Genome-wide association studies have identified Ankyrin-1 (ANK1) as a common type 2 diabetes (T2D) susceptibility locus. However, the underlying causal variants and functional mechanisms remain unknown. We screened for 8 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ANK1 between 2 case-control studies. Genotype analysis revealed significant associations of 3 SNPs, rs508419 (first identified here), rs515071, and rs516946 with T2D (P < 0.001). These SNPs were in linkage disequilibrium (r2 > 0.80); subsequent analysis indicated that the CCC haplotype associated with increased T2D susceptibility (OR 1.447, P < 0.001). Further mapping showed that rs508419 resides in the muscle-specific ANK1 gene promoter. Allele-specific mRNA and protein level measurements confirmed association of the C allele with increased small ANK1 (sAnk1) expression in human skeletal muscle (P = 0.018 and P < 0.001, respectively). Luciferase assays showed increased rs508419-C allele transcriptional activity in murine skeletal muscle C2C12 myoblasts, and electrophoretic mobility-shift assays demonstrated altered rs508419 DNA-protein complex formation. Glucose uptake was decreased with excess sAnk1 expression upon insulin stimulation. Thus, the ANK1 rs508419-C T2D-risk allele alters DNA-protein complex binding leading to increased promoter activity and sAnk1 expression; thus, increased sAnk1 expression in skeletal muscle might contribute to T2D susceptibility.
While many biological studies can be performed on cell-based systems, the investigation of molecular pathways related to complex human dysfunctions – e.g. neurodegenerative diseases – often requires long-term studies in animal models. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans represents one of the best model organisms for many of these tests and, therefore, versatile and automated systems for accurate time-resolved analyses on C. elegans are becoming highly desirable tools in the field.
We describe a new multi-functional platform for C. elegans analytical research, enabling automated worm isolation and culture, reversible worm immobilization and long-term high-resolution imaging, and this under active control of the main culture parameters, including temperature. We employ our platform for in vivo observation of biomolecules and automated analysis of protein aggregation in a C. elegans model for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Our device allows monitoring the growth rate and development of each worm, at single animal resolution, within a matrix of microfluidic chambers. We demonstrate the progression of individual protein aggregates, i.e. mutated human superoxide dismutase 1 - Yellow Fluorescent Protein (SOD1-YFP) fusion proteins in the body wall muscles, for each worm and over several days. Moreover, by combining reversible worm immobilization and on-chip high-resolution imaging, our method allows precisely localizing the expression of biomolecules within the worms’ tissues, as well as monitoring the evolution of single aggregates over consecutive days at the sub-cellular level. We also show the suitability of our system for protein aggregation monitoring in a C. elegans Huntington disease (HD) model, and demonstrate the system’s ability to study long-term doxycycline treatment-linked modification of protein aggregation profiles in the ALS model.
Our microfluidic-based method allows analyzing in vivo the long-term dynamics of protein aggregation phenomena in C. elegans at unprecedented resolution. Pharmacological screenings on neurodegenerative disease C. elegans models may strongly benefit from this method in the near future, because of its full automation and high-throughput potential.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13024-016-0083-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Caenorhabditis elegans; Neurodegenerative disease; Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS); Huntington disease (HD); Doxycycline treatment; Protein aggregation; Longitudinal time-resolved analysis; High-resolution imaging; Worm immobilization; Temperature control; Microfluidics
A missense mutation in the calsequestrin-1 gene (CASQ1) was found in a group of patients with a myopathy characterized by weakness, fatigue and the presence of large vacuoles containing characteristic inclusions resulting from the aggregation of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) proteins. The mutation affects a conserved aspartic acid in position 244 (p.Asp244Gly) located in one of the high-affinity Ca2+ binding sites of CASQ1 and alters the kinetics of Ca2+ release in muscle fibers. Expression of the mutated CASQ1 protein in COS-7 cells showed a markedly reduced ability in forming elongated polymers, while both in cultured myotubes and in in-vivo mouse fibers induced the formation of electron-dense SR vacuoles containing aggregates of the mutant CASQ1 protein that resemble those observed in muscle biopsies of patients. Altogether, these results support the view that a single missense mutation in the CASQ1 gene causes the formation of abnormal SR vacuoles containing aggregates of CASQ1 and other SR proteins, results in altered Ca2+ release in skeletal muscle fibers and, hence, is responsible for the clinical phenotype observed in these patients.
aggregate myopathy; CASQ1; calsequestrin; sarcoplasmic reticulum; skeletal muscle
Anti-apoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family members target several intracellular Ca2+-transport systems. Bcl-2, via its N-terminal Bcl-2 homology (BH) 4 domain, inhibits both inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) and ryanodine receptors (RyRs), while Bcl-XL, likely independently of its BH4 domain, sensitizes IP3Rs. It remains elusive whether Bcl-XL can also target and modulate RyRs. Here, Bcl-XL co-immunoprecipitated with RyR3 expressed in HEK293 cells. Mammalian protein-protein interaction trap (MAPPIT) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) showed that Bcl-XL bound to the central domain of RyR3 via its BH4 domain, although to a lesser extent compared to the BH4 domain of Bcl-2. Consistent with the ability of the BH4 domain of Bcl-XL to bind to RyRs, loading the BH4-Bcl-XL peptide into RyR3-overexpressing HEK293 cells or in rat hippocampal neurons suppressed RyR-mediated Ca2+ release. In silico superposition of the 3D-structures of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL indicated that Lys87 of the BH3 domain of Bcl-XL could be important for interacting with RyRs. In contrast to Bcl-XL, the Bcl-XLK87D mutant displayed lower binding affinity for RyR3 and a reduced inhibition of RyR-mediated Ca2+ release. These data suggest that Bcl-XL binds to RyR channels via its BH4 domain, but also its BH3 domain, more specific Lys87, contributes to the interaction.
We have investigated the subcellular spontaneous Ca2+ events in canine Purkinje cells using laser scanning confocal microscopy. Three types of Ca2+ transient were found: (1) nonpropagating Ca2+ transients that originate directly under the sarcolemma and lead to (2) small Ca2+ wavelets in a region limited to ≈6-μm depth under the sarcolemma causing (3) large Ca2+ waves that travel throughout the cell (CWWs). Immunocytochemical studies revealed 3 layers of Ca2+ channels: (1) channels associated with type 1 IP3 receptors (IP3R1) and type 3 ryanodine receptors (RyR3) are prominent directly under the sarcolemma; (2) type 2 ryanodine receptors (RyR2s) are present throughout the cell but virtually absent in a layer between 2 and 4 μm below the sarcolemma (Sub-SL); (3) type 3 ryanodine receptors (RyR3) is the dominant Ca2+ release channel in the Sub-SL. Simulations of both nonpropagating and propagating transients show that the generators of Ca2+ wavelets differ from those of the CWWs with the threshold of the former being less than that of the latter. Thus, Purkinje cells contain a functional and structural Ca2+ system responsible for the mechanism that translates Ca2+ release occurring directly under the sarcolemma into rapid Ca2+ release in the Sub-SL, which then initiates large-amplitude long lasting Ca2+ releases underlying CWWs. The sequence of spontaneous diastolic Ca2+ transients that starts directly under the sarcolemma and leads to Ca2+ wavelets and CWWs is important because CWWs have been shown to cause nondriven electrical activity.
Purkinje; Ca2+ sparks; Ca2+ waves; Ca transients; automaticity
Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a rare pharmacogenetic disorder which is characterized by life-threatening metabolic crises during general anesthesia. Classical triggering substances are volatile anesthetics and succinylcholine (SCh). The molecular basis of MH is excessive release of Ca2+ in skeletal muscle principally by a mutated ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1). To identify factors explaining the variable phenotypic presentation and complex pathomechanism, we analyzed proven MH events in terms of clinical course, muscle contracture, genetic factors and pharmocological triggers.
In a multi-centre study including seven European MH units, patients with a history of a clinical MH episode confirmed by susceptible (MHS) or equivocal (MHE) in vitro contracture tests (IVCT) were investigated. A test result is considered to be MHE if the muscle specimens develop pathological contractures in response to only one of the two test substances, halothane or caffeine. Crises were evaluated using a clinical grading scale (CGS), results of IVCT and genetic screening. The effects of SCh and volatile anesthetics on Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) were studied in vitro.
A total of 200 patients met the inclusion criteria. Two MH crises (1%) were triggered by SCh (1 MHS, 1 MHE), 18% by volatile anesthetics and 81% by a combination of both. Patients were 70% male and 50% were younger than 12 years old. Overall, CGS was in accord with IVCT results. Crises triggered by enflurane had a significantly higher CGS compared to halothane, isoflurane and sevoflurane. Of the 200 patients, 103 carried RyR1 variants, of which 14 were novel. CGS varied depending on the location of the mutation within the RyR1 gene. In contrast to volatile anesthetics, SCh did not evoke Ca2+ release from isolated rat SR vesicles.
An MH event could depend on patient-related risk factors such as male gender, young age and causative RyR1 mutations as well as on the use of drugs lowering the threshold of myoplasmic Ca2+ release. SCh might act as an accelerant by promoting unspecific Ca2+ influx via the sarcolemma and indirect RyR1 activation. Most MH crises develop in response to the combined administration of SCh and volatile anesthetics.
Malignant hyperthermia; Succinylcholine; Suxamethonium; Volatile anesthetics; RyR1 mutations; In vitro contracture test
Obscurin contributes to the organization of subsarcolemma microtubules, localization of dystrophin at costameres, and maintenance of sarcolemmal integrity in skeletal muscle fibers.
Obscurin is a large myofibrillar protein that contains several interacting modules, one of which mediates binding to muscle-specific ankyrins. Interaction between obscurin and the muscle-specific ankyrin sAnk1.5 regulates the organization of the sarcoplasmic reticulum in striated muscles. Additional muscle-specific ankyrin isoforms, ankB and ankG, are localized at the subsarcolemma level, at which they contribute to the organization of dystrophin and β-dystroglycan at costameres. In this paper, we report that in mice deficient for obscurin, ankB was displaced from its localization at the M band, whereas localization of ankG at the Z disk was not affected. In obscurin KO mice, localization at costameres of dystrophin, but not of β-dystroglycan, was altered, and the subsarcolemma microtubule cytoskeleton was disrupted. In addition, these mutant mice displayed marked sarcolemmal fragility and reduced muscle exercise tolerance. Altogether, the results support a model in which obscurin, by targeting ankB at the M band, contributes to the organization of subsarcolemma microtubules, localization of dystrophin at costameres, and maintenance of sarcolemmal integrity.
Despite the high number of genes identified in hereditary polyneuropathies/Charcot–Marie–Tooth (CMT) disease, the genetic defect in many families is still unknown. Here we report the identification of a new gene for autosomal dominant axonal neuropathy in a large three-generation family. Linkage analysis identified a 5 Mb region on 9q33–34 with a LOD score of 5.12. Sequence capture and next-generation sequencing of the region of interest identified five previously unreported non-synonymous heterozygous single nucleotide changes or indels, four of which were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Two sequence variants co-segregated with the disease, and one, a 2 bp insertion in the last exon of LRSAM1, was also absent in 676 ethnicity-matched control chromosomes. This frameshift mutation (p.Leu708Argfx28) is located in the C-terminal RING finger motif of the encoded protein. Ubiquitin ligase activity in transfected cells with constructs carrying the patient mutation was affected as measured by a higher level of abundance of TSG101, the only reported target of LRSAM1. Injections of morpholino oligonucleotides in zebrafish embryos directed against the ATG or last splice site of zebrafish Lrsam1 disturbed neurodevelopment, showing a less organized neural structure and, in addition, affected tail formation and movement. LRSAM1 is highly expressed in adult spinal cord motoneurons as well as in fetal spinal cord and muscle tissue. Recently, a homozygous mutation in LRSAM1 was proposed as a strong candidate for the disease in a family with recessive axonal polyneuropathy. Our data strongly support the hypothesis that LRSAM1 mutations can cause both dominant and recessive forms of CMT.
Short-lived, localized Ca2+ events mediate Ca2+ signaling with high efficiency and great fidelity largely as a result of the close proximity between Ca2+-permeable ion channels and their molecular targets. However, in most cases, direct evidence of the spatial relationship between these two types of molecules is lacking, and, thus, mechanistic understanding of local Ca2+ signaling is incomplete. In this study, we use an integrated approach to tackling this issue on a prototypical local Ca2+ signaling system composed of Ca2+ sparks resulting from the opening of ryanodine receptors (RYRs) and spontaneous transient outward currents (STOCs) caused by the opening of Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channels in airway smooth muscle. Biophysical analyses of STOCs and Ca2+ sparks acquired at 333 Hz demonstrate that these two events are associated closely in time, and approximately eight RYRs open to give rise to a Ca2+ spark, which activates ∼15 BK channels to generate a STOC at 0 mV. Dual immunocytochemistry and 3-D deconvolution at high spatial resolution reveal that both RYRs and BK channels form clusters and RYR1 and RYR2 (but not RYR3) localize near the membrane. Using the spatial relationship between RYRs and BK channels, the spatial-temporal profile of [Ca2+] resulting from Ca2+ sparks, and the kinetic model of BK channels, we estimate that an average Ca2+ spark caused by the opening of a cluster of RYR1 or RYR2 acts on BK channels from two to three clusters that are randomly distributed within an ∼600-nm radius of RYRs. With this spatial organization of RYRs and BK channels, we are able to model BK channel currents with the same salient features as those observed in STOCs across a range of physiological membrane potentials. Thus, this study provides a mechanistic understanding of the activation of STOCs by Ca2+ sparks using explicit knowledge of the spatial relationship between RYRs (the Ca2+ source) and BK channels (the Ca2+ target).
We have previously identified the E3 ubiquitin ligase-inducible degrader of the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) (Idol) as a post-translational modulator of LDLR levels. Idol is a direct target for regulation by liver X receptors (LXRs), and its expression is responsive to cellular sterol status independent of the sterol-response element-binding proteins. Here we demonstrate that Idol also targets two closely related LDLR family members, VLDLR and ApoE receptor 2 (ApoER2), proteins implicated in both neuronal development and lipid metabolism. Idol triggers ubiquitination of the VLDLR and ApoER2 on their cytoplasmic tails, leading to their degradation. We further show that the level of endogenous VLDLR is sensitive to cellular sterol content, Idol expression, and activation of the LXR pathway. Pharmacological activation of the LXR pathway in mice leads to increased Idol expression and to decreased Vldlr levels in vivo. Finally, we establish an unexpected functional link between LXR and Reelin signaling. We demonstrate that LXR activation results in decreased Reelin binding to VLDLR and reduced Dab1 phosphorylation. The identification of VLDLR and ApoER2 as Idol targets suggests potential roles for this LXR-inducible E3 ligase in the central nervous system in addition to lipid metabolism.
Cholesterol Metabolism; Lipoprotein Receptor; Metabolism; Nuclear Receptors; Ubiquitin Ligase; LXR
A novel single‐nucleotide deletion in exon 100 of the RYR1 gene, corresponding to deletion of nucleotide 14 510 in the human RyR1 mRNA (c14510delA), was identified in a man with malignant hyperthermia and in his two daughters who were normal for malignant hyperthermia. This deletion results in a RyR1 protein lacking the last 202 amino acid residues. All three subjects heterozygotic for the mutated allele presented with a prevalence of type 1 fibres with central cores, although none experienced clinical signs of myopathy. Expression of the truncated protein resulted in non‐functional RYR1 calcium release channels. Expression of wild‐type and RyR1R4836fsX4838 proteins resulted in heterozygotic release channels with overall functional properties similar to those of wild‐type RyR1 channels. Nevertheless, small differences in sensitivity to calcium and caffeine were observed in heterotetrameric channels, which also presented an altered assembly/stability in sucrose‐gradient centrifugation analysis. Altogether, these data suggest that altered RYR1 tetramer assembly/stability coupled with subtle chronic changes in Ca2+ homoeostasis over the long term may contribute to the development of core lesions and incomplete malignant hyperthermia susceptibility penetrance in individuals carrying this novel RYR1 mutation.
The Gene Ontology Project provides structured controlled vocabularies for molecular biology that can be used for the functional annotation of genes and gene products. In a collaboration between the Gene Ontology (GO) Consortium and the muscle biology community, we have made large-scale additions to the GO biological process and cellular component ontologies. The main focus of this ontology development work concerns skeletal muscle, with specific consideration given to the processes of muscle contraction, plasticity, development, and regeneration, and to the sarcomere and membrane-delimited compartments. Our aims were to update the existing structure to reflect current knowledge, and to resolve, in an accommodating manner, the ambiguity in the language used by the community.
The updated muscle terminologies have been incorporated into the GO. There are now 159 new terms covering critical research areas, and 57 existing terms have been improved and reorganized to follow their usage in muscle literature.
The revised GO structure should improve the interpretation of data from high-throughput (e.g. microarray and proteomic) experiments in the area of muscle science and muscle disease. We actively encourage community feedback on, and gene product annotation with these new terms. Please visit the Muscle Community Annotation Wiki .
In this study we examined the expression of RyR subtypes and the role of RyRs in neurotransmitter- and hypoxia-induced Ca2+ release and contraction in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). Under perforated patch clamp conditions, maximal activation of RyRs with caffeine or inositol triphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) with noradrenaline induced equivalent increases in [Ca2+]i and Ca2+-activated Cl− currents in freshly isolated rat PASMCs. Following maximal IP3-induced Ca2+ release, neither caffeine nor chloro-m-cresol induced a response, whereas prior application of caffeine or chloro-m-cresol blocked IP3-induced Ca2+ release. In cultured human PASMCs, which lack functional expression of RyRs, caffeine failed to affect ATP-induced increases in [Ca2+]i in the presence and absence of extracellular Ca2+. The RyR antagonists ruthenium red, ryanodine, tetracaine, and dantrolene greatly inhibited submaximal noradrenaline– and hypoxia-induced Ca2+ release and contraction in freshly isolated rat PASMCs, but did not affect ATP-induced Ca2+ release in cultured human PASMCs. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR and immunofluorescence staining indicated similar expression of all three RyR subtypes (RyR1, RyR2, and RyR3) in freshly isolated rat PASMCs. In freshly isolated PASMCs from RyR3 knockout (RyR3−/−) mice, hypoxia-induced, but not submaximal noradrenaline–induced, Ca2+ release and contraction were significantly reduced. Ruthenium red and tetracaine can further inhibit hypoxic increase in [Ca2+]i in RyR3−/− mouse PASMCs. Collectively, our data suggest that (a) RyRs play an important role in submaximal noradrenaline– and hypoxia-induced Ca2+ release and contraction; (b) all three subtype RyRs are expressed; and (c) RyR3 gene knockout significantly inhibits hypoxia-, but not submaximal noradrenaline–induced Ca2+ and contractile responses in PASMCs.
ryanodine receptor; inositol triphosphate receptor; hypoxia; neurotransmitter; pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell
Calcium release through ryanodine receptors (RYR) activates calcium-dependent membrane conductances and plays an important role in excitation-contraction coupling in smooth muscle. The specific RYR isoforms associated with this release in smooth muscle, and the role of RYR-associated proteins such as FK506 binding proteins (FKBPs), has not been clearly established, however. FKBP12.6 proteins interact with RYR2 Ca2+ release channels and the absence of these proteins predictably alters the amplitude and kinetics of RYR2 unitary Ca2+ release events (Ca2+ sparks). To evaluate the role of specific RYR2 and FBKP12.6 proteins in Ca2+ release processes in smooth muscle, we compared spontaneous transient outward currents (STOCs), Ca2+ sparks, Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release, and Ca2+ waves in smooth muscle cells freshly isolated from wild-type, FKBP12.6−/−, and RYR3−/− mouse bladders. Consistent with a role of FKBP12.6 and RYR2 proteins in spontaneous Ca2+ sparks, we show that the frequency, amplitude, and kinetics of spontaneous, transient outward currents (STOCs) and spontaneous Ca2+ sparks are altered in FKBP12.6 deficient myocytes relative to wild-type and RYR3 null cells, which were not significantly different from each other. Ca2+ -induced Ca2+ release was similarly augmented in FKBP12.6−/−, but not in RYR3 null cells relative to wild-type. Finally, Ca2+ wave speed evoked by CICR was not different in RYR3 cells relative to control, indicating that these proteins are not necessary for normal Ca2+ wave propagation. The effect of FKBP12.6 deletion on the frequency, amplitude, and kinetics of spontaneous and evoked Ca2+ sparks in smooth muscle, and the finding of normal Ca2+ sparks and CICR in RYR3 null mice, indicate that Ca2+ release through RYR2 molecules contributes to the formation of spontaneous and evoked Ca2+ sparks, and associated STOCs, in smooth muscle.
Ca2+ -induced Ca2+ release; ryanodine receptor; FKBP12.6; RYR3; knockout mouse
Assembly of specialized membrane domains, both of the plasma membrane and of the ER, is necessary for the physiological activity of striated muscle cells. The mechanisms that mediate the structural organization of the sarcoplasmic reticulum with respect to the myofibrils are, however, not known. We report here that ank1.5, a small splice variant of the ank1 gene localized on the sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane, is capable of interacting with a sequence of 25 aa located at the COOH terminus of obscurin. Obscurin is a giant sarcomeric protein of ∼800 kD that binds to titin and has been proposed to mediate interactions between myofibrils and other cellular structures. The binding sites and the critical aa required in the interaction between ank1.5 and obscurin were characterized using the yeast two-hybrid system, in in vitro pull-down assays and in experiments in heterologous cells. In differentiated skeletal muscle cells, a transfected myc-tagged ank1.5 was found to be selectively restricted near the M line region where it colocalized with endogenous obscurin. The M line localization of ank1.5 required a functional obscurin-binding site, because mutations of this domain resulted in a diffused distribution of the mutant ank1.5 protein in skeletal muscle cells. The interaction between ank1.5 and obscurin represents the first direct evidence of two proteins that may provide a direct link between the sarcoplasmic reticulum and myofibrils.
In keeping with the proposed role of obscurin in mediating an interaction with ankyrins and sarcoplasmic reticulum, we have also found that a sequence with homology to the obscurin-binding site of ank1.5 is present in the ank2.2 isoform, which in striated muscles has been also shown to associate with the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Accordingly, a peptide containing the COOH terminus of ank2.2 fused with GST was found to bind to obscurin. Based on reported evidence showing that the COOH terminus of ank2.2 is necessary for the localization of ryanodine receptors and InsP3 receptors in the sarcoplasmic reticulum, we propose that obscurin, through multiple interactions with ank1.5 and ank2.2 isoforms, may assemble a large protein complex that, in addition to a structural function, may play a role in the organization of specific subdomains in the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
sarcoplasmic reticulum; calcium release; ryanodine receptors; InsP3 receptors; endoplasmic reticulum
The type 3 ryanodine receptor (RyR3) is a ubiquitous calcium release channel that has recently been found in mammalian skeletal muscles. However, in contrast to the skeletal muscle isoform (RyR1), neither the subcellular distribution nor the physiological role of RyR3 are known. Here, we used isoform-specific antibodies to localize RyR3 in muscles of normal and RyR knockout mice. In normal hind limb and diaphragm muscles of young mice, RyR3 was expressed in all fibers where it was codistributed with RyR1 and with the skeletal muscle dihydropyridine receptor. This distribution pattern indicates that RyR3 is localized in the triadic junctions between the transverse tubules and the sarcoplasmic reticulum. During development, RyR3 expression declined rapidly in some fibers whereas other fibers maintained expression of RyR3 into adulthood. Comparing the distribution of RyR3-containing fibers with that of known fiber types did not show a direct correlation. Targeted deletion of the RyR1 or RyR3 gene resulted in the expected loss of the targeted isoform, but had no adverse effects on the expression and localization of the respective other RyR isoform. The localization of RyR3 in skeletal muscle triads, together with RyR1, is consistent with an accessory function of RyR3 in skeletal muscle excitation–contraction coupling.
skeletal muscle; calcium release channel; excitation–contraction coupling; immunofluorescence; knockout mice