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1.  Type 1 Diabetes-associated IL2RAvariationlowers IL-2 signaling and contributes to diminished CD4+CD25+ regulatory T-cell function 
Numerous reports have demonstrated that CD4+CD25+regulatory T cells (Tregs) from individuals with a range of human autoimmune diseases, including Type 1 diabetes (T1D),are deficient in theirability to control autologous pro-inflammatory responses when compared to non-diseased, control individuals. Treg dysfunction could be a primary, causal event or may result from perturbations in the immune system during disease development.Polymorphisms in genes associated with Treg function, such as IL2RA, confer a higher risk of autoimmune disease. Although this suggests a primary role for defective Tregs in autoimmunity, a link between IL2RA gene polymorphisms and Treg function has not been examined. We addressed this by examining the impact of an IL2RA haplotype associated with T1D on Treg fitness and suppressive function. Studies were conducted using healthy human subjects to avoid any confounding effects of disease. We demonstrated that the presence of an autoimmune disease-associated IL2RA haplotype correlates with diminished interleukin (IL)-2-responsiveness in antigen-experienced CD4+ T cells, as measured by phosphorylation of STAT5a, and is associated with lower levels of FoxP3 expression by Tregs, and a reduction in their ability to suppress proliferation of autologous effector T cells. These data offer a rationale that contributes to the molecular and cellular mechanisms through which polymorphisms in the IL-2RA gene impact upon immune regulation, and consequently upon susceptibility to autoimmune and inflammatory diseases.
doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1100272
PMCID: PMC3378653  PMID: 22461703
2.  Visualization and Biochemical Analyses of the Emerging Mammalian 14-3-3-Phosphoproteome* 
Molecular & Cellular Proteomics : MCP  2011;10(10):M110.005751.
Hundreds of candidate 14-3-3-binding (phospho)proteins have been reported in publications that describe one interaction at a time, as well as high-throughput 14-3-3-affinity and mass spectrometry-based studies. Here, we transcribed these data into a common format, deposited the collated data from low-throughput studies in MINT (http://mint.bio.uniroma2.it/mint), and compared the low- and high-throughput data in VisANT graphs that are easy to analyze and extend. Exploring the graphs prompted questions about technical and biological specificity, which were addressed experimentally, resulting in identification of phosphorylated 14-3-3-binding sites in the mitochondrial import sequence of the iron-sulfur cluster assembly enzyme (ISCU), cytoplasmic domains of the mitochondrial fission factor (MFF), and endoplasmic reticulum-tethered receptor expression-enhancing protein 4 (REEP4), RNA regulator SMAUG2, and cytoskeletal regulatory proteins, namely debrin-like protein (DBNL) and kinesin light chain (KLC) isoforms. Therefore, 14-3-3s undergo physiological interactions with proteins that are destined for diverse subcellular locations. Graphing and validating interactions underpins efforts to use 14-3-3-phosphoproteomics to identify mechanisms and biomarkers for signaling pathways in health and disease.
doi:10.1074/mcp.M110.005751
PMCID: PMC3205853  PMID: 21725060

Results 1-2 (2)