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author:("cogan, M.M.")
1.  Introduction 
PMCID: PMC3144041  PMID: 21441469
2.  Immunoglobulin A (IgA), IgA1, and IgA2 antibodies to Candida albicans in whole and parotid saliva in human immunodeficiency virus infection and AIDS. 
Infection and Immunity  1994;62(3):892-896.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals are predisposed to recurrent oral candidiasis, and, although it has been assumed that this is because of deficient mucosal immune responses, this has not been properly established. The present study aimed to compare the concentrations and secretion rates of immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgA subclass antibodies to Candida albicans in whole and parotid saliva samples from HIV-infected patients, AIDS patients, and control subjects. Levels of IgA antibody to Candida species in whole saliva were higher in the HIV group than in the controls and were highest in the AIDS group (P < 0.05). In parotid saliva, the mean antibody levels were significantly greater in HIV-positive patients than in controls (P < 0.05) but fell to lower levels in the AIDS group. The secretion rates of Candida antibodies in parotid saliva were reduced in AIDS patients compared with HIV patients. The specific activities of the IgA antibodies and both subclasses were significantly higher in the HIV and AIDS patients than in the controls in both whole and parotid saliva (P < 0.05). Antibody levels were significantly correlated with the numbers of Candida organisms isolated from saliva (P < 0.05). These results suggest clear differences in salivary antibody profiles among HIV-infected. AIDS, and control subjects and are indicative of a response to antigenic challenge by infecting Candida species. No obvious defect in the mucosal immune response in the HIV or AIDS groups that might account for the increased prevalence of candidiasis was apparent.
PMCID: PMC186199  PMID: 8112860

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