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author:("lifa, C")
1.  Quantification of background enhancement in breast magnetic resonance imaging 
To present a novel technique for measuring tissue enhancement in breast fibroglandular tissue regions on contrast-enhanced breast MR images aimed at quantifying the enhancement of breast parenchyma, also known as “background enhancement”.
Materials and Methods
Our quantitative method for measuring breast MRI background enhancement was evaluated in a population of 16 healthy volunteers. We also demonstrate the use of our new technique in the case study of one subject classified as high risk for developing breast cancer who underwent 3 months of tamoxifen therapy.
We obtained quantitative measures of background enhancement in all cases. The high-risk patient exhibited a 37% mean reduction in background enhancement with treatment.
Our quantitative method is a robust and promising tool that may allow investigators to quantify and document the potential adverse effect of background enhancement on diagnostic accuracy in larger populations.
PMCID: PMC3081108  PMID: 21509883
Background enhancement; breast MRI; breast density; contrast-enhanced breast MRI; breast cancer
2.  In vivo water state measurements in breast cancer using broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy 
Physics in medicine and biology  2008;53(23):6713-6727.
Structural changes in water molecules are related to physiological, anatomical and pathological properties of tissues. Near infrared (NIR) optical absorption methods are sensitive to water, however detailed characterization of water in thick tissues is difficult to achieve because subtle spectral shifts can be obscured by multiple light scattering. In the NIR, a water absorption peak is observed around 975nm. The precise NIR peak shape and position is highly sensitive to water molecular disposition. We introduce a Bound Water Index (BWI) that quantifies shifts observed in tissue water absorption spectra measured by broadband Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy (DOS). DOS quantitatively measures light absorption and scattering spectra and therefore reveals bound-water spectral shifts. BWI as a water state index was validated by comparing broadband DOS to Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, diffusion-weighted MRI and conductivity in bound water tissue phantoms. Non-invasive DOS measurements of malignant and normal breast tissues performed in 18 subjects showed a significantly higher fraction of free water in malignant tissues (p<0.0001) compared to normal tissues. BWI of breast cancer tissues inversely correlated with Nottingham-Bloom-Richardson histopathology scores. These results highlight broadband DOS sensitivity to molecular disposition of water, and demonstrate the potential of BWI as a non-invasive in-vivo index that correlates with tissue pathology.
PMCID: PMC2586905  PMID: 18997265

Results 1-2 (2)