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author:("ulsen, G")
1.  Photo-multiplier Tube Based Hybrid MRI and Frequency Domain Fluorescence Tomography System for Small Animal Imaging 
Physics in medicine and biology  2011;56(15):4731-4747.
Fluorescence tomography (FT) is a promising molecular imaging technique that can spatially resolve both fluorophore concentration and lifetime parameters. However, recovered fluorophore parameters highly depend on the size and depth of the object due to the ill-posedness of the FT inverse problem. Structural a priori information from another high spatial resolution imaging modality has been demonstrated to significantly improve FT reconstruction accuracy. In this study, we have constructed a combined magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and FT system for small animal imaging. A photo-multiplier tube (PMT) is used as the detector to acquire frequency domain FT measurements. This is the first MR-compatible time-resolved FT system that can reconstruct both fluorescence concentration and lifetime maps simultaneously. The performance of the hybrid system is evaluated with phantom studies. Two different fluorophores, Indocyanine Green (ICG) and 3-3′ Diethylthiatricarbocyanine Iodide (DTTCI), which have similar excitation and emission spectra but different lifetimes, are utilized. The fluorescence concentration and lifetime maps are both reconstructed with and without the structural a priori information obtained from MRI for comparison. We show that the hybrid system can accurately recover both fluorescence intensity and lifetime within 10% error for two 4.2 mm-diameter cylindrical objects embedded in a 38 mm-diameter cylindrical phantom when MRI structural a priori information is utilized.
doi:10.1088/0031-9155/56/15/007
PMCID: PMC3961472  PMID: 21753235
2.  Combined Fluorescence and X-Ray Tomography for Quantitative In Vivo Detection of Fluorophore 
Initial results from a novel dual modality preclinical imager which combines non-contact fluorescence tomography (FT) and x-ray computed tomography (CT) for preclinical functional and anatomical in vivo imaging are presented. The anatomical data from CT provides a priori information to the FT reconstruction to create overlaid functional and anatomical images with accurate localization and quantification of fluorophore distribution. Phantoms with inclusions containing Indocyanine-Green (ICG), and with heterogeneous backgrounds including iodine in compartments at different concentrations for CT contrast, have been imaged with the dual modality FT/CT system. Anatomical information from attenuation maps and optical morphological information from absorption and scattering maps are used as a priori information in the FT reconstruction. Although ICG inclusions can be located without the a priori information, the recovered ICG concentration shows 75% error. When the a priori information is utilized, the ICG concentration can be recovered with only 15% error. Developing the ability to accurately quantify fluorophore concentration in anatomical regions of interest may provide a powerful tool for in vivo small animal imaging.
PMCID: PMC2877036  PMID: 20082529
Fluorescence Tomography; Diffuse Optical Tomography; X-Ray Computed Tomography
3.  In vivo water state measurements in breast cancer using broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy 
Physics in medicine and biology  2008;53(23):6713-6727.
Structural changes in water molecules are related to physiological, anatomical and pathological properties of tissues. Near infrared (NIR) optical absorption methods are sensitive to water, however detailed characterization of water in thick tissues is difficult to achieve because subtle spectral shifts can be obscured by multiple light scattering. In the NIR, a water absorption peak is observed around 975nm. The precise NIR peak shape and position is highly sensitive to water molecular disposition. We introduce a Bound Water Index (BWI) that quantifies shifts observed in tissue water absorption spectra measured by broadband Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy (DOS). DOS quantitatively measures light absorption and scattering spectra and therefore reveals bound-water spectral shifts. BWI as a water state index was validated by comparing broadband DOS to Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, diffusion-weighted MRI and conductivity in bound water tissue phantoms. Non-invasive DOS measurements of malignant and normal breast tissues performed in 18 subjects showed a significantly higher fraction of free water in malignant tissues (p<0.0001) compared to normal tissues. BWI of breast cancer tissues inversely correlated with Nottingham-Bloom-Richardson histopathology scores. These results highlight broadband DOS sensitivity to molecular disposition of water, and demonstrate the potential of BWI as a non-invasive in-vivo index that correlates with tissue pathology.
doi:10.1088/0031-9155/53/23/005
PMCID: PMC2586905  PMID: 18997265

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