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1.  Polyester production by halophilic and halotolerant bacterial strains obtained from mangrove soil samples located in Northern Vietnam 
MicrobiologyOpen  2012;1(4):395-406.
This research article reports halophilic and halotolerant bacteria isolated from mangrove forests located in Northern Vietnam. Several of these bacteria were able to synthesize polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). PHAs are polyesters stored by microorganisms under the presence of considerable amounts of a carbon source and deficiency of other essential nutrient such as nitrogen or phosphorous. Mangrove forests in Northern Vietnam are saline coastal habitats that have not been microbiologically studied. Mangrove ecosystems are, in general, rich in organic matter, but deficient in nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus. We have found about 100 microorganisms that have adapted to mangrove forests by accumulating PHAs. The production of polyesters might therefore be an integral part of the carbon cycle in mangrove forests. Three of the strains (ND153, ND97, and QN194) isolated from the Vietnamese forests were identified as Bacillus species, while other five strains (QN187, ND199, ND218, ND240, and QN271) were phylogenetically close related to the α-proteobacterium Yangia pacifica. These strains were found to accumulate PHAs in noticeable amounts. Polymer inclusions and chemical structure were studied by transmission electron microscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy analyses, respectively. Strains ND153, ND97, QN194, QN187, ND240, and QN271 synthesized poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) from glucose, whereas strains ND199 and ND218 synthesized poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) from this carbohydrate. With the exception of strain QN194, the strains accumulated PHBV when a combination of glucose and propionate was included in the culture medium. The polymer yields and cell growth reached by one Bacillus isolate, strain ND153, and one Gram-negative bacterium, strain QN271, were high and worth to be researched further. For experiments performed in shake flasks, strain ND153 reached a maximum PHBV yield of 71 wt% and a cell dry weight (CDW) of 3.6 g/L while strain QN271 attained a maximum PHB yield of 48 wt% and a CDW of 5.1 g/L. Both strain ND153 and strain QN271 may only represent a case in point that exemplifies of the potential that mangrove forests possess for the discovery of novel halophilic and halotolerant microorganisms able to synthesize different types of biopolyesters.
doi:10.1002/mbo3.44
PMCID: PMC3535385  PMID: 23233461
Biopolyesters; halophilic bacteria; halotolerant bacteria; mangrove forests; polyhydroxyalkanoates
2.  Evolutionary patterns of carbohydrate transport and metabolism in Halomonas boliviensis as derived from its genome sequence: influences on polyester production 
Aquatic Biosystems  2012;8:9.
Background
Halomonas boliviensis is a halophilic bacterium that is included in the γ-Proteobacteria sub-group, and is able to assimilate different types of carbohydrates. H. boliviensis is also able to produce poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) in high yields using glucose as the carbon precursor. Accumulation of PHB by microorganisms is induced by excess of intracellular NADH.
The genome sequences and organization in microorganisms should be the result of evolution and adaptation influenced by mutation, gene duplication, horizontal gen transfer (HGT) and recombination. Furthermore, the nearly neutral theory of evolution sustains that genetic modification of DNA could be neutral or selected, albeit most mutations should be at the border between neutrality and selection, i.e. slightly deleterious base substitutions in DNA are followed by a slightly advantageous substitutions.
Results
This article reports the genome sequence of H. boliviensis. The chromosome size of H. boliviensis was 4 119 979 bp, and contained 3 863 genes. A total of 160 genes of H. boliviensis were related to carbohydrate transport and metabolism, and were organized as: 70 genes for metabolism of carbohydrates; 47 genes for ABC transport systems and 43 genes for TRAP-type C4-dicarboxylate transport systems. Protein sequences of H. boliviensis related to carbohydrate transport and metabolism were selected from clusters of orthologous proteins (COGs). Similar proteins derived from the genome sequences of other 41 archaea and 59 bacteria were used as reference. We found that most of the 160 genes in H. boliviensis, c.a. 44%, were obtained from other bacteria by horizontal gene transfer, while 13% of the genes were acquired from haloarchaea and thermophilic archaea, only 34% of the genes evolved among Proteobacteria and the remaining genes encoded proteins that did not cluster with any of the proteins obtained from the reference strains. Furthermore, the diversity of the enzymes derived from these genes led to polymorphism in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. We found further that an optimum ratio of glucose and sucrose in the culture medium of H. boliviensis favored cell growth and PHB production.
Conclusions
Results obtained in this article depict that most genetic modifications and enzyme polymorphism in the genome of H. boliviensis were mainly influenced by HGT rather than nearly neutral mutations. Molecular adaptation and evolution experienced by H. boliviensis were also a response to environmental conditions such as the type and amount of carbohydrates in its ecological niche. Consequently, the genome evolution of H. boliviensis showed to be strongly influenced by the type of microorganisms, genetic interaction among microbial species and its environment. Such trend should also be experienced by other prokaryotes. A system for PHB production by H. boliviensis that takes into account the evolutionary adaptation of this bacterium to the assimilation of combinations of carbohydrates suggests the feasibility of a bioprocess economically viable and environmentally friendly.
doi:10.1186/2046-9063-8-9
PMCID: PMC3384467  PMID: 22510370
Halomonas boliviensis; Halophilic bacterium; Halomonas; Halomonadaceae; Biopolyesters; Polyhydroxyalkanoates; Genome evolution; Population genetics

Results 1-2 (2)