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1.  Antiviral Activities in Human Saliva 
Advances in Dental Research  2011;23(1):34-37.
In this review, the authors survey the large number of antibacterial and antiviral proteins present in human saliva. Of interest, most of these antibacterial proteins display antiviral activity, typically against specific viral pathogens. The review focuses on one protein that interacts with both bacteria and viruses—gp340, originally referred to as salivary agglutinin. In the oral cavity, soluble gp340 binds to and aggregates a variety of bacteria, and this is thought to increase bacterial clearance from the mouth. However, when bound to the tooth surface, gp340 promotes bacterial adherence. In the oral cavity, most gp340 is found soluble in saliva and can function as a specific inhibitor of infectivity of HIV-1 and influenza A. In contrast, in the female reproductive track, most gp340 is bound to the cell surface, where it can promote HIV-1 infection.
PMCID: PMC3144043  PMID: 21441478
HIV; AIDS; viral; antiviral; innate immune system
2.  Disulfide bond structure determination and biochemical analysis of glycoprotein C from herpes simplex virus. 
Journal of Virology  1996;70(8):5455-5465.
A biochemical analysis of glycoprotein C (gC of herpes simplex virus was undertaken to further characterize the structure of the glycoprotein and to determine its disulfide bond arrangement. We used three recombinant forms of gC, gC1(457t), gC1(delta33-123t), and gC2(426t), each truncated prior to the transmembrane region. The proteins were expressed and secreted by using a baculovirus expression system and have been shown to bind to monoclonal antibodies which recognize discontinuous epitopes and to complement component C3b in a dose-dependent manner. We confirmed the N-terminal residues of each mature protein by Edman degradation and confirmed the internal deletion in gC1(delta33-123t). The molecular weight and extent of glycosylation of gC1 (457t), gC1(delta33-123t), and gC2(426t) were determined by treating each protein with endoglycosidases and then subjecting it to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and mass spectrometric analysis. The data indicate that eight to nine of the predicted N-linked oligosaccharide sites on gC1(457t) are occupied by glycans of approximately 1,000 Da. In addition, O-linked oligosaccharides are present on gC1(457t), primarily localized to the N-terminal region (amino acids [aa] 33 to 123) of the protein. gC2(426t) contains N-linked oligosaccharides, but no O-linked oligosaccharides were detected. To determine the disulfide bond arrangement of the eight cysteines of gC1(457t),the protein was cleaved with cyanogen bromide. SDS-PAGE analysis followed by Edman degradation identified three cysteine-containing fragments which are not connected by disulfide linkages. Chemical modification of cysteines combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry identified disulfide bonds between cysteine 1 (aa 127) and cysteine 2 (aa 144) and between cysteine 3 (aa 286) and cysteine 4 (aa 347). Further proteolysis of the cyanogen bromide-generated fragment containing cysteine 5 through cysteine 8, combined with mass spectrometry and Edman degradation, showed that disulfide bonds link cysteine 5 (aa 386) to cysteine 8 (aa 442) and cysteine 6 (aa 390) to cysteine 7 (aa 419). A similar disulfide bond arrangement is postulated to exist in gC homologs from other herpesviruses.
PMCID: PMC190503  PMID: 8764057
3.  Interaction of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein gC with mammalian cell surface molecules. 
Journal of Virology  1995;69(7):4471-4483.
The entry of herpes simplex virus (HSV) into mammalian cells is a multistep process beginning with an attachment step involving glycoproteins gC and gB. A second step requires the interaction of glycoprotein gD with a cell surface molecule. We explored the interaction between gC and the cell surface by using purified proteins in the absence of detergent. Truncated forms of gC and gD, gC1(457t), gC2(426t), and gD1(306t), lacking the transmembrane and carboxyl regions were expressed in the baculovirus system. We studied the ability of these proteins to bind to mammalian cells, to bind to immobilized heparin, to block HSV type 1 (HSV-1) attachment to cells, and to inhibit plaque formation by HSV-1. Each of these gC proteins bound to conformation-dependent monoclonal antibodies and to human complement component C3b, indicating that they maintained the same conformation of gC proteins expressed in mammalian cells. Biotinylated gC1(457t) and gC2(426t) each bind to several cell lines. Binding was inhibited by an excess of unlabeled gC but not by gD, indicating specificity. The attachment of gC to cells involves primarily heparan sulfate proteoglycans, since heparitinase treatment of cells reduced gC binding by 50% but had no effect on gD binding. Moreover, binding of gC to two heparan sulfate-deficient L-cell lines, gro2C and sog9, both of which are mostly resistant to HSV infection, was markedly reduced. Purified gD1 (306t), however, bound equally well to the two mutant cell lines. In contrast, saturating amounts of gC1(457t) interfered with HSV-1 attachment to cells but failed to block plaque formation, suggesting a role for gC in attachment but not penetration. A mutant form of gC lacking residues 33 to 123, gC1(delta 33-123t), expressed in the baculovirus system, bound significantly less well to cells than did gC1(457t) and competed poorly with biotinylated gC1(457t) for binding. These results suggest that residues 33 to 123 are important for gC attachment to cells. In contrast, both the mutant and wild-type forms of gC bound to immobilized heparin, indicating that binding of these proteins to the cell surface involves more than a simple interaction with heparin. To determine that the contribution of the N-terminal region of gC is important for HSV attachment, we compared several properties of a mutant HSV-1 which contains gC lacking amino acids 33 to 123 to those of its parental virus, which contains full-length gC. The mutant bound less well to cells than the parental virus but exhibited normal growth properties.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
PMCID: PMC189189  PMID: 7769707
4.  Immunolocalization of elastase in human emphysematous lungs. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1986;78(2):482-493.
The current working hypothesis concerning the pathogenesis of human pulmonary emphysema proposes that neutrophils migrate through the alveolar interstitium and degranulate, releasing proteolytic enzymes into the interstitium. These enzymes, in particular elastase, can bind to and degrade interstitial elastin. This report describes an immunohistochemical, ultrastructural technique that utilizes polyclonal antibodies to localize neutrophil elastase in human lungs. Using both the immunoperoxidase and the immunogold methods on thin, embedded sections of surgically resected human emphysematous lung tissue, elastase was localized in neutrophils in the lung interstitium and extracellularly in association with interstitial elastic fibers in human lungs that showed local emphysema of varying severity. Quantitative morphometric data were obtained from the lungs of eight patients undergoing lobectomy for removal of pulmonary carcinomas. Patients had preoperative forced expiratory volume (FEV1)% levels ranging from 55 to 77. There was a correlation between a quantitative measure of the local distribution of neutrophil elastase in contact with alveolar interstitial elastin and the local presence of emphysematous change as determined by mean linear intercept of the various histologic sections. These data support the validity of the "protease-protease inhibitor balance hypothesis" as an explanation of the pathogenesis of human pulmonary emphysema.
PMCID: PMC423585  PMID: 3525610
5.  A model of decreased functional alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor. Pulmonary pathology of dogs exposed to chloramine T. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1981;68(5):1132-1139.
The objective of this study was to develop an animal model representative of chronic human alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor deficiency. Eight dogs were treated with a mild oxidizing agent, chloramine T, with varying regimens for 3--27 wk. The capacity of the serum to inhibit both trypsin and elastase was examined and found to respond differently. Although immunologically determined levels of protease inhibitor did not change, the ability of serum to inhibit elastase in an in vitro assay decreased in direct response to chloramine T treatment. The trypsin inhibitory capacity was less affected. Emphysemalike alterations in lung morphology were observable when histologic sections were evaluated both subjectively and objectively by mean linear intercept measurements. The data suggest that this model parallels the emphysema associated with the genetic alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor deficiency in man.
PMCID: PMC370906  PMID: 6975283
6.  Disulfide bond structure of glycoprotein D of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2. 
Journal of Virology  1992;66(11):6668-6685.
Glycoprotein D (gD) is a structural component of the herpes simplex virus envelope which is essential for virus penetration. The function of this protein is highly dependent on its structure, and its structure is dependent on maintenance of three intact disulfide bonds. gD contains six cysteines in its ectodomain whose spacing is conserved among all its homologs in other alphaherpesviruses as well as Marek's disease virus. For other proteins, conservation of cysteine spacing correlates with conservation of disulfide bond structure. We have now solved the disulfide bond structure of gD-1 and gD-2 of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, respectively. Two approaches were used. First, we constructed 15 double-Cys mutants of gD-1, representing all possible disulfide pairs. In each case, codons for cysteines were changed to serine. We reasoned that if two cysteines normally form a disulfide bond, double mutations which eliminate one proper bond should be less harmful to gD structure than double mutations which eliminate two disulfide bonds. The mutated genes were cloned into a eucaryotic expression vector, and the proteins were expressed in transiently transfected cells. Three double mutations, Cys-1,5, Cys-2,6, and Cys-3,4 permitted gD-1 folding, processing, transport to the cell surface, and function in virus infection, whereas 12 other double mutations each produced a malfolded and nonfunctional protein. Thus, the three functional double-Cys mutants may represent the actual partners in disulfide bond linkages. The second approach was to define the actual disulfide bond structure of gD by biochemical means. Purified native gD-2 was cleaved by CNBr and proteases, and the peptides were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Disulfide-linked peptides were subjected to N-terminal amino acid sequencing. The results show that cysteine 1 (amino acid [aa] 66) is bonded to cysteine 5 (aa 189), cysteine 2 (aa 106) is bonded to cysteine 6 (aa 202), and cysteine 3 (aa 118) is bonded to cysteine 4 (aa 127). Thus, the biochemical analysis of gD-2 agrees with the genetic analysis of gD-1. A similar disulfide bond arrangement is postulated to exist in other gD homologs.
PMCID: PMC240163  PMID: 1328685

Results 1-6 (6)