Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family is considered to be associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) pathogenesis, however, no consistent results have been provided by previous studies. In this report, we performed Meta analysis to investigate the association between four kinds of MMP single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP, MMP1 -1607 1G/2G, MMP3 -1171 5A/6A, MMP9 -1562 C/T, MMP12 -82 A/G) and COPD risk from 21 studies including 4184 cases and 5716 controls. Both overall and subgroup association between SNP and COPD susceptibility were tested. There was no evident association between MMP polymorphisms and COPD susceptibility in general population. On the other hand, subgroup analysis suggested that MMP9 -1562 C/T polymorphism was related to COPD, as we found that C allele carriers were at lower risk in some subgroups stratified by lung function, age and genotype identification method, compared with TT homozygotes. Our results indicated the genotype TT might be one genetic risk factor of severe COPD.
Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) is a serine/threonine protein kinase and plays a critical role in mitosis. PLK1 has also been regarded as a valuable target for cancer treatment, and several PLK1 inhibitors are currently undergoing clinical investigations. In this study, our data show that the expression level of PLK1 is upregulated in human pancreatic cancer cells. Molecular modeling studies indicate that DMTC inhibits PLK1 activity through competitive displacement of ATP from its binding pocket. Our data further show that DMTC suppresses the proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells and induces the formation of multinucleated cells, ultimately resulting in apoptosis. In addition, combination index analysis demonstrates that DMTC acts synergistically with the chemotherapeutic drug gemcitabine in inhibiting the proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells. These results thus suggest a potential of using PLK1 inhibitors for the treatment of pancreatic cancer.
PLK1; PLK1 inhibitor; cell proliferation and apoptosis; gemcitabine; pancreatic cancer
Tao-Hong-Si-Wu-Tang (THSWT) is a famous traditional Chinese herbal medicine formula, which has traditionally been used in China for about one thousand years. The present study investigated the effect of THSWT on physical fatigue. 32 male mice were randomly divided into 4 groups with 8 in each group. All were administered orally and daily for 28 days. Group I received isotonic saline solution as control; Group II, III and IV obtained 5, 10 and 20ml/ kg body weight of THSWT solutions, respectively. After 28 days, the anti-physical fatigue effect of THSWT was evaluated by using a forced swimming test, along with the determination of blood lactic acid, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), liver glycogen and muscle glycogen contents. The data showed that THSWT could extend exhaustive swimming time of mice, as well as decrease the BLA and BUN contents and increase the liver glycogen and muscle glycogen contents. The results support that THSWT had anti-physical fatigue effect.
Tao-Hong-Si-Wu-Tang; physical fatigue; forced swimming test; mice
The emergence of superconductivity in the iron pnictide or cuprate high temperature superconductors usually accompanies the suppression of a long-ranged antiferromagnetic (AFM) order state in a corresponding parent compound by doping or pressurizing. A great deal of effort by doping has been made to find superconductivity in Mn-based compounds, which are thought to bridge the gap between the two families of high temperature superconductors, but the AFM order was not successfully suppressed. Here we report the first observations of the pressure-induced elimination of long-ranged AFM order at ~ 34 GPa and a crossover from an AFM insulating to an AFM metallic state at ~ 20 GPa in LaMnPO single crystals that are iso-structural to the LaFeAsO superconductor by in-situ high pressure resistance and ac susceptibility measurements. These findings are of importance to explore potential superconductivity in Mn-based compounds and to shed new light on the underlying mechanism of high temperature superconductivity.
With laminectomy being widely accepted as the treatment for lumbar disorders, epidural fibrosis (EF) is a common complication for both the patients and the surgeons alike. Currently, EF is thought to cause recurrent postoperative pain after laminectomy or after discectomy. Angelica sinensis is a traditional Chinese medicine which has shown anti-inflammatory, antifibrotic, and antiproliferative properties. The object of this study was to investigate the effects of Angelica sinensis on the prevention of post-laminectomy EF formation in a rat model. A controlled double-blinded study was conducted in sixty healthy adult Wistar rats that underwent laminectomy at the L1-L2 levels. They were divided randomly into 3 groups according to the treatment method, with 20 in each group: (1) Angelica sinensis treatment group, (2) saline treatment group, and (3) sham group (laminectomy without treatment). All rats were euthanized humanely 4 weeks after laminectomy. The hydroxyproline content, Rydell score, vimentin cells density, fibroblasts density, inflammatory cells density, and inflammatory factors expressions all suggested better results in Angelica sinensis group than the other two groups. Topical application of Angelica sinensis could inhibit fibroblasts proliferation and TGF-β1 and IL-6 expressions and prevent epidural scar adhesion in postlaminectomy rat model.
Promoter-proximal pausing by RNA polymerase II (Pol II) ensures both gene-specific regulation and RNA quality control. Structural considerations suggested initiation factor eviction would be required for elongation factor engagement and pausing of transcription complexes. Here we show that selective inhibition of Cdk7—part of TFIIH—increases TFIIE retention, prevents DRB-sensitivity inducing factor (DSIF) recruitment and attenuates pausing in human cells. Pause release depends on Cdk9—cyclin T1 (P-TEFb); Cdk7 is also required for Cdk9-activating phosphorylation and Cdk9-dependent downstream events—Pol II carboxyl-terminal domain Ser2 phosphorylation and histone H2B ubiquitylation—in vivo. Cdk7 inhibition, moreover, impairs Pol II transcript 3′-end formation. Cdk7 thus acts through TFIIE and DSIF to establish and through P-TEFb to relieve barriers to elongation: incoherent feedforward that might create a window to recruit RNA-processing machinery. Therefore, cyclin-dependent kinases govern Pol II handoff from initiation to elongation factors and co-transcriptional RNA maturation.
The preferred antiretroviral regimen for young children previously exposed to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors is lopinavir/ritonavir plus two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Rifampicin-based antitubercular treatment reduces lopinavir concentrations. Adding extra ritonavir to lopinavir/ritonavir overcomes the effect of rifampicin, however this approach is not feasible in many settings.
We developed an integrated population model describing lopinavir and ritonavir pharmacokinetics to predict lopinavir/ritonavir (4:1) doses achieving target lopinavir exposures in children treated for tuberculosis. The model included data from 15 children given ‘super-boosted’ lopinavir (lopinavir/ritonavir =1:1) and 20 children given twice the standard dose of lopinavir/ritonavir every 12 h during antitubercular treatment, and from children given standard lopinavir/ritonavir doses every 12 h (39 without tuberculosis and 11 sampled again after antitubercular treatment).
A one-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination best described the pharmacokinetics of lopinavir and a one-compartment model with transit absorption compartments described ritonavir pharmacokinetics. The dynamic influence of ritonavir concentration on lopinavir oral clearance was modelled as direct inhibition with an Emax model. Antitubercular treatment reduced the oral bioavailability of lopinavir by 77% in children receiving twice usual lopinavir/ritonavir doses and increased ritonavir clearance by 50%. Simulations predicted that respective 27, 21, 20 and 18 mg/kg 8-hourly doses of lopinavir (in lopinavir/ritonavir, 4:1) maintains lopinavir concentrations >1 mg/l in at least 95% of children weighing 3–5.9, 6–9.9, 10–13.9 and 14–19.9 kg.
The model describing the interactions between lopinavir, ritonavir and rifampicin in young children predicted feasible 8-hourly doses of lopinavir/ritonavir resulting in therapeutic lopinavir concentrations during antitubercular treatment.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major global health problem. The infectious virion contains an inner “core particle”, which is made of 180 or 240 copies of core protein, alternatively known as hepatitis B core antigen, or HBcAg which encloses the viral genome.
In this study, we characterized HBV genotypes and used Bayesian analyses to estimate date of emergence of the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of three HBV genotypes, A, B, and D.
We estimated that the rate of evolution of HBV core protein gene to be 1.127 (0.925–1.329, 95% HPD) substitutions per site per year. The TMRCA of HBV for genotypes A, B, D were 118 (54–194, 95% HPD) year, 184 (78–323, 95% HPD) year and 133 (65–230, 95% HPD) year, respectively. Demographic histories of the HBcAg gene showed that the relative genetic diversity had a sharp increase within the first 10 years of its emergence.
Using a bayesian evolutionary method to predict the outbreak trends of HBV through evolutionary trees of HBV, and provide theoretical foundations for clinical prevention and treatment of HBV.
HBV; Genotypes; Bayesian analyses; TMRCA
Cutaneous squamous-cell carcinomas and keratoacanthomas are common findings in patients treated with BRAF inhibitors.
We performed a molecular analysis to identify oncogenic mutations (HRAS, KRAS, NRAS, CDKN2A, and TP53) in the lesions from patients treated with the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib. An analysis of an independent validation set and functional studies with BRAF inhibitors in the presence of the prevalent RAS mutation was also performed.
Among 21 tumor samples, 13 had RAS mutations (12 in HRAS). In a validation set of 14 samples, 8 had RAS mutations (4 in HRAS). Thus, 60% (21 of 35) of the specimens harbored RAS mutations, the most prevalent being HRAS Q61L. Increased proliferation of HRAS Q61L–mutant cell lines exposed to vemurafenib was associated with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)–pathway signaling and activation of ERK-mediated transcription. In a mouse model of HRAS Q61L–mediated skin carcinogenesis, the vemurafenib analogue PLX4720 was not an initiator or a promoter of carcinogenesis but accelerated growth of the lesions harboring HRAS mutations, and this growth was blocked by concomitant treatment with a MEK inhibitor.
Mutations in RAS, particularly HRAS, are frequent in cutaneous squamous-cell carcinomas and keratoacanthomas that develop in patients treated with vemurafenib. The molecular mechanism is consistent with the paradoxical activation of MAPK signaling and leads to accelerated growth of these lesions. (Funded by Hoffmann–La Roche and others; ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00405587, NCT00949702, NCT01001299, and NCT01006980.)
Although Transmembrane Proteins (TMPs) are highly important in various biological processes and pharmaceutical developments, general prediction of TMP structures is still far from satisfactory. Because TMPs have significantly different physicochemical properties from soluble proteins, current protein structure prediction tools for soluble proteins may not work well for TMPs. With the increasing number of experimental TMP structures available, template-based methods have the potential to become broadly applicable for TMP structure prediction. However, the current fold recognition methods for TMPs are not as well developed as they are for soluble proteins.
We developed a novel TMP Fold Recognition method, TMFR, to recognize TMP folds based on sequence-to-structure pairwise alignment. The method utilizes topology-based features in alignment together with sequence profile and solvent accessibility. It also incorporates a gap penalty that depends on predicted topology structure segments. Given the difference between α-helical transmembrane protein (αTMP) and β-strands transmembrane protein (βTMP), parameters of scoring functions are trained respectively for these two protein categories using 58 αTMPs and 17 βTMPs in a non-redundant training dataset.
We compared our method with HHalign, a leading alignment tool using a non-redundant testing dataset including 72 αTMPs and 30 βTMPs. Our method achieved 10% and 9% better accuracies than HHalign in αTMPs and βTMPs, respectively. The raw score generated by TMFR is negatively correlated with the structure similarity between the target and the template, which indicates its effectiveness for fold recognition. The result demonstrates TMFR provides an effective TMP-specific fold recognition and alignment method.
To investigate the role of the kinase zeta-associated protein of 70 kDa (ZAP-70) in T cells, we generated mice expressing a ZAP-70 mutant whose catalytic activity can be selectively blocked by a small molecule inhibitor. Conventional naïve, effector and memory T cells were dependent on ZAP-70 kinase activity for their activation, demonstrating a non-redundant role for ZAP-70 in TCR-induced signals. In contrast, ZAP-70 catalytic activity was not required for activation of the GTPase Rap1 and inside-out signals that promote integrin adhesion. This ZAP-70 kinase-independent pathway is sufficient for regulatory T (TREG) cell suppressive activity, which was unperturbed by ZAP-70 catalytic inhibition. Our results implicate ZAP-70 as an attractive therapeutic target.
The use of titanium during maxillofacial fixation is limited due to its palpability, mutagenic effects and interference with imaging, which lead to the requirement for subsequent removal. The use of a biologically absorbable fixation material will potentially eliminate these limitations. In this meta-analysis, we analyzed the complications of absorbable fixation in maxillofacial surgery.
We performed a systematic search of PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Systematic Reviews and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for trials published through December 2012. Data extracted from literature were analyzed with Review manager 5.0.24.
Relevant data was extracted from 20 studies (1673 participants) and revealed that patients in the absorbable group had significantly more complications than those in the titanium group (RR = 1.20; 95% CI: 1.02–1.42; P = 0.03) in all enrolled maxillofacial surgeries. For bimaxillary operation subgroup, the absorbable fixation group did not have a significant increase in complications when compared with the titanium group (RR = 1.89; 95% CI: 0.85–4.22; P = 0.12). There was no significant difference observed between the absorbable and titanium groups receiving a bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy (BSSRO) (RR = 1.45; 95% CI: 0.84–2.48; P = 0.18) and Le Fort I osteotomy (RR = 0.65; 95% CI: 0.34–1.23; P = 0.18). The combined results of the five trials revealed that the absorbable group had a significantly lower rate of complications compared to the titanium group (RR = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.52–0.97; P = 0.03) in fracture fixation.
This meta-analysis shows that absorbable fixation systems used for fixation in maxillofacial surgery do not have adequate safety profiles. Subgroup indicated the safety of absorbable fixation systems was superior during fracture fixation. The absorbable fixation systems tend to have a similar favorable safety profile as titanium fixation during Le Fort I, bimaxillary operation and BSSRO.
the bone marrow and the intestine are the major sites of ionizing radiation (IR)-induced injury. Our previous study demonstrated that CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) treatment mitigated IR-induced bone marrow injury, but its effect on the intestine is not known. In this study, we sought to determine if CpG-ODN have protective effect on IR-induced intestine injury, and if so, to determine the mechanism of its effect.
Methods and Findings
Mice were treated with CpG-ODN after IR. The body weight and survival were daily monitored for 30 days consecutively after exposure. The number of surviving intestinal crypt was assessed by the microcolony survival assay. The number and the distribution of proliferating cell in crypt were evaluated by TUNEL assay and BrdU assay. The expression of Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3 in crypt were analyzed by Immunohistochemistry assay. The findings showed that the treatment for irradiated mice with CpG-ODN diminished body weight loss, improved 30 days survival, enhanced intestinal crypts survival and maintained proliferating cell population and regeneration in crypt. The reason might involve that CpG-ODN up-regulated the expression of Bcl-2 protein and down-regulated the expression of Bax protein and caspase-3 protein.
CpG-ODN was effective in protection of IR-induced intestine injury by enhancing intestinal crypts survival and maintaining proliferating cell population and regeneration in crypt. The mechanism might be that CpG-ODN inhibits proliferating cell apoptosis through regulating the expression of apoptosis-related protein, such as Bax, Bcl-2 and caspase-3.
Summary: The Network Ontology Analysis (NOA) plugin for Cytoscape implements the NOA algorithm for network-based enrichment analysis, which extends Gene Ontology annotations to network links, or edges. The plugin facilitates the annotation and analysis of one or more networks in Cytoscape according to user-defined parameters. In addition to tables, the NOA plugin also presents results in the form of heatmaps and overview networks in Cytoscape, which can be exported for publication figures.
Availability: The NOA plugin is an open source, Java program for Cytoscape version 2.8 available via the Cytoscape App Store (http://apps.cytoscape.org/apps/noa) and plugin manager. A detailed user manual is available at http://nrnb.org/tools/noa.
Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
Rice white tip nematode, Aphelenchoides besseyi, is a kind of plant parasitic nematodes that cause serious losses in rice and many other crops. Fatty acid and retinoid binding protein (FAR) is a specific protein in nematodes and is related to development, reproduction, infection to the host, and disruption of plant defense reactions, so the inhibition of FAR function is the potential approach to control A. besseyi. The full-length of Ab-far-1 cDNA is 805 bp, including 546 bp of ORF that encodes 181 amino acids. Software analysis revealed that the Ab-FAR-1 was rich in α-helix structure, contained a predicted consensus casein kinase II phosphorylation site and a hydrophobic secretory signal peptide, but did not have glycosylation sites. The Ab-FAR-1 had 52% homology to Gp-FAR-1 protein. The Ab-FAR-1 and Gp-FAR-1 were grouped in the same branch according to the phylogenetic tree. Fluorescence-based ligand binding analysis confirmed that the recombinant Ab-FAR-1 (rAb-FAR-1) bound with the fluorescent analogues 11-((5-dimethylaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonyl) amino) undecannoic acid (DAUDA), cis-parinaric acid and retinol, but the oleic acid would compete with the binding site. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used to assess the expression level of Ab-far-1 at different development stages of A. besseyi, the highest expression was found in the females, followed by eggs, juveniles and males. Using in situ hybridization technique, Ab-far-1 mRNA was present in the hypodermis of juveniles and adults, the ovaries of females and the testes of males. When A. besseyi was treated with Ab-far-1 dsRNA for 48 h, the silencing efficiency of Ab-far-1 was the best and the number of nematodes on the carrot was the least. Thus FAR plays important roles in the development and reproduction of nematodes. This study is useful and helpful to figure out a new way to control the plant parasitic nematodes.
Protein kinases play important roles in tumor development and progression. Lots of kinase inhibitors have entered into market and show promising clinical benefits. Here we report the discovery of a novel small molecule, well-tolerated, orally active kinase inhibitor, R1498, majorly targeting both angiogenic and mitotic pathways for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and gastric cancer (GC). A series of biochemical and cell-based assays indicated that the target kinase cluster of R1498 included Aurora kinases and VEGFR2 et al. R1498 showed moderate in vitro growth inhibition on a panel of tumor cells with IC50 of micromole range. The in vivo anti-tumor efficacy of R1498 was evaluated on a panel of GC and HCC xenografts in a parallel comparison with another multikinase inhibitor sorafenib. R1498 demonstrated superior efficacy and toxicity profile over sorafenib in all test models with >80% tumor growth inhibition and tumor regression in some xenogratfts. The therapeutic potential of R1498 was also highlighted by its efficacy on three human GC primary tumor derived xenograft models with 10–30% tumor regression rate. R1498 was shown to actively inhibit the Aurora A activity in vivo, and decrease the vascularization in tumors. Furthermore, R1498 presented good in vivo exposure and therapeutic window in the pharmacokinetic and dose range finding studies. Theses evidences indicate that R1498 is a potent, well-tolerated, orally active multitarget kinase inhibitor with a unique antiangiogenic and antiproliferative profile, and provide strong confidence for further development for HCC and GC therapy.
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activates a set of signaling pathways, collectively termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). The three UPR branches (IRE1, PERK, and ATF6) promote cell survival by reducing misfolded protein levels. UPR signaling also promotes apoptotic cell death if ER stress is not alleviated. How the UPR integrates its cytoprotective and proapoptotic outputs to select between life or death cell fates is unknown. We found that IRE1 and ATF6 activities were attenuated by persistent ER stress in human cells. By contrast, PERK signaling, including translational inhibition and proapoptotic transcription regulator Chop induction, was maintained. When IRE1 activity was sustained artificially, cell survival was enhanced, suggesting a causal link between the duration of UPR branch signaling and life or death cell fate after ER stress. Key findings from our studies in cell culture were recapitulated in photoreceptors expressing mutant rhodopsin in animal models of retinitis pigmentosa.
EphB receptor tyrosine kinases control multiple steps in nervous system development. However, it remains unclear whether EphBs regulate these different developmental processes directly or indirectly. In addition, as EphBs signal through multiple mechanisms, it has been challenging to define which signaling functions of EphBs regulate particular developmental events. To address these issues, we engineered triple knockin mice in which the kinase activity of three neuronally expressed EphBs can be rapidly, reversibly, and specifically blocked. Using these mice we demonstrate that the tyrosine kinase activity of EphBs is required for axon guidance in vivo. By contrast, EphB-mediated synaptogenesis occurs normally when the kinase activity of EphBs is inhibited suggesting that EphBs mediate synapse development by an EphB tyrosine kinase-independent mechanism. Taken together, these experiments reveal that EphBs control axon guidance and synaptogenesis by distinct mechanisms, and provide a new mouse model for dissecting EphB function in development and disease.
G-quadruplexes, four-stranded structures formed by Guanine-rich nucleic acids, are implicated in many physiological and pathological processes. G-quadruplex-forming sequences are abundant in genomic DNA, and G-quadruplexes have recently been shown to exist in the genome of mammalian cells. However, how G-quadruplexes are formed in the genomes remains largely unclear. Here, we show that G-quadruplex formation can be remotely induced by downstream transcription events that are thousands of base pairs away. The induced G-quadruplexes alter protein recognition and cause transcription termination at the local region. These results suggest that a G-quadruplex-forming sequence can serve as a sensor or receiver to sense remote DNA tracking activity in response to the propagation of mechanical torsion in a DNA double helix. We propose that the G-quadruplex formation may provide a mean for long-range sensing and communication between distal genomic locations to coordinate regulatory transactions in genomic DNA.
This study aimed to examine the expression of immune suppression factors and the mechanisms of antitumor effects of cord blood dendritic cells (DCs) stimulated by soluble cluster of differentiation 40 ligand (sCD40L) and cytokines in vitro in ovarian cancer patients.
The expression levels of interleukin (IL)-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β messenger RNA in peripheral blood were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction; expression levels of CD80 and CD86 in DCs stimulated by sCD40L were detected using flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy.
Expression levels of IL-10 and TGF-β genes in the peripheral blood of ovarian cancer patients were significantly increased compared with patients with benign ovarian tumors (P < 0.05). The expression levels of CD80 and CD86 in DCs cultured in the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor + IL-4 + stem cell factor + Flt-3 ligand + sCD40L group were significantly increased compared with those in the control group, as assessed by flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy (P < 0.05).
A variety of cytokines in combination with sCD40L can promote the proliferation of cord blood-derived DCs and induce their maturation as well as stimulating a specific antitumor response.
antitumor response; cytokine; immunotherapy; cord blood; IL-10; TGF-β
A widespread grass carp hemorrhagic disease (GCHD) caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) has been known in China since 1983. A virulent reovirus strain, HZ08, was isolated from diseased grass carp in Zhejiang Province, China. We sequenced and analyzed the complete genome of strain HZ08 and compared it with published GCRV genome sequences, contributing to the evidence of several genotypes of GCRV in China.
Carotid body tumors (CBT) are rare chemical receptor tumors. We report nine cases of CBT who were diagnosed at our center during 2004 to 2008 with a literature review. Of these nine patients, eight underwent complete resection, one received palliative resection due to the malignant nature of the tumor, and the other one refused surgery. No perioperative mortality and stroke occurred. During a mean follow up of 2.2 years, no deaths related to CBT occurred. Surgical treatment for CBT is relatively safe. The surgeon should be careful to maintain the integrity of carotid artery, and prevent cerebral ischemia and cranial nerve injuries in order to improve outcome.
Carotid body; Surgery; Therapy; Neoplasms
The aim of the present study is to evaluate the protective effect of polysaccharide from the Brown Seaweed Sargassum graminifolium (SGP) on ethylene glycol-induced kidney damage and the mechanism of SGP-mediated protection. Mitochondrial lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial swelling, the activity of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), ATPases and mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes was observed in hyperoxaluric rats. Administration of SGP (25, 100 and 400 mg·kg−1, intragastrically) increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes, SDH and Na+/K+-ATPases, Ca2+-ATPases, Mg2+-ATPases, also decreased mitochondrial lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial swelling. SGP exhibited a protective effect by improving antioxidant enzymes and restoring mitochondrial dysfunction in the kidney of hyperoxaluric rats. It may be used as a promising therapeutic agent to provide superior renal protection.
polysaccharide; mitochondrial damage; hyperoxaluric; urinary stones; reactive oxygen species (ROS)
Background and Purpose
Recently, we invented a computerized endoscopic balloon manometry (CEBM) to measure variceal pressure (VP) in cirrhotic patient. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability and feasibility of this method, and whether this technique provided further information to pharmacological therapy.
Patients and Methods
VP measurements were performed in 83 cirrhotic patients and compared with HVPG as well as endoscopic bleeding risk parameters. Furthermore, VP was assessed before and during propranolol therapy in 30 patients without previous bleeding.
VP measurements were successful in 96% (83/86) of all patients. Of the 83 patients, the VP correlated closely with the HVPG (P<0.001). The presence of red colour signs and the size of varices were strongly associated with VP. Patients with previous bleeding had higher VP than those who had not yet experienced bleeding. In univariate analysis, the level of VP, the size of varices, and red color signs predicted a higher risk of bleeding. The multiple logistic regression model revealed that VP was the major risk factor for bleeding. In 30 patients receiving propranolol, VP significantly decreased from 21.1±3.5 mmHg before therapy to 18.1±3.3 mmHg after 3 months and to 16.3±4.0 mmHg after 6 months. Comparing the mean decrease in VP with that in hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG), the decrease in VP was more obvious than HVPG response to propranolol.
This study showed that CEBM is safe and practical to assess VP in cirrhotic patient. It has the potential to be used as a clinical method to assess the risk of variceal bleeding and the effects of pharmacological therapy.
Effect of vasoactive drugs on esophageal variceal hemodynamics in patients with portal hypertension. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry –TRC-08000252.
Plasticity in growth and reproductive behavior is found in many vertebrate species, but is common in male teleost fish. Typically, “bourgeois” males are considerably larger and defend breeding territories while “parasitic” variants are small and use opportunistic breeding strategies. The P locus mediates this phenotypic variation in Xipophorus and encodes variant alleles of the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R). However, deletion of the MC4R has modest effects on somatic growth and reproduction in mammals, suggesting a fundamental difference in the neuroendocrine function of central melanocortin signaling in teleosts. Here we show in a teleost that the hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin and AgRP neurons are hypophysiotropic, projecting to the pituitary to coordinately regulate multiple pituitary hormones. Indeed, AgRP-mediated suppression of MC4R appears essential for early larval growth. This identifies the mechanism by which the central melanocortin system coordinately regulates growth and reproduction in teleosts, and suggests it is an important anatomical substrate for evolutionary adaptation.