Bisphosphonates commonly used to treat osteoporosis, Paget’s disease, multiple myeloma, hypercalcemia of malignancy and osteolytic lesions of cancer metastasis have been associated with bisphosphonate-associated jaw osteonecrosis (BJON). The underlying pathogenesis of BJON is unclear, but disproportionate bisphosphonate concentration in the jaw has been proposed as one potential etiological factor. This study tested the hypothesis that skeletal biodistribution of intravenous bisphosphonate is anatomic site-dependent in a rat model system.
Materials and Methods
Fluorescently labeled pamidronate was injected intravenously in athymic rats of equal weights followed by in vivo whole body fluorimetry, ex vivo optical imaging of oral, axial and appendicular bones and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid bone decalcification to assess hydroxyapatite-bound bisphosphonate.
Bisphosphonate uptake and bisphosphonate released per unit calcium were similar in oral and appendicular bones but lower than those in axial bones. Hydroxyapatite-bound bisphosphonate liberated by sequential acid decalcification was highest in oral relative to axial and appendicular bones (p < 0.05).
This study demonstrates regional differences in uptake and release of bisphosphonate from oral, axial and appendicular bones of immune deficient rats.
Bisphosphonate; osteonecrosis; jaw; fluorescent labeling; bone
In this review, the authors survey the large number of antibacterial and antiviral proteins present in human saliva. Of interest, most of these antibacterial proteins display antiviral activity, typically against specific viral pathogens. The review focuses on one protein that interacts with both bacteria and viruses—gp340, originally referred to as salivary agglutinin. In the oral cavity, soluble gp340 binds to and aggregates a variety of bacteria, and this is thought to increase bacterial clearance from the mouth. However, when bound to the tooth surface, gp340 promotes bacterial adherence. In the oral cavity, most gp340 is found soluble in saliva and can function as a specific inhibitor of infectivity of HIV-1 and influenza A. In contrast, in the female reproductive track, most gp340 is bound to the cell surface, where it can promote HIV-1 infection.
HIV; AIDS; viral; antiviral; innate immune system
We sought to identify factors associated with interest in receiving therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among HCV-infected injection drug users (IDUs) in 3 United States cities.
IDUs aged 18–35 years who were HCV-infected and seronegative for human immunodeficiency virus underwent surveys on behaviors, experience, and interest in treatment for HCV infection and readiness to quit drug use.
Among treatment-naive IDUs (n = 216), 81.5% were interested in treatment for HCV infection, but only 27.3% had seen a health-care provider since receiving a diagnosis of HCV infection. Interest in treatment for HCV infection was greater among IDUs with a high perceived threat of progressive liver disease, those with a usual source of care, those without evidence of alcohol dependence, and those with higher readiness scores for quitting drug use. Interest in treatment for HCV infection was 7-fold higher among IDUs who were told by their health-care provider that they were at risk for cirrhosis or liver cancer.
Improving provider-patient communication and integrating treatments for substance abuse and HCV may increase the proportion of IDUs who initiate treatment for HCV infection.
Replication protein A (RPA), a heterotrimeric single-stranded DNA binding protein, is required for recombination, and stimulates homologous pairing and DNA strand exchange promoted in vitro by human recombination protein HsRad51. Co-immunoprecipitation revealed that purified RPA interacts physically with HsRad51, as well as with HsDmc1, the homolog that is expressed specifically in meiosis. The interaction with HsRad51 was mediated by the 70 kDa subunit of RPA, and according to experiments with deletion mutants, this interaction required amino acid residues 169-326. In exponentially growing mammalian cells, 22% of nuclei showed foci of RPA protein and 1-2% showed foci of Rad51. After gamma-irradiation, the percentage of cells with RPA foci increased to approximately 50%, and those with Rad51 foci to 30%. All of the cells with foci of Rad51 had foci of RPA, and in those cells the two proteins co-localized in a high fraction of foci. The interactions of human RPA with Rad51, replication proteins and DNA are suited to the linking of recombination to replication.
Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we isolated a cDNA encoding a novel human protein, named Pir51, that strongly interacts with human Rad51 recombinase. Analysis in vitro confirmed the interaction between Rad51 and Pir51. Pir51 mRNA is expressed in a number of human organs, most notably in testis, thymus, colon and small intestine. The Pir51 gene locus was mapped to chromosome 12p13.1-13. 2 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The Pir51 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to near homogeneity. Biochemical analysis shows that the Pir51 protein binds both single- and double-stranded DNA, and is capable of aggregating DNA. The protein also binds RNA. The Pir51 protein may represent a new member of the multiprotein complexes postulated to carry out homologous recombination and DNA repair in mammalian cells.
The cDNA for human protein HsRad54, which is a structural homolog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae recombination/repair protein Rad54, was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. As demonstrated by analysis in vitro and in vivo, HsRad54 protein interacts with human Rad51 recombinase. The interaction is mediated by the N-terminal domain of HsRad54 protein, which interacts with both free and DNA-bound HsRad51 protein.
We have previously demonstrated that sonic extracts of Fusobacterium nucleatum FDC 364 were capable of inhibiting human T-cell responses to mitogens and antigens. The purified F. nucleatum immunosuppressive protein (FIP) is composed of two subunits of 44 and 48 kDa. Furthermore, FIP inhibits T-cell activation by arresting cells in the middle of the G(1) phase of the cell cycle; the data available to date suggest that FIP impairs the expression of the proliferating-cell nuclear antigen. To initiate delineation of FIP structure-function relationships, molecular cloning of the FIP gene was carried out. A DNA library of F. nucleatum FDC 364 was constructed by partial digestion of genomic DNA with Sau3A and screened for the production of FIP with polyclonal antibody. Twelve immunoreactive clones were identified. One of these clones contained a 3.1-kbp insert and was chosen for further study. Cell lysates were found to contain an immunoreactive band that comigrated with the 44-kDa subcomponent of the native FIP. Sequencing of the 3.1-kpb insert revealed the presence of three open reading frames (ORFs). One ORF extends from nucleotides 415 to 1620, encodes 402 amino acids, and is preceded by a ribosome-binding site. Deletion analysis and antibody elution analysis showed that this ORF encodes the 44-kDa subunit (FipA) of native FIP. A second ORF is situated upstream of fipA. However, Northern (RNA) analysis suggested that fipA is not transcribed as part of an operon but transcribed from its own promotor. Finally, the partially purified recombinant FipA protein was capable of impairing T-cell activation in a manner consistent with the native protein. These results indicate that the two components that form the native protein are most probably distinct gene products and suggest that the 44-kDa FipA polypeptide is sufficient to mediate the immunosuppressive activities of the native protein complex.
Streptococcus gordonii M5 expresses a lectin on its surface (SSP-5) which binds to human salivary agglutinin (SAG). This interaction requires sialic acid residues of SAG and divalent cations and may mediate the colonization of oral tissues by this organism. In this report, we show that the binding of SAG to SSP-5 requires calcium and that SSP-5 is a high-affinity calcium-binding protein. SAG-mediated aggregation of S. gordonii M5 was inhibited by 1 mM EDTA, and the restoration of aggregation occurred only upon the readdition of calcium. To ascertain the level at which calcium exerts its effects, the calcium-binding properties of SSP-5 were evaluated by using a 45Ca binding assay. In addition, a kinetic analysis of calcium binding was carried out by using fura2, a fluorescent calcium-binding dye. These analyses showed that SSP-5 is a high-affinity calcium-binding protein that binds 1 mol of calcium per mol of protein and has a dissociation constant of 0.45 +/- 0.2 microM. The calcium-binding capacity of SSP-5 was also calculated independently to be 1.0 +/- 0.2 mol of Ca per mol of SSP-5 by column chromatography on Sephadex G-25 equilibrated with 10 microM 45Ca. To localize the calcium binding site of SSP-5, a series of C-terminal deletion mutants were expressed in Escherichia coli and evaluated for calcium-binding activity. Deletion of the 250 C-terminal residues of SSP-5 had little effect on calcium binding. However, deletion of residues 1168 to 1250 resulted in the loss of calcium-binding activity, suggesting that this region is important for calcium binding by SSP-5.
Studies of the mode of action of the bisphosphonate alendronate showed that 1 d after the injection of 0.4 mg/kg [3H]alendronate to newborn rats, 72% of the osteoclastic surface, 2% of the bone forming, and 13% of all other surfaces were densely labeled. Silver grains were seen above the osteoclasts and no other cells. 6 d later the label was 600-1,000 microns away from the epiphyseal plate and buried inside the bone, indicating normal growth and matrix deposition on top of alendronate-containing bone. Osteoclasts from adult animals, infused with parathyroid hormone-related peptide (1-34) and treated with 0.4 mg/kg alendronate subcutaneously for 2 d, all lacked ruffled border but not clear zone. In vitro alendronate bound to bone particles with a Kd of approximately 1 mM and a capacity of 100 nmol/mg at pH 7. At pH 3.5 binding was reduced by 50%. Alendronate inhibited bone resorption by isolated chicken or rat osteoclasts when the amount on the bone surface was around 1.3 x 10(-3) fmol/microns 2, which would produce a concentration of 0.1-1 mM in the resorption space if 50% were released. At these concentrations membrane leakiness to calcium was observed. These findings suggest that alendronate binds to resorption surfaces, is locally released during acidification, the rise in concentration stops resorption and membrane ruffling, without destroying the osteoclasts.
Two human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) variants derived from a single parental isolate were found to differ substantially in their ability to replicate in CD4-positive cells. Using transient chloramphenicol acetyltransferase expression assays, we show that the long terminal repeat (LTR) of the better-replicating virus has significantly higher capacity than that of the companion virus to direct gene expression in T cells. Sequence data and site-specific mutagenesis experiments demonstrate that the higher LTR activity of the better-replicating HIV-1 is due to a combined effect of two mutations: (i) a point mutation in position -94 (relative to the transcriptional start site), which is located between the two subunits of the HIV-1 enhancer, and (ii) a duplication of 24 base pairs in positions -128 to -151, which was not previously known to be involved in any regulatory function. The presence of these mutations increases the basal level of the LTR-driven gene expression and does not influence the degree of induction caused by the viral tat gene product or by cell activation. Reciprocal exchange of LTRs between the respective viral DNAs results in a change of a recombinant virus replication pattern consistent with the activity of the particular LTR. These experiments suggest that the HIV-1 LTR is one of the sites which determines the functional heterogeneity of HIV-1.
The human immunodeficiency virus Rev protein is posttranslationally modified by a serine kinase activity present in the nucleus of the cell. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to identify the site of phosphorylation. Changing of serine residues 92 and 99 dramatically reduced Rev phosphorylation, suggesting that at least one, if not both, of these residues is the one recognized by the Rev-specific serine kinase. Similarly, a truncated Rev protein lacking the 25 carboxy-terminal amino acids was not phosphorylated. By using two independent assays, both the serine mutant proteins and the truncated form of Rev were found to be fully functional. Thus, phosphorylation and the 25 carboxy-terminal amino acids appear to be dispensable for protein function.
The interaction of a high-molecular-weight salivary glycoprotein (agglutinin) with Streptococcus sanguis M5 leads to the formation of bacterial aggregates. We have previously shown that the SSP-5 surface antigen from S. sanguis M5 binds the salivary agglutinin and therefore may be involved in the aggregation process. Here we report the transformation of a nonaggregating Enterococcus faecalis strain with the SSP-5 gene and show that the protein is expressed on the cell surface and confers an aggregation-positive phenotype. E. faecalis S161 protoplasts were transformed with pAM401 EB-5, a shuttle vector containing the S. sanguis SSP-5 gene, resulting in the isolation of E. faecalis S161EB-5. Crude cell extracts from this transformant and from S. sanguis M5 were analyzed by Western blotting. Extracts from S. sanguis M5 possessed peptides of 190 and 205 kilodaltons that reacted strongly with polyclonal antibodies against the recombinant SSP-5 antigen. E. faecalis S161EB-5 contained only the 190-kilodalton immunoreactive protein, suggesting that the antigen may be processed differently in E. faecalis S161EB-5. The parent strain, E. faecalis S161, did not react with this antibody preparation. Immunogold labeling of intact E. faecalis S161EB-5 and S. sanguis M5 with anti-SSP-5 immunoglobulin G showed that both organisms expressed similar levels of the antigen. Both organisms formed visible aggregates upon incubation with salivary agglutinin. These results suggest that the SSP-5 antigen may mediate both the binding of agglutinin to S. sanguis M5 and the subsequent formation of bacterial aggregates.
In 9 of 20 conjugative plasmids of different incompatibility groups, including F and R100 (or R6-5), coexist two sequences which are homologous, respectively, to the gene psiB, which encodes an inhibitor of SOS induction, and to the gene ssb, which encodes a single-stranded-DNA-binding protein.
Conjugative plasmids from various incompatibility groups which carry DNA homologous to the ssb gene of the F factor were found to have additional homology with the F factor. This region homologous with F was located on both sides of the ssb gene and occupied a considerable part of the leading region, i.e., the 12.9-kilobase portion of F transferred first during conjugation. This region was the only region of the F factor which has a homologous counterpart on many plasmids.
Glycoprotein D (gD) of herpes simplex virus (HSV) protects mice from a lethal challenge by either HSV type 1 (HSV-1; oral) or HSV-2 (genital). We evaluated whether synthetic peptides representing residues 1 through 23 of gD (mature protein) can be used as a potential synthetic herpesvirus vaccine. The immunogenicity of the peptides was demonstrated by the biological reactivity of antipeptide sera in immunoprecipitation and neutralization assays. All sera which immunoprecipitated gD had neutralizing against both HSV-1 and HSV-2. The highest titers were found in animals immunized with the longest peptides. The region of residues 1 through 23 was immunogenic regardless of whether the type 1 or type 2 sequence was presented to the animal. Immunization of mice with gD or synthetic peptides conferred solid protection against a footpad challenge with HSV-2. However, the peptides were not as effective as gD in protection against an intraperitoneal challenge. The results suggested that synthetic vaccines based on gD show promise and should be more rigorously tested in a variety of animal models.
Aggregation of bacteria by zinc and lysozyme was studied and compared with aggregation induced by a high-molecular-weight salivary agglutinin. Each ligand was found to exhibit a unique profile of properties when examined by both a microradiochemical centrifugation assay and a turbidimetric assay. Significant differences in rate of aggregation and bacterial species specificity were noted. Zinc- and lysozyme-mediated aggregations were shown to be calcium independent and to proceed rapidly at 0 degree C, in contrast to the salivary agglutinin. Zinc produced large, asymmetric aggregates, saliva produced intermediate-sized aggregates, and lysozyme produced the smallest aggregates. These size differences are consistent with many of the observed reaction properties.
Among 30 conjugative plasmids of enteric bacteria from 23 incompatibility (Inc) groups, we found 19 (from 12 Inc groups) which can complement defects caused by a defective single-stranded DNA-binding protein of Escherichia coli K-12. The genes which are responsible for the complementation from three of these plasmids (Inc groups I1, Y, and 9) were cloned. These genes showed extensive homology with each other and with the E. coli F factor ssb gene (formerly denoted ssf), which codes for a single-stranded DNA binding protein. The proteins coded for by the cloned genes bound tightly to single-stranded DNA. Six other ssb- -complementing plasmids were tested for homology to the F factor ssb gene, and all of these showed homology, as did one of the ssb- -noncomplementing plasmids. Plasmids from a total of 13 different Inc groups of enteric bacteria were found to be likely to have genes with some homology to the ssb gene of the F factor. For plasmids from several different Inc groups, we found no evidence for strong homology with ssb of the F factor.
We previously defined eight groups of monoclonal antibodies which react with distinct epitopes of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D (gD). One of these, group VII antibody, was shown to react with a type-common continuous epitope within residues 11 to 19 of the mature glycoprotein (residues 36 to 44 of the predicted sequence of gD). In the current investigation, we have localized the sites of binding of two additional antibody groups which recognize continuous epitopes of gD. The use of truncated forms of gD as well as computer predictions of secondary structure and hydrophilicity were instrumental in locating these epitopes and choosing synthetic peptides to mimic their reactivity. Group II antibodies, which are type common, react with an epitope within residues 268 to 287 of the mature glycoprotein (residues 293 to 312 of the predicted sequence). Group V antibodies, which are gD-1 specific, react with an epitope within residues 340 to 356 of the mature protein (residues 365 to 381 of the predicted sequence). Four additional groups of monoclonal antibodies appear to react with discontinuous epitopes of gD-1, since the reactivity of these antibodies was lost when the glycoprotein was denatured by reduction and alkylation. Truncated forms of gD were used to localize these four epitopes to the first 260 amino acids of the mature protein. Competition experiments were used to assess the relative positions of binding of various pairs of monoclonal antibodies. In several cases, when one antibody was bound, there was no interference with the binding of an antibody from another group, indicating that the epitopes were distinct. However, in other cases, there was competition, indicating that these epitopes might share some common amino acids.
The fine structure of the antigenic determinants of herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 glycoprotein D (gD) was analyzed to determine whether structural differences underlie the differential immunogenicity of these glycoproteins. A region common to herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 gD (amino acid residues 11 to 19) and two sites specific for herpes simplex virus type 2 gD (one determined by proline at position 7, the other determined by asparagine at position 21) were localized within the N-terminal 23 amino acids of gD by synthesis of peptides and comparison of their cross-reactivity with antisera raised to herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 gD. The secondary structure of these peptides, as predicted by computer analysis, is discussed in relation to their immunogenicity.
Previous studies have compared the adhesion of [3H]thymidine-labeled Streptococcus sanguis to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite (SHA) and buffer-coated hydroxyapatite (HA) beads. Although the hypotonic buffer used in these assays was adjusted to simulate saliva, it does not necessarily provide the optimal parameters for the quantitative estimate of adhesion under in vitro conditions. Optimization is necessary to provide the maximum sensitivity of the assay for detecting the effects of various salivas as well as for quantitating the effect of environmental growth conditions on the adhesion of S. sanguis to SHA and HA. A major distinction between the adhesion of S. sanguis to SHA and HA was observed when the bacterial concentration was varied. At high cell concentrations, the number of cells adhering to SHA was twice the number adhering to HA. Such differences were not detected at low cell concentrations. The optimal pH for the adsorption to both SHA and HA was 6. Changes in the ionic strength or addition of mono- or divalent cations found in saliva had little effect on adhesion to HA. In contrast, high concentrations of monovalent cations inhibited adhesion to SHA. Anions such as carbonate, chloride, and sulfate did not have specific effects on adhesion, whereas acetate inhibited adhesion to both SHA and HA. Fluoride inhibited adhesion to both SHA and HA, suggesting an interaction between fluoride and hydroxyapatite. These results indicated that 2 mM phosphate buffer at a pH of 6 containing 5 mM KCl and 1 mM CaCl2 was the optimal buffer for studying the in vitro adhesion of S. sanguis to SHA.
An antigenic determinant capable of inducing type-common herpes simplex virus (HSV)-neutralizing antibodies has been located on glycoprotein D (gD) of HSV type 1 (HSV-1). A peptide of 16 amino acids corresponding to residues 8 to 23 of the mature glycoprotein (residues 33 to 48 of the predicted gD-1 sequence) was synthesized. This peptide reacted with an anti-gD monoclonal antibody (group VII) previously shown to neutralize the infectivity of HSV-1 and HSV-2. The peptide was also recognized by polyclonal antibodies prepared against purified gD-1 but was less reactive with anti-gD-2 sera. Sera from animals immunized with the synthetic peptide reacted with native gD and neutralized both HSV-1 and HSV-2.
A study of saliva-mediated aggregation and adhesion has been carried out in a group of caries-resistant (CR) and caries-susceptible (CS) individuals. The submandibular saliva of the CS group had a much greater potency, as determined by dilution, in promoting adherence to hydroxyapatite beads than did the saliva of CR group. In contrast, the CR group demonstrated a twofold enhancement of saliva-mediated aggregation compared with the CS group. These observations support the hypothesis that saliva-mediated aggregation and adherence are important factors in caries resistance.
Comparison of saliva-mediated aggregation of Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, and Streptococcus mutans and adhesion of these organisms to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite showed that there was no relationship between these two activities. Adsorption of salivary aggregating activity to bacteria appears to have little effect on the ability of the residual saliva to support adherence; conversely, adsorption of salivary adherence factors to hydroxyapatite does not affect aggregation. Although heating saliva significantly reduces bacterial aggregation, it has little or no effect on adherence. A comparison of aggregation and adhesion with serial dilutions of saliva demonstrated that adhesion could still be detected at 100 to 500-fold-lower concentrations of salivary protein that bacterial aggregation. These findings support the concept that aggregation and adherence involve two distinct mechanisms of microbial clearance in the oral cavity.
Mutations of the Escherichia coli or Salmonella typhimurium supX genes eliminated deoxyribonucleic acid topoisomerase I. Suppression of a supX amber mutation partially restored the topoisomerase. Multicopy plasmids carrying supX+ caused overproduction of topoisomerase. Thus, these supX genes were identified as topA genes which specify deoxyribonucleic acid topoisomerase I.
Using a quantitative assay to measure saliva-mediated bacterial aggregating activity, we have surveyed 20 streptococcal strains with saliva samples obtained from a large population study. Individual saliva samples demonstrated characteristic levels of aggregating activity for Streptococcus sanguis M5. In general, high activity for this strain was associated with high activity for other strains of S. sanguis. Streptococcus mitis, and Streptococcus salivarius. The population distribution of aggregating activity for Streptococcus mutans, however, was different.