report the development and preclinical evaluation of a novel, potent
inhibitor targeting CBP/p300 bromodomains that impairs aberrant self-renewal of
leukemic cells. The synergistic effects of I-CBP112 and current standard therapy
(doxorubicin) as well as emerging treatment strategies (BET inhibition) provide
new opportunities for combinatorial treatment of leukemia and potentially other
Proteomics analysis of biofluid-derived vesicles holds enormous potential for discovering non-invasive disease markers. Obtaining vesicles of sufficient quality and quantity for profiling studies has, however, been a major problem, as samples are often replete with co-isolated material that can interfere with the identification of genuine low abundance, vesicle components. Here, we used a combination of ultracentrifugation and size-exclusion chromatography to isolate and analyse vesicles of plasma or urine origin. We describe a sample-handling workflow that gives reproducible, quality vesicle isolations sufficient for subsequent protein profiling. Using a semi-quantitative aptamer-based protein array, we identified around 1,000 proteins, of which almost 400 were present at comparable quantities in plasma versus urine vesicles. Significant differences were, however, apparent with elements like HSP90, integrin αVβ5 and Contactin-1 more prevalent in urinary vesicles, while hepatocyte growth factor activator, prostate-specific antigen–antichymotrypsin complex and many others were more abundant in plasma vesicles. This was also applied to a small set of specimens collected from men with metastatic prostate cancer, highlighting several proteins with the potential to indicate treatment refractory disease. The study provides a practical platform for furthering protein profiling of vesicles in prostate cancer, and, hopefully, many other disease scenarios.
plasma; urine prostate; proteomics; protein array
Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is emerging as a key potential biomarker for post-diagnosis surveillance but it may also play a crucial role in the detection of pre-clinical cancer. Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an excellent candidate for early detection given there are no successful therapeutic options for late-stage disease, and it displays almost universal inactivation of TP53. We assessed the presence of TP53 mutations in the cell-free DNA (cfDNA) extracted from the plasma of 51 SCLC cases and 123 non-cancer controls. We identified mutations using a pipeline specifically designed to accurately detect variants at very low fractions. We detected TP53 mutations in the cfDNA of 49% SCLC patients and 11.4% of non-cancer controls. When stratifying the 51 initial SCLC cases by stage, TP53 mutations were detected in the cfDNA of 35.7% early-stage and 54.1% late-stage SCLC patients. The results in the controls were further replicated in 10.8% of an independent series of 102 non-cancer controls. The detection of TP53 mutations in 11% of the 225 non-cancer controls suggests that somatic mutations in cfDNA among individuals without any cancer diagnosis is a common occurrence, and poses serious challenges for the development of ctDNA screening tests.
•CtDNA may play a crucial role in the detection of pre-clinical cancer.•TP53 mutations are detectable in the cfDNA of SCLC patients with early-stage tumors.•Detection of TP53 mutations in non-cancer controls poses serious challenges for the development of ctDNA screening tests.
Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) has potential for monitoring response to treatment and relapse, but also for early detection. This is the first study reporting the detection of circulating-tumor DNA (ctDNA) in cases diagnosed with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). Our results show that TP53 mutations are detectable in the cfDNA of SCLC patients including those with early-stage tumors. Importantly, we also provide evidence that cancer-like TP53 mutations are present in non-cancer controls, which poses serious challenges for the development of ctDNA screening tests.
ctDNA; cfDNA; Small-cell lung cancer; TP53 mutations; Early detection; Screening