PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-7 (7)
 

Clipboard (0)
None

Select a Filter Below

Journals
Authors
more »
Year of Publication
Document Types
4.  Comparison of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Specific Inhibitory Activities in Saliva and Other Human Mucosal Fluids▿  
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology  2006;13(10):1111-1118.
Several human mucosal fluids are known to possess an innate ability to inhibit human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and replication in vitro. This study compared the HIV-1 inhibitory activities of several mucosal fluids, whole, submandibular/sublingual (sm/sl), and parotid saliva, breast milk, colostrum, seminal plasma, and cervicovaginal secretions, from HIV-1-seronegative donors by using a 3-day microtiter infection assay. A wide range of HIV-1 inhibitory activity was exhibited in all mucosal fluids tested, with some donors exhibiting high levels of activity while others showed significantly lower levels. Colostrum, whole milk, and whole saliva possessed the highest levels of anti-HIV-1 activity, seminal fluid, cervicovaginal secretions, and sm/sl exhibited moderate levels, and parotid saliva consistently demonstrated the lowest levels of HIV-1 inhibition. Fast protein liquid chromatography gel filtration studies revealed the presence of at least three distinct peaks of inhibitory activity against HIV-1 in saliva and breast milk. Incubation of unfractionated and fractionated whole saliva with antibodies raised against human lactoferrin (hLf), secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), and, to a lesser extent, MG2 (high-molecular-weight mucinous glycoprotein) reduced the HIV-1 inhibitory activity significantly. The results suggest that hLf and SLPI are two key components responsible for HIV-1 inhibitory activity in different mucosal secretions. The variation in HIV inhibitory activity between the fluids and between individuals suggests that there may be major differences in susceptibility to HIV infection depending both on the individual and on the mucosal fluid involved.
doi:10.1128/CDLI.00426-05
PMCID: PMC1595323  PMID: 16928883
7.  Medical students’ risk of infection with bloodborne viruses at home and abroad: questionnaire survey 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1999;318(7177):158-160.
Objective
To determine risks of exposure to and prevention of bloodborne virus infections among medical students during their elective period.
Design
Questionnaire study of students returning from their electives in 1997-8.
Setting
Urban teaching hospital.
Subjects
220 final year medical students.
Results
148 students (67%) returned questionnaires; all had been vaccinated against hepatitis B. 65 respondents (44%) had visited areas of relatively high endemicity for HIV, although 27 (42%) of these, all of whom had visited areas other than sub-Saharan Africa, were unaware of this. All but one had discussed their elective with advisers. Four students experienced percutaneous or mucosal exposure to potentially infectious body fluids, three in areas with a high prevalence of HIV infection. 44 respondents (30%) had experienced at least one such exposure during their clinical training; 75% of these exposures were unreported. 34% (13/38) students who visited areas known to have a high prevalence of HIV infection took with them a starter pack of zidovudine for post-exposure prophylaxis; 53% (20) took latex gloves and 63% (24) a medi-kit. None of the 27 students who were unaware that the areas they visited had a relatively high prevalence of HIV infection took zidovudine; only 15% (4) took gloves and 30% (8) a medi-kit.
Conclusions
Medical schools should produce, regularly update, and implement guidelines regarding protection from bloodborne viruses during clinical studies, including electives. Education and training in infection control should start at the earliest opportunity.
Key messagesDuring their elective, two fifths of 65 medical students who visited areas with a high prevalence of HIV infection were unaware of this; these areas were outside sub-Saharan AfricaThese students, and some of their advisers, were apparently unaware of the increasing prevalence of HIV infection in South East Asia and the Indian subcontinent and in Central America, the Caribbean, and South America. Consequently, they did not follow the medical school’s advice regarding preparation for electives in areas with a high prevalence of HIV infectionThree of the four students who had experienced a percutaneous or mucosal exposure to potentially infectious body fluids while on elective were working in areas with a high prevalence of HIV infection; 30% of students had had at least one such exposure during the remainder of their clinical trainingAlthough most students believed that they had had adequate training in phlebotomy and infection control, 75% failed to report exposures to potentially infectious body fluidsAll medical schools should produce and regularly update guidelines regarding protection from bloodborne viruses during clinical studies, including electives; education and training in infection control should start at the earliest opportunity
PMCID: PMC27693  PMID: 9888908

Results 1-7 (7)