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1.  Characterization of Released Polypeptides During an Interferon-γ-Dependent Antibacterial Response in Airway Epithelial Cells 
When pathogenic bacteria breach the epithelial lining at mucosal surfaces, rapidly available innate immune mechanisms are critical to halt the infection. In the present study, we characterized the production of antibacterial polypeptides released by epithelial cells. IFN-γ, but neither TNF nor IL-1β alone, induced release of antibacterial activity to a cell culture medium, causing a lytic appearance of killed bacteria as revealed by electron microscopy. Addition of the protein streptococcal inhibitor of complement, derived from Streptococcus pyogenes, known for its ability to neutralize antimicrobial polypeptides (AMPs), reduced the antibacterial activity of the medium. Characterization of the antibacterial incubation medium using mass spectrometric approaches and ELISAs, displayed presence of several classical AMPs, antibacterial chemokines, as well as complement factors and proteases that may interfere with bacterial killing. Many were constitutively produced, that is, being released by cells incubated in a medium alone. While a combination of IFN-γ and TNF did not increase bacterial killing, the presence of TNF boosted the amounts and detectable number of AMPs, including antibacterial chemokines. However, the methods applied in the study failed to single out certain AMPs as critical mediators, but rather demonstrate the broad range of molecules involved. Since many AMPs are higly amphiphatic in nature (i.e., cationic and hydrophobic), it is possible that difficulties in optimizing recovery present limitations in the context investigated. The findings demonstrate that epithelial cells have a constitutive production of AMPs and that IFN-γ is an important inducer of an antibacterial response in which is likely to be a critical part of the innate host defense against pathogenic bacteria at mucosal surfaces.
PMCID: PMC3493045  PMID: 22909116
2.  Proteins of novel lactic acid bacteria from Apis mellifera mellifera: an insight into the production of known extra-cellular proteins during microbial stress 
BMC Microbiology  2013;13:235.
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been considered a beneficial bacterial group, found as part of the microbiota of diverse hosts, including humans and various animals. However, the mechanisms of how hosts and LAB interact are still poorly understood. Previous work demonstrates that 13 species of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium from the honey crop in bees function symbiotically with the honeybee. They protect each other, their hosts, and the surrounding environment against severe bee pathogens, bacteria, and yeasts. Therefore, we hypothesized that these LAB under stress, i.e. in their natural niche in the honey crop, are likely to produce bioactive substances with antimicrobial activity.
The genomic analysis of the LAB demonstrated varying genome sizes ranging from 1.5 to 2.2 mega-base pairs (Mbps) which points out a clear difference within the protein gene content, as well as specialized functions in the honeybee microbiota and their adaptation to their host. We demonstrate a clear variation between the secreted proteins of the symbiotic LAB when subjected to microbial stressors. We have identified that 10 of the 13 LAB produced extra-cellular proteins of known or unknown function in which some are arranged in interesting putative operons that may be involved in antimicrobial action, host interaction, or biofilm formation. The most common known extra-cellular proteins secreted were enzymes, DNA chaperones, S-layer proteins, bacteriocins, and lysozymes. A new bacteriocin may have been identified in one of the LAB symbionts while many proteins with unknown functions were produced which must be investigated further.
The 13 LAB symbionts likely play different roles in their natural environment defending their niche and their host and participating in the honeybee’s food production. These roles are partly played through producing extracellular proteins on exposure to microbial stressors widely found in natural occurring flowers. Many of these secreted proteins may have a putative antimicrobial function. In the future, understanding these processes in this complicated environment may lead to novel applications of honey crop LAB proteins.
PMCID: PMC4015849  PMID: 24148670
Lactic acid bacteria; Symbionts; Microbial stress; Proteomics; Honeybee
3.  A Novel Role for Pro-Coagulant Microvesicles in the Early Host Defense against Streptococcus pyogenes 
PLoS Pathogens  2013;9(8):e1003529.
Previous studies have shown that stimulation of whole blood or peripheral blood mononuclear cells with bacterial virulence factors results in the sequestration of pro-coagulant microvesicles (MVs). These particles explore their clotting activity via the extrinsic and intrinsic pathway of coagulation; however, their pathophysiological role in infectious diseases remains enigmatic. Here we describe that the interaction of pro-coagulant MVs with bacteria of the species Streptococcus pyogenes is part of the early immune response to the invading pathogen. As shown by negative staining electron microscopy and clotting assays, pro-coagulant MVs bind in the presence of plasma to the bacterial surface. Fibrinogen was identified as a linker that, through binding to the M1 protein of S. pyogenes, allows the opsonization of the bacteria by MVs. Surface plasmon resonance analysis revealed a strong interaction between pro-coagulant MVs and fibrinogen with a KD value in the nanomolar range. When performing a mass-spectrometry-based strategy to determine the protein quantity, a significant up-regulation of the fibrinogen-binding integrins CD18 and CD11b on pro-coagulant MVs was recorded. Finally we show that plasma clots induced by pro-coagulant MVs are able to prevent bacterial dissemination and possess antimicrobial activity. These findings were confirmed by in vivo experiments, as local treatment with pro-coagulant MVs dampens bacterial spreading to other organs and improved survival in an invasive streptococcal mouse model of infection. Taken together, our data implicate that pro-coagulant MVs play an important role in the early response of the innate immune system in infectious diseases.
Author Summary
The coagulation system is much more than a passive bystander in our defense against exogenous microorganisms. Over the last years there has been a growing body of evidence pointing to an integral part of coagulation in innate immunity and a special focus has been on bacterial entrapment in a fibrin network. However, thus far, pro-coagulant MVs have not been discussed in this context, though it is known that their numbers can dramatically increase in many pathological conditions, including severe infectious diseases. In the present study we see a significant increase of pro-coagulant MVs in an invasive streptococcal mouse model, suggesting that their release is an immune response to the infection. We find that pro-coagulant MVs bind to Streptococcus pyogenes and promote clotting, entrapment, and killing of the bacteria in a fibrin network. As a proof of concept pro-coagulant MVs were applied as local treatment in the streptococcal infection model, and it was demonstrated that this led to a significantly improved survival in mice.
PMCID: PMC3731245  PMID: 23935504
4.  Antibody orientation at bacterial surfaces is related to invasive infection 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  2012;209(13):2367-2381.
Bacterial surface proteins switch the orientation of IgG binding depending on the antibody concentration of their environment.
Several of the most significant bacterial pathogens in humans, including Streptococcus pyogenes, express surface proteins that bind IgG antibodies via their fragment crystallizable (Fc) region, and the dogma is that this protects the bacteria against phagocytic killing in blood. However, analysis of samples from a patient with invasive S. pyogenes infection revealed dramatic differences in the presence and orientation of IgG antibodies at the surface of bacteria from different sites. In the throat, IgG was mostly bound to the bacterial surface via Fc, whereas in the blood IgG was mostly bound via fragment antigen-binding (Fab). In infected and necrotic tissue, the Fc-binding proteins were removed from the bacterial surface. Further investigation showed that efficient bacterial IgGFc-binding occurs only in IgG-poor environments, such as saliva. As a consequence, the bacteria are protected against phagocytic killing, whereas in blood plasma where the concentration of IgG is high, the antibodies preferentially bind via Fab, facilitating opsonization and bacterial killing. IgG-poor environments represent the natural habitat for IgGFc-binding bacteria, and IgGFc-binding proteins may have evolved to execute their function in such environments. The lack of protection in plasma also helps to explain why cases of severe invasive infections with IgGFc-binding bacteria are so rare compared with superficial and uncomplicated infections.
PMCID: PMC3526361  PMID: 23230002
5.  Splicosomal and serine and arginine-rich splicing factors as targets for TGF-β 
Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is a potent regulator of cell growth and differentiation. TGF-β1 has been shown to be a key player in tissue remodeling processes in a number of disease states by inducing expression of extracellular matrix proteins. In this study a quantitative proteomic analysis was undertaken to investigate if TGF-β1 contributes to tissue remodeling by mediating mRNA splicing and production of alternative isoforms of proteins.
Methodology/Principal findings
The expression of proteins involved in mRNA splicing from TGF-β1-stimulated lung fibroblasts was compared to non-stimulated cells by employing isotope coded affinity tag (ICATTM) reagent labeling and tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 1733 proteins were identified and quantified with a relative standard deviation of 11% +/− 8 from enriched nuclear fractions. Seventy-six of these proteins were associated with mRNA splicing, including 22 proteins involved in splice site selection. In addition, TGF-β1 was observed to alter the relative expression of splicing proteins that may be important for alternative splicing of fibronectin. Specifically, TGF-β1 significantly induced expression of SRp20, and reduced the expression of SRp30C, which has been suggested to be a prerequisite for generation of alternatively spliced fibronectin. The induction of SRp20 was further confirmed by western blot and immunofluorescence.
The results show that TGF-β1 induces the expression of proteins involved in mRNA splicing and RNA processing in human lung fibroblasts. This may have an impact on the production of alternative isoforms of matrix proteins and can therefore be an important factor in tissue remodeling and disease progression.
PMCID: PMC3472233  PMID: 22541002
6.  Galectin-8 in IgA Nephritis: Decreased Binding of IgA by Galectin-8 Affinity Chromatography and Associated Increased Binding in Non-IgA Serum Glycoproteins 
Journal of Clinical Immunology  2011;32(2):246-255.
Immunoglobulin A nephritis (IgAN) is the most common primary glomerulonephritis worldwide. It is caused by accumulation of IgA1-containing immune complexes in the kidney resulting in renal failure, which is thought to be due to altered glycosylation of IgA with a decrease of 2–3-sialylated galactosides (NeuAcα2-3Gal).
The purpose of this study was to analyze whether altered glycosylation of IgA would lead to an altered binding to galectin-8, an endogenous lectin with strong affinity for 2–3-sialylated galactosides. Galectins are a family of β-galactoside-binding proteins; by binding various glycoproteins, they play important roles in the regulation of cellular functions in inflammation and immunity. Hence, an altered binding of IgA to galectin-8 could lead to pathologic immune functions, such as glomerulonephritis.
Affinity chromatography of serum glycoproteins on the human sialogalactoside-binding lectin galectin-8N permitted quantitation of bound and unbound fractions, including IgA.
Analysis of ∼100 IgA nephritis sera showed that the galectin-8N unbound fraction of IgA increased compared to ∼100 controls, consistent with the known loss of galactosylation. A subgroup of ∼15% of the IgAN patients had a ratio of galectin-8 bound/unbound IgA <0.09, not found for any of the controls. Unexpectedly, the galectin-8N-binding fraction of serum glycoproteins other than IgA increased in the sera of IgAN patients but not in controls, suggesting a previously unrecognized change in this disease.
This is the first study that relates a galectin, an endogenous lectin family, to IgA nephritis and thus should stimulate new avenues of research into the pathophysiology of the disease.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10875-011-9618-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC3305883  PMID: 22173878
IgA nephropathy; galectin-8; affinity chromatography; NeuAcα2-3Gal
7.  Absolute quantification of microbial proteomes at different states by directed mass spectrometry 
The developed, directed mass spectrometry workflow allows to generate consistent and system-wide quantitative maps of microbial proteomes in a single analysis. Application to the human pathogen L. interrogans revealed mechanistic proteome changes over time involved in pathogenic progression and antibiotic defense, and new insights about the regulation of absolute protein abundances within operons.
The developed, directed proteomic approach allowed consistent detection and absolute quantification of 1680 proteins of the human pathogen L. interrogans in a single LC–MS/MS experiment.The comparison of 25 extensive, consistent and quantitative proteome maps revealed new insights about the proteome changes involved in pathogenic progression and antibiotic defense of L. interrogans, and about the regulation of protein abundances within operons.The generated time-resolved data sets are compatible with pattern analysis algorithms developed for transcriptomics, including hierarchical clustering and functional enrichment analysis of the detected profile clusters.This is the first study that describes the absolute quantitative behavior of any proteome over multiple states and represents the most comprehensive proteome abundance pattern comparison for any organism to date.
Over the last decade, mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics has evolved as the method of choice for system-wide proteome studies and now allows for the characterization of several thousands of proteins in a single sample. Despite these great advances, redundant monitoring of protein levels over large sample numbers in a high-throughput manner remains a challenging task. New directed MS strategies have shown to overcome some of the current limitations, thereby enabling the acquisition of consistent and system-wide data sets of proteomes with low-to-moderate complexity at high throughput.
In this study, we applied this integrated, two-stage MS strategy to investigate global proteome changes in the human pathogen L. interrogans. In the initial discovery phase, 1680 proteins (out of around 3600 gene products) could be identified (Schmidt et al, 2008) and, by focusing precious MS-sequencing time on the most dominant, specific peptides per protein, all proteins could be accurately and consistently monitored over 25 different samples within a few days of instrument time in the following scoring phase (Figure 1). Additionally, the co-analysis of heavy reference peptides enabled us to obtain absolute protein concentration estimates for all identified proteins in each perturbation (Malmström et al, 2009). The detected proteins did not show any biases against functional groups or protein classes, including membrane proteins, and span an abundance range of more than three orders of magnitude, a range that is expected to cover most of the L. interrogans proteome (Malmström et al, 2009).
To elucidate mechanistic proteome changes over time involved in pathogenic progression and antibiotic defense of L. interrogans, we generated time-resolved proteome maps of cells perturbed with serum and three different antibiotics at sublethal concentrations that are currently used to treat Leptospirosis. This yielded an information-rich proteomic data set that describes, for the first time, the absolute quantitative behavior of any proteome over multiple states, and represents the most comprehensive proteome abundance pattern comparison for any organism to date. Using this unique property of the data set, we could quantify protein components of entire pathways across several time points and subject the data sets to cluster analysis, a tool that was previously limited to the transcript level due to incomplete sampling on protein level (Figure 4). Based on these analyses, we could demonstrate that Leptospira cells adjust the cellular abundance of a certain subset of proteins and pathways as a general response to stress while other parts of the proteome respond highly specific. The cells furthermore react to individual treatments by ‘fine tuning' the abundance of certain proteins and pathways in order to cope with the specific cause of stress. Intriguingly, the most specific and significant expression changes were observed for proteins involved in motility, tissue penetration and virulence after serum treatment where we tried to simulate the host environment. While many of the detected protein changes demonstrate good agreement with available transcriptomics data, most proteins showed a poor correlation. This includes potential virulence factors, like Loa22 or OmpL1, with confirmed expression in vivo that were significantly up-regulated on the protein level, but not on the mRNA level, strengthening the importance of proteomic studies. The high resolution and coverage of the proteome data set enabled us to further investigate protein abundance changes of co-regulated genes within operons. This suggests that although most proteins within an operon respond to regulation synchronously, bacterial cells seem to have subtle means to adjust the levels of individual proteins or protein groups outside of the general trend, a phenomena that was recently also observed on the transcript level of other bacteria (Güell et al, 2009).
The method can be implemented with standard high-resolution mass spectrometers and software tools that are readily available in the majority of proteomics laboratories. It is scalable to any proteome of low-to-medium complexity and can be extended to post-translational modifications or peptide-labeling strategies for quantification. We therefore expect the approach outlined here to become a cornerstone for microbial systems biology.
Over the past decade, liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) has evolved into the main proteome discovery technology. Up to several thousand proteins can now be reliably identified from a sample and the relative abundance of the identified proteins can be determined across samples. However, the remeasurement of substantially similar proteomes, for example those generated by perturbation experiments in systems biology, at high reproducibility and throughput remains challenging. Here, we apply a directed MS strategy to detect and quantify sets of pre-determined peptides in tryptic digests of cells of the human pathogen Leptospira interrogans at 25 different states. We show that in a single LC–MS/MS experiment around 5000 peptides, covering 1680 L. interrogans proteins, can be consistently detected and their absolute expression levels estimated, revealing new insights about the proteome changes involved in pathogenic progression and antibiotic defense of L. interrogans. This is the first study that describes the absolute quantitative behavior of any proteome over multiple states, and represents the most comprehensive proteome abundance pattern comparison for any organism to date.
PMCID: PMC3159967  PMID: 21772258
absolute quantification; directed mass spectrometry; Leptospira interrogans; microbiology; proteomics
8.  Perspectives of targeted mass spectrometry for protein biomarker verification 
Current opinion in chemical biology  2009;13(5-6):518-525.
The identification of specific biomarkers will improve the early diagnosis of disease, facilitate the development of targeted therapies, and provide an accurate method to monitor treatment response. A major challenge in the process of verifying biomarker candidates in blood plasma is the complexity and high dynamic range of proteins. This article reviews the current, targeted proteomic strategies that are capable of quantifying biomarker candidates at concentration ranges where biomarkers are expected in plasma (i.e. at the ng/ml level). In addition, a workflow is presented that allows the fast and definitive generation of targeted mass spectrometry-based assays for most biomarker candidate proteins. These assays are stored in publicly accessible databases and have the potential to greatly impact the throughput of biomarker verification studies.
PMCID: PMC2795387  PMID: 19818677
9.  Visual proteomics of the human pathogen Leptospira interrogans 
Nature methods  2009;6(11):817-823.
Systems biology conceptualizes biological systems as dynamic networks of interacting elements, whereby functionally important properties are thought to emerge from the structure of such networks. Due to the ubiquitous role of complexes of interacting proteins in biological systems, their subunit composition and temporal and spatial arrangement within the cell are of particular interest. ‘Visual proteomics’ attempts to localize individual macromolecular complexes inside of intact cells by template matching reference structures into cryo electron tomograms. Here we have combined quantitative mass spectrometry and cryo electron tomography to detect, count and localize specific protein complexes within the cytoplasm of the human pathogen Leptospira interrogans. We describe a novel scoring function for visual proteomics and assess its performance and accuracy under realistic conditions. We discuss current and general limitations of the approach, as well as expected improvements in the future.
PMCID: PMC2862215  PMID: 19838170
10.  Proteome-wide cellular protein concentrations of the human pathogen Leptospira interrogans 
Nature  2009;460(7256):762-765.
Mass spectrometry based methods for relative proteome quantification have broadly impacted life science research. However, important research directions, particularly those involving mathematical modeling and simulation of biological processes, also critically depend on absolutely quantitative data, i.e. knowledge of the concentration of the expressed proteins as a function of cellular state. Until now, absolute protein concentration measurements of a significant fraction of the proteome (73%) have only been derived from genetically altered S. cerevisiae cells 1, a technique that is not directly portable from yeast to other species. In this study we developed and applied a mass spectrometry based strategy to determine the absolute quantity i.e. the average number of protein copies per cell in a cell population, for a significant fraction of the proteome in genetically unperturbed cells. Applying the technology to the human pathogen Leptospira interrogans, a spirochete responsible for Leptospirosis 4, we generated an absolute protein abundance scale for 83% of the mass spectrometry detectable proteome, from cells at different states. Taking advantage of the unique cellular dimensions of L. interrogans, we used cryo electron tomography (cryoET) morphological measurements to verify at the single cell level the average absolute abundance values of selected proteins determined by mass spectrometry on a population of cells. As the strategy is relatively fast and applicable to any cell type we expect that it will become a cornerstone of quantitative biology and systems biology.
PMCID: PMC2723184  PMID: 19606093
11.  Comparative Functional Analysis of the Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster Proteomes 
PLoS Biology  2009;7(3):e1000048.
The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a popular model system in genetics, not least because a majority of human disease genes are conserved in C. elegans. To generate a comprehensive inventory of its expressed proteome, we performed extensive shotgun proteomics and identified more than half of all predicted C. elegans proteins. This allowed us to confirm and extend genome annotations, characterize the role of operons in C. elegans, and semiquantitatively infer abundance levels for thousands of proteins. Furthermore, for the first time to our knowledge, we were able to compare two animal proteomes (C. elegans and Drosophila melanogaster). We found that the abundances of orthologous proteins in metazoans correlate remarkably well, better than protein abundance versus transcript abundance within each organism or transcript abundances across organisms; this suggests that changes in transcript abundance may have been partially offset during evolution by opposing changes in protein abundance.
Author Summary
Proteins are the active players that execute the genetic program of a cell, and their levels and interactions are precisely controlled. Routinely monitoring thousands of proteins is difficult, as they can be present at vastly different abundances, come with various sizes, shapes, and charge, and have a more complex alphabet of twenty “letters,” in contrast to the four letters of the genome itself. Here, we used mass spectrometry to extensively characterize the proteins of a popular model organism, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Together with previous data from the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, this allows us to compare the protein levels of two animals on a global scale. Surprisingly, we find that individual protein abundance is highly conserved between the two species. So, although worms and flies look very different, they need similar amounts of each conserved, orthologous protein. Because many C. elegans and D. melanogaster proteins also have counterparts in humans, our results suggest that similar rules may apply to our own proteins.
A quantitative comparison of two animal proteomes shows a striking correlation of protein abundance levels, a better correlation than transcript levels. Are the latter more variable during evolution?
PMCID: PMC2650730  PMID: 19260763
12.  Advances in proteomic workflows for systems biology 
Current opinion in biotechnology  2007;18(4):378-384.
Summary and recent advances
Mass spectrometry, specifically the analysis of complex peptide mixtures by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (shotgun proteomics) has been at the center of proteomics research for the last decade. To overcome some of the fundamental limitations of the approach, including its limited sensitivity and high degree of redundancy, new proteomics workflows are being developed. Among these, targeting methods in which specific peptides are selectively isolated, identified and quantified are particularly promising. Here we summarize recent incremental advances in shotgun proteomics methods and outline emerging targeted workflows. The development of the target driven approaches with their ability to detect and quantify identical, non-redundant sets of proteins in multiple repeat analyses will be critically important for the application of proteomics to biomarker discovery and validation, and to systems biology research.
PMCID: PMC2048812  PMID: 17698335
13.  2DDB – a bioinformatics solution for analysis of quantitative proteomics data 
BMC Bioinformatics  2006;7:158.
We present 2DDB, a bioinformatics solution for storage, integration and analysis of quantitative proteomics data. As the data complexity and the rate with which it is produced increases in the proteomics field, the need for flexible analysis software increases.
2DDB is based on a core data model describing fundamentals such as experiment description and identified proteins. The extended data models are built on top of the core data model to capture more specific aspects of the data. A number of public databases and bioinformatical tools have been integrated giving the user access to large amounts of relevant data. A statistical and graphical package, R, is used for statistical and graphical analysis. The current implementation handles quantitative data from 2D gel electrophoresis and multidimensional liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry experiments.
The software has successfully been employed in a number of projects ranging from quantitative liquid-chromatography-mass spectrometry based analysis of transforming growth factor-beta stimulated fi-broblasts to 2D gel electrophoresis/mass spectrometry analysis of biopsies from human cervix. The software is available for download at SourceForge.
PMCID: PMC1435938  PMID: 16549013
14.  Functional and phenotypical comparison of myofibroblasts derived from biopsies and bronchoalveolar lavage in mild asthma and scleroderma 
Respiratory Research  2006;7(1):11.
Activated fibroblasts, which have previously been obtained from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), are proposed to be important cells in the fibrotic processes of asthma and scleroderma (SSc). We have studied the motility for BALF derived fibroblasts in patients with SSc that may explain the presence of these cells in the airway lumen. Furthermore, we have compared phenotypic alterations in activated fibroblasts from BALF and bronchial biopsies from patients with mild asthma and SSc that may account for the distinct fibrotic responses.
Fibroblasts were cultured from BALF and bronchial biopsies from patients with mild asthma and SSc. The motility was studied using a cell migration assay. Western Blotting was used to study the expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), ED-A fibronectin, and serine arginine splicing factor 20 (SRp20). The protein expression pattern was analyzed to reveal potential biomarkers using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and sequencing dual matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF). The Mann-Whitney method was used to calculate statistical significance.
Increased migration and levels of ED-A fibronectin were observed in BALF fibroblasts from both groups of patients, supported by increased expression of RhoA, Rac1, and the splicing factor SRp20. However, these observations were exclusively accompanied by increased expression of α-SMA in patients with mild asthma. Compared to BALF fibroblasts in mild asthma, fibroblasts in SSc displayed a differential protein expression pattern of cytoskeletal- and scavenger proteins. These identified proteins facilitate cell migration, oxidative stress, and the excessive deposition of extracellular matrix observed in patients with SSc.
This study demonstrates a possible origin for fibroblasts in the airway lumen in patients with SSc and important differences between fibroblast phenotypes in mild asthma and SSc. The findings may explain the distinct fibrotic processes and highlight the motile BALF fibroblast as a potential target cell in these disorders.
PMCID: PMC1386661  PMID: 16430780
15.  Automated Selected Reaction Monitoring Software for Accurate Label-Free Protein Quantification 
Journal of Proteome Research  2012;11(7):3766-3773.
Selected reaction monitoring (SRM) is a mass spectrometry method with documented ability to quantify proteins accurately and reproducibly using labeled reference peptides. However, the use of labeled reference peptides becomes impractical if large numbers of peptides are targeted and when high flexibility is desired when selecting peptides. We have developed a label-free quantitative SRM workflow that relies on a new automated algorithm, Anubis, for accurate peak detection. Anubis efficiently removes interfering signals from contaminating peptides to estimate the true signal of the targeted peptides. We evaluated the algorithm on a published multisite data set and achieved results in line with manual data analysis. In complex peptide mixtures from whole proteome digests of Streptococcus pyogenes we achieved a technical variability across the entire proteome abundance range of 6.5–19.2%, which was considerably below the total variation across biological samples. Our results show that the label-free SRM workflow with automated data analysis is feasible for large-scale biological studies, opening up new possibilities for quantitative proteomics and systems biology.
PMCID: PMC3426189  PMID: 22658081
targeted proteomics; mass spectrometry; selected reaction monitoring; label-free; software; quantification; Streptococcus pyogenes
16.  Proteome-wide selected reaction monitoring assays for the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes 
Nature Communications  2012;3:1301-.
Selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (SRM-MS) is a targeted proteomics technology used to identify and quantify proteins with high sensitivity, specificity and high reproducibility. Execution of SRM-MS relies on protein-specific SRM assays, a set of experimental parameters that requires considerable effort to develop. Here we present a proteome-wide SRM assay repository for the gram-positive human pathogen group A Streptococcus. Using a multi-layered approach we generated SRM assays for 10,412 distinct group A Streptococcus peptides followed by extensive testing of the selected reaction monitoring assays in >200 different group A Streptococcus protein pools. Based on the number of SRM assay observations we created a rule-based selected reaction monitoring assay-scoring model to select the most suitable assays per protein for a given cellular compartment and bacterial state. The resource described here represents an important tool for deciphering the group A Streptococcus proteome using selected reaction monitoring and we anticipate that concepts described here can be extended to other pathogens.
Selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (SRM-MS) can quantify dynamic changes in protein expression with high sensitivity. Karlsson et al. define optimal detection parameters for 10,412 distinct group A Streptococcus pyogenes peptides, which facilitates proteome-wide SRM-MS studies in this bacterium.
PMCID: PMC3535367  PMID: 23250431

Results 1-16 (16)