Cellular production of such cytokines as interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α is used to determine disease-specific immune responses and may be used to diagnose infectious diseases such as tuberculosis. In this paper, we describe the development of micropatterned electrodes functionalized with electroactive aptamers for multiplexed detection of immune-cell-produced cytokines. A sequence of electrode deprotection and aptamer incubation steps were used to assemble anti–IFN–γ DNA aptamers and anti-TNF-α RNA aptamers on individually addressable half-ring electrodes. Aptamer molecules were thiolated for assembly on gold and were functionalized with methylene blue redox reporter for electrochemical signal transduction. Specificity of individual sensors to the correct cytokine species was confirmed by exposure to recombinant cytokines. For cell detection experiments, electrode arrays were integrated into microfluidic devices and incubated with immune cells. Design of the surface was such that a small group of ~400 cells attached in the circular adhesion sites surrounded by half-ring electrodes sensing IFN-γ and TNF-α. The microdevice consisted of two parallel microfluidic channels, each channel containing four cell capture/sensing sites. Upon mitogenic activation, secreted IFN-γ and TNF-α molecules were monitored by performing square wave voltammetry (SWV) at different time points at individually addressable electrodes. This biosensing platform was used to analyze the quantity and rate of cytokine release from primary T cells and a monocyte cell line. Upon further development of this platform may be enhanced to enable detection of larger number of cytokines and used to correlate the levels and dynamics of cytokine release in immune cells to diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases.
Cytokine biosensors; Aptasensors; Blood analysis; Surface modification; Micropatterning
Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL; gene designation lukF/S-PV) is likely an important virulence factor for Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), as qualitative expression of the protein correlates with severity for specific clinical presentations, including skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). Development of genetic approaches for risk-assessment of patients with S. aureus infections may prove clinically useful, and whether lukF/S-PV gene expression correlates with specific clinical presentations for S. aureus has been largely unexplored. In the present study, we quantified lukS-PV mRNA among 96 S. aureus isolates to determine whether expression levels correlated with specific clinical presentations in adults and children. Expression level of lukS-PV mRNA among isolates from skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) was significantly greater than among isolates from blood stream infection (BSIs), and expression level of lukS-PV mRNA among BSI isolates from children was significantly greater than for BSI isolates among adults. Moreover, expression level of lukS-PV mRNA among community-acquired (CA) isolates was significantly greater than for hospital-acquired (HA) isolates. These data justify additional studies to determine the potential clinical utility for lukS-PV mRNA quantification as a predictive tool for severity of S. aureus infection.
Mipu1 (myocardial ischemic preconditioning up-regulated protein 1), recently identified in our lab, is a novel zinc-finger transcription factor which is up-regulated during ischemic preconditioning. However, it is not clear what transcription factor contributes to its inducible expression. In the present study, we reported that HIF-1 regulates the inducible expression of Mipu1 which is involved in the cytoprotection of HIF-1α against oxidative stress by inhibiting Bax expression. Our results showed that the inducible expression of Mipu1 was associated with the expression and activation of transcription factor HIF-1 as indicated by cobalt chloride (CoCl2) treatment, HIF-1α overexpression and knockdown assays. EMSA and luciferase reporter gene assays showed that HIF-1α bound to the hypoxia response element (HRE) within Mipu1 promoter region and promoted its transcription. Moreover, our results revealed that Mipu1 inhibited the expression of Bax, an important pro-apoptosis protein associated with the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis, elevating the cytoprotection of HIF-1 against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-mediated injury in H9C2 cells. Our findings implied that Bax may be a potential target gene of transcription factor Mipu1, and provided a novel insight for understanding the cytoprotection of HIF-1 and new clues for further elucidating the mechanisms by which Mipu1 protects cell against pathological stress.
There is uncertainty about sex differences in exercise-induced muscle pain and muscle damage due to several methodological weaknesses in the literature. This investigation tested the hypothesis that higher levels of exercise-induced muscle pain and muscle damage indicators would be found in women than men when several methodological improvements were executed in the same study. Participants (N = 33; 42% women) with an average age of 23 years (SD = 2.82) consented to participate. After a familiarization session, participants visited the laboratory before and across four days after eccentric exercise was completed to induce arm muscle pain and muscle damage. Our primary outcomes were arm pain ratings and pressure pain thresholds. However, we also measured the following indicators of muscle damage: arm girth; resting elbow extension; isometric elbow flexor strength; myoglobin (Mb); tumor necrosis factor (TNFa); interleukin 1beta (IL1b); and total nitric oxide (NO). Temporary induction of muscle damage was indicated by changes in all outcome measures except TNFa, and IL1b. In contrast to our hypotheses, women reported moderately lower and less frequent muscle pain than men. Also, women’s arm girth and Mb levels increased moderately less than men’s, but the differences were not significant. Few large sex differences were detected.
delayed-onset muscle soreness; stretch injury
Alpha-2-adrenergic receptor (ADRA2A) is involved in the sympathetic nervous system and plays a role in the regulation of insulin secretion and lipolysis. Recent studies have indicated that the ADRA2A polymorphisms are associated with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in Caucasians and African Americans. The present study aimed to evaluate the association between the ADRA2A polymorphisms and T2DM in a Chinese Han population. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs521674 and rs553668 in the ADRA2A gene were genotyped in 2094 Chinese subjects (1042 T2DM patients and 1052 nondiabetic controls) by using the TaqMan allelic discrimination technique. A single-locus analysis indicated that SNP rs553668 was associated with T2DM (p=0.04). Further analysis indicated that the association of SNP rs553668 was found in T2DM patients with body mass index (BMI)<25 kg/m2 (p=0.03), but not in the patients with BMI≥25 kg/m2 (p=0.56). This association was still significant in a recessive model (p=0.01, odds ratio=0.68, 95% confidence interval=0.51–0.92). In conclusion, the present study provides evidence that the ADRA2A polymorphism, rs553668, is associated with lean T2DM patients in a Chinese Han population. Further investigation to explore the role of ADRA2A in the regulation of body weight has been taken into our consideration.
To aid in understanding longterm health consequences of intrauterine infections in preterm birth, we evaluated DNA methylation at nine differentially methylated regions (DMRs) that regulate imprinted genes by type of preterm birth [spontaneous preterm labor (PTL), preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) or medically indicated (fetal growth restriction and pre-eclampsia)] and infection status (chorioamnionitis or funisitis).
Data on type of preterm birth and infection status were abstracted from medical records and standardized pathology reports in 73 preterm infants enrolled in the Newborn Epigenetics STudy (NEST), a prospective cohort study of mother-infant dyads in Durham, NC. Cord blood was collected at birth, and infant DNA methylation levels at the H19, IGF2, MEG3, MEST, SGCE/PEG10, PEG3, NNAT, and PLAGL1 DMRs were measured using bisulfite pyrosequencing. One-way ANOVA and logistic regression models were used to compare DNA methylation levels by type of preterm birth and infection status.
DNA methylation levels did not differ at any of the regions (p>0.20) between infants born via PTL (average n=29), PPROM (average n=17), or medically indicated preterm birth (average n=40). Levels were significantly increased at PLAGL1 in infants with chorioamnionitis (n=10, 64.4%) compared to infants without chorioamnionitis (n=63, 57.9%) p<0.01. DNA methylation levels were also increased at PLAGL1 for infants with funisitis (n=7, 63.3%) compared to infants without funisitis (n=66, 58.3%) p<0.05.
Dysregulation of PLAGL1 has been associated with abnormal development and cancer. Early-life exposures, including infection/inflammation, may affect epigenetic changes that increase susceptibility to later chronic disease.
chorioamnionitis; epigenetic; preterm birth; funisitis; imprinting
Invasion and metastasis are the main causes of treatment failure and death in breast cancer. Thus, novel invasion-based therapies such as those involving natural agents are urgently required. In this study, we examined the effects of magnolol (Mag), a compound extracted from medicinal herbs, on breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Highly invasive cancer cells were found to be highly sensitive to treatment. Mag markedly inhibited the activity of highly invasive MDA-MB-231 cells. Furthermore, Mag significantly downregulated matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression, an enzyme critical to tumor invasion. Mag also inhibited nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) transcriptional activity and the DNA binding of NF-κB to MMP-9 promoter. These results indicate that Mag suppresses tumor invasion by inhibiting MMP-9 through the NF-κB pathway. Moreover, Mag overcame the promoting effects of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) on the invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells. Our findings reveal the therapeutic potential and mechanism of Mag against cancer.
The aim of this study was to compare postprandial lipemia, oxidative stress, antioxidant activity, and insulinemia between a three and six isocaloric high carbohydrate meal frequency pattern in obese women. In a counterbalanced order eight obese women completed two, 12 h conditions in which they consumed 1500 calories (14% protein, 21% fat, and 65% carbohydrate) either as three 500 calorie liquid meals every 4 h or six 250 calorie liquid meals every 2 h. Blood samples were taken every 30 min and analyzed for triacylglycerol (TAG), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, myeloperoxidase, paraoxonase-1 activity, and insulin. The TAG incremental area under the curve (iAUC) during the three meal condition (321 ± 129 mg/dL·12 h) was significantly lower (P = 0.04) compared to the six meal condition (481 ± 155 mg/dL·12 h). The insulin iAUC during the three meal condition (5,549 ± 1,007 pmol/L·12 h) was significantly higher (P = 0.05) compared to the six meal condition (4,230 ± 757 pmol/L·12 h). Meal frequency had no influence on the other biochemical variables. Collectively, a three and six isocaloric high carbohydrate meal frequency pattern differentially alters postprandial TAG and insulin concentrations but has no effect on postprandial cholesterol, oxidative stress, or antioxidant activity in obese women.
The effect of temperature shift on Polyporus umbellatus sclerotial development was investigated. Micromorphology of the sclerotia was observed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The cytochemical localization of H2O2 expressed as CeCl3 deposition at the subcellular level was observed by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Nox gene expression in sclerotia and mycelia was detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis. In addition, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) specific activities increased during sclerotial development and decreased after the antioxidant diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) was used. Results indicated that the temperature shift treatment induced P. umbellatus sclerotial formation. Compared with the mycelia, the Nox gene was respectively upregulated by 10.577-, 30.984- and 25.469-fold in the sclerotia of SI, SD and SM stages respectively. During the sclerotial formation, H2O2 accumulation was observed in the cell walls or around the organelle membranes of the mycelial cells. The antioxidant DPI decreased the generation of H2O2 in mycelial cells. The specific activity of SOD and CAT levels was decreased significantly by DPI. The activity of the two antioxidant enzymes in the mycelia increased much more during sclerotial formation (p < 0.05). Oxidative stress was closely associated with sclerotial development in P. umbellatus induced by temperature shift treatment.
Polyporus umbellatus; temperature shift; H2O2; Nox; SOD; CAT
Tetrandrine is an active constituent that is extracted from the root tuber of the Chinese herb Stephania tetrandra S. Moore. It has shown various pharmacological effects, such as antitumor activity, multidrug resistance reversal, and hepatic fibrosis resistance. In clinical applications, it has been used to treat hypertension, pneumosilicosis, and lung cancer. However, the poor water solubility of tetrandrine has limited its application. In this study, a newly emerging oral drug carrier of phospholipid complex loaded lipid nanocapsules was developed to improve the oral bioavailability of tetrandrine.
The phospholipid complex was prepared with the solvent-evaporation method to enhance the liposolubility of tetrandrine. The formation of the phospholipid complex was confirmed with a solubility study, infrared spectroscopy, and a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. The tetrandrine-phospholipid complex loaded lipid nanocapsules (TPC-LNCs) were prepared using the phase inversion method. Lyophilization was performed with mannitol (10%) as a cryoprotectant. TPC-LNCs were characterized according to their particle size, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, morphology by transmission electron microscopy, and crystallinity by DSC. In addition, the in vitro release of tetrandrine from TPC-LNCs was examined to potentially illustrate the in vivo release behavior. The in vivo bioavailability of TPC-LNCs was studied and compared to tetrandrine tablets in rats.
The liposolubility of tetrandrine in n-octanol improved from 8.34 μg/mL to 35.64 μg/mL in the tetrandrine-phospholipid complex. The prepared TPC-LNCs were spherical-shaped particles with a small size of 40 nm and a high encapsulation efficiency of 93.9%. DSC measurements revealed that the crystalline state was less ordered in lipid nanocapsules. The in vitro release study demonstrated a fast release of approximately 25% in the first 1 hour, which was followed by a sustained release of 70% over 12 hours. The relative bioavailability of TPC-LNCs compared to that of tablets was 208%, indicating a significant improvement in the oral absorption of tetrandrine.
The TPC-LNCs system developed in this study is a promising carrier that improves the oral bioavailability of tetrandrine in rats. The phospholipid complex loaded lipid nanocapsules have great potential for use as an oral drug delivery system for moderately lipophilic drugs that are encapsulated in the lipid nanocapsules.
tetrandrine; phospholipid complex; lipid nanocapsules; oral bioavailability; enhanced liposolubility
Oxidative stress is significant in numerous types of cancer. Tobacco smoke, an important risk factor for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), is able to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cause oxidative DNA damage. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an endogenous antioxidant enzyme that is critical in limiting the oxidative burden effectively. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the mitochondrial SOD2 and Cu/Zn enzyme SOD1 gene polymorphisms on the susceptibility to and clinicopathological characteristics of OSCC, as well as the synergistic effect between these gene polymorphisms and the well-known risk factor of tobacco consumption. Patients with clinically diagnosed OSCC (n=362) and healthy normal individuals (n=358) were investigated for four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs4880, rs5746136, rs1804450 and rs11556620) by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and DNA sequencing methods. Following adjustment for other confounders, no significant difference was observed in the rs5746136 SOD2 SNPs between the patients and controls. However, the incidence of the CT genotype of SOD2 SNP rs4880 was higher in the patients than in normal subjects in the additive model [CT vs. TT; P=0.045; adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.484; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.009–2.182] and in the dominant model (CT/CC vs. TT; P=0.022; AOR=1.559; 95% CI, 1.067–2.278). For those who smoked, the incidence of the CT genotype of rs4880 increased markedly in the patients compared with the controls in the additive model (CT vs. TT; P=0.003; AOR=2.325; 95% CI, 1.330–4.064) and in the dominant model (CT/CC vs. TT; P=0.001; AOR=2.448; 95% CI, 1.417–4.230). For SOD1, polymorphisms at rs1804450 and rs11556620 were not present in any of the OSCC or control subjects. The results suggest that SOD2 rs4880 may be involved in the tumorigenesis of OSCC and may be useful as a genetic susceptibility marker for OSCC.
superoxide dismutase 1; mitochondrial superoxide dismutase 2; oral squamous cell carcinoma; gene polymorphisms
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified three loci (rs17401966 in KIF1B, rs7574865 in STAT4, rs9275319 in HLA-DQ) as being associated with hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HBV-related HCC) in a Chinese population, two loci (rs2596542 in MICA, rs9275572 located between HLA-DQA and HLA-DQB) with hepatitis C virus-related HCC (HCV-related HCC) in a Japanese population. In the present study, we sought to determine whether these SNPs are predictive for HBV-related HCC development in other Chinese population as well.
Method and Findings
We genotyped 4 SNPs, rs2596542, rs9275572, rs17401966, rs7574865, in 506 HBV-related HCC patients and 772 chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients in Han Chinese by TaqMan methods. Odds ratio(OR)and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated by logistic regression. In our case-control study, significant association between rs9275572 and HCC were observed (P = 0.02, OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.56–0.95). In the further haplotype analysis between rs2596542 at 6p21.33 and rs9275572 at 6p21.3, G-A showed a protective effect on HBV-related HCC occurrence (P<0.001, OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.52–0.84).
These findings provided convincing evidence that rs9275572 significantly associated with HBV-related HCC.
In this study we established a bipedal animal model of steroid-associated hip joint collapse in emus for testing potential treatment protocols to be developed for prevention of steroid-associated joint collapse in preclinical settings. Five adult male emus were treated with a steroid-associated osteonecrosis (SAON) induction protocol using combination of pulsed lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and methylprednisolone (MPS). Additional three emus were used as normal control. Post-induction, emu gait was observed, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed, and blood was collected for routine examination, including testing blood coagulation and lipid metabolism. Emus were sacrificed at week 24 post-induction, bilateral femora were collected for micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and histological analysis. Asymmetric limping gait and abnormal MRI signals were found in steroid-treated emus. SAON was found in all emus with a joint collapse incidence of 70%. The percentage of neutrophils (Neut %) and parameters on lipid metabolism significantly increased after induction. Micro-CT revealed structure deterioration of subchondral trabecular bone. Histomorphometry showed larger fat cell fraction and size, thinning of subchondral plate and cartilage layer, smaller osteoblast perimeter percentage and less blood vessels distributed at collapsed region in SAON group as compared with the normal controls. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed poor mineral matrix and more osteo-lacunae outline in the collapsed region in SAON group. The combination of pulsed LPS and MPS developed in the current study was safe and effective to induce SAON and deterioration of subchondral bone in bipedal emus with subsequent femoral head collapse, a typical clinical feature observed in patients under pulsed steroid treatment. In conclusion, bipedal emus could be used as an effective preclinical experimental model to evaluate potential treatment protocols to be developed for prevention of ON-induced hip joint collapse in patients.
Increasing epidemiological evidence has indicated that inherited variations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number affect the genetic susceptibility of many malignancies in a tumour-specific manner and that DNA methylation also plays an important role in controlling gene expression during the differentiation and development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Our previous study demonstrated that HCC tissues showed a lower 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) content when compared to tumour-adjacent tissues, but the relationship among 5-hmC, 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) and mtDNA content in HCC patients is still unknown. This study aimed to clarify the correlation among mtDNA content, 5-mC and 5-hmC by quantitative real-time PCR and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis. We demonstrated that 5-hmC correlated with tumour size [odds ratio (OR) 0.847, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.746–0.962, P = 0.011], and HCC patients with a tumour size ≥5.0 cm showed a lower 5-hmC content and higher levels of fasting plasma aspartate aminotransferase, the ratio of alanine amiotransferase to aspartate aminotransferase, γ-glutamyltransferase, alpha-fetoprotein than those with a tumour size <5 cm (all P<0.05). We further revealed that the mtDNA content of HCC tumour tissues was 225.97(105.42, 430.54) [median (25th Percentile, 75th Percentile)] and was negatively correlated with 5-mC content (P = 0.035), but not 5-hmC content, in genomic DNA from HCC tumour tissues.
Shen-Fu decoction is a traditional Chinese medicine prescription with a 3:2 ratio of Radix Ginseng and Fuzi (Radix Aconiti lateralis praeparata). Ginsenosides and alkaloids are considered to be the main active components of Shen-Fu decoction. However, no analytical methods have been used to quantitatively analyse both components in Shen-Fu decoction simultaneously.
We successfully developed a rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous analysis of seven ginsenosides and three aconitum alkaloids in Shen-Fu decoction, the decoction of Radix ginseng and Fuzi (Radix Aconiti lateralis praeparata). Chromatogrpahic separation by RPLC was achieved using a reversed-phase column and a water/acetonitrile mobile phase, containing 0.05% formic acid and using a gradient system. The method was optimized to allow for simultaneous analysis of all analytes in 11minutes without the need for baseline resolution of the components. Furthermore, the separation demonstrated good linearity (r > 0.9882), repeatability (RSD < 7.01%), intra- and inter-day precisions (RSD < 5.06%) and high yields of recovery (91.13-111.97%) for ten major constituents, namely ginsenoside-Re, Rg1, Rb1, Rc, Rb2, Rd, Rf, aconitine, hypacoitine and mesaconitine.
The developed method could be used as a rapid and reliable approach for assessment of the quantity of the major constituents in Shen-Fu decoction.
Ginsenosides; Aconitum alkaloids; Shen-Fu decoction; RRLC-MS/MS
Deficiency of UDP-galactose 4′-epimerase is implicated in type III galactosemia. Two variants, p.K161N-hGALE and p.D175N-hGALE, have been previously found in combination with other alleles in patients with a mild form of the disease. Both variants were studied in vivo and in vitro and showed different levels of impairment. p.K161N-hGALE was severely impaired with substantially reduced enzymatic activity, increased thermal stability, reduced cofactor binding and inability to rescue the galactose-sensitivity of gal10-null yeast. Interestingly p.K161N-hGALE showed less impairment of activity with UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine in comparison to UDP-galactose. Differential scanning fluorimetry revealed that p.K161N-hGALE was more stable than the wild-type protein and only changed stability in the presence of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine and NAD+. p.D175N-hGALE essentially rescued the galactose-sensitivity of gal10-null yeast, was less stable than the wild-type protein but showed increased stability in the presence of substrates and cofactor. We postulate that p.K161N-hGALE causes its effects by abolishing an important interaction between the protein and the cofactor, whereas p.D175N-hGALE is predicted to remove a stabilizing salt bridge between the ends of two α-helices that contain residues that interact with NAD+. These results suggest that the cofactor binding is dynamic and that its loss results in significant structural changes that may be important in disease causation.
Type III galactosemia; yeast model; GALE; disease-associated mutation; UDP-galactose 4′-epimerase; Differential scanning fluorimetry
Aims: Janus kinase 1 (JAK1) is a key member in the interferon (IFN) signaling pathway. Recent studies suggested single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IFN pathway genes are associated with outcomes of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and response to IFNα therapy. The aim of the study is to investigate whether SNPs in JAK1 were associated with outcomes of HBV infection and response to IFNα therapy. Methods: We enrolled 395 chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients and 251 subjects with the inactive carrier state, and 256 CHB patients who received IFNα treatment, with therapy efficacy evaluated. Twelve SNPs: rs310227, rs7531799, rs7546545, rs17127174, rs3790541, rs10493373, rs2780898, rs310247, rs310196, rs2780895, rs4244165, and rs17127024 in JAK1, which could represent all SNPs with minor allele frequency >0.2 recorded in the HapMap database were genotyped using a polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism protocol and the TaqMan method. Results: SNP rs17127024 was associated with outcomes of HBV infection in an allele frequency (p=0.014) and genotype distributions (p=0.031), while SNP rs4244165 was associated with outcomes of HBV infection only in genotype distributions (p=0.008). There were no significant differences in allele frequencies and genotype distributions of these SNPs between the response group and the nonresponse group to IFNα therapy. Conclusions: SNPs rs4244165 and rs17127024 in JAK1 were associated with outcomes of HBV infection, but not with response to IFNα therapy.
Silica nanoparticles (SNPs) are one of the most important nanomaterials, and have been widely used in a variety of fields. Therefore, their effects on human health and the environment have been addressed in a number of studies. In this work, the effects of amorphous SNPs were investigated with regard to multinucleation in L-02 human hepatic cells. Our results show that L-02 cells had an abnormally high incidence of multinucleation upon exposure to silica, that increased in a dose-dependent manner. Propidium iodide staining showed that multinucleated cells were arrested in G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Increased multinucleation in L-02 cells was associated with increased generation of cellular reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial damage on flow cytometry and confocal microscopy, which might have led to failure of cytokinesis in these cells. Further, SNPs inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in exposed cells. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that multinucleation in L-02 human hepatic cells might be a failure to undergo cytokinesis or cell fusion in response to SNPs, and the increase in cellular reactive oxygen species could be responsible for the apoptosis seen in both mononuclear cells and multinucleated cells.
silica nanoparticles; human hepatic cell L-02; multinucleation; cell cycle; cell dysfunction; apoptosis
Hybridization between genetically diverged organisms is known as an important avenue that drives plant genome evolution. The possible outcomes of hybridization would be the occurrences of genetic instabilities in the resultant hybrids. It remained under-investigated however whether pollination by alien pollens of a closely related but sexually "incompatible" species could evoke genomic changes and to what extent it may result in phenotypic novelties in the derived progenies.
In this study, we have re-sequenced the genomes of Oryza sativa ssp. japonica cv. Matsumae and one of its derived introgressant RZ35 that was obtained from an introgressive hybridization between Matsumae and Zizanialatifolia Griseb. in general, 131 millions 90 base pair (bp) paired-end reads were generated which covered 13.2 and 21.9 folds of the Matsumae and RZ35 genomes, respectively. Relative to Matsumae, a total of 41,724 homozygous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 17,839 homozygous insertions/deletions (indels) were identified in RZ35, of which 3,797 SNPs were nonsynonymous mutations. Furthermore, rampant mobilization of transposable elements (TEs) was found in the RZ35 genome. The results of pathogen inoculation revealed that RZ35 exhibited enhanced resistance to blast relative to Matsumae. Notably, one nonsynonymous mutation was found in the known blast resistance gene Pid3/Pi25 and real-time quantitative (q) RT-PCR analysis revealed constitutive up-regulation of its expression, suggesting both altered function and expression of Pid3/Pi25 may be responsible for the enhanced resistance to rice blast by RZ35.
Our results demonstrate that introgressive hybridization by Zizania has provoked genomewide, extensive genomic changes in the rice genome, and some of which have resulted in important phenotypic novelties. These findings suggest that introgressive hybridization by alien pollens of even a sexually incompatible species may represent a potent means to generate novel genetic diversities, and which may have played relevant roles in plant evolution and can be manipulated for crop improvements.
Objective. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of docetaxel plus oxaliplatin and capecitabine (DOX) in the first line treatment of advanced gastric adenocarcinoma. Methods. A total of 37 patients were enrolled into this study, and they received DOX regimen (docetaxel 75 mg/m2 and oxaliplatin 130 mg/m2 intravenous infusion on day 1, and capecitabine 1000 mg/m2 orally twice daily on d1–14); treatment was repeated every 3 weeks. Results. All 37 patients were assessable for evaluation. The numbers of patients with complete response (CR), partial responses (PR), stable disease (SD), and progressive disease (PD) were 1, 10, 23, and 3, respectively. The objective response rate (ORR) was 29.7%, with the disease control rate (DCR) of 91.9%. Median progression-free survival (mPFS) and overall survival (mOS) were 197 days and 364 days, respectively. The most common grade 3/4 toxicities were hematological toxicities. The most common grade 3/4 nonhematological toxicities were fatigue, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, diarrhea, and hand-foot syndrome. Conclusion. The DOX regimen demonstrated a promising efficacy as the first line regimen in treating advanced gastric cancer patients with good performance status, the toxicities were tolerated and controllable. Large-scale clinical observation is necessary to get further evidence.
Although radiotherapy technology has progressed rapidly in the past decade, the inefficiency of radiation and cancer cell resistance mean that the 5-year survival rate of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is low. Radioactive 125I seed implantation has received increasing attention as a clinical treatment for cancers. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is one of the most important members of the VEGF family and plays an important role in cell migration through the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. Here we show that radioactive 125I seeds more effectively inhibit NPC cell growth through DNA damage and subsequent induction of apoptosis, compared with X-ray irradiation. Moreover, cell migration was effectively inhibited by 125I seed irradiation through VEGF-A/ERK inactivation. VEGF-A pretreatment significantly blocked 125I seed irradiation-induced inhibition of cell migration by recovering the levels of phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK) protein. Interestingly, in vivo study results confirmed that 125I seed irradiation was more effective in inhibiting tumor growth than X-ray irradiation. Taken together, these results suggest that radioactive 125I seeds exert novel anticancer activity by triggering DNA damage and inactivating VEGF-A/ERK signaling. Our finding provides evidence for the efficacy of 125I seeds for treating NPC patients, especially those with local recurrence.
Staphylococcus aureus or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been an important pathogen causing bloodstream infections. Our study aimed to investigate the epidemiological and genetic diversity of clinical S. aureus isolates from patients with bloodstream infection in four hospitals of Shanghai from 2009 to 2011.
A collection of S. aureus isolates causing bloodstream infection from four hospitals in the central part of Shanghai was carried out. Antimicrobial susceptibility testings of collected isolates were performed according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines, and spa-type, multi-locus sequence typing, agr type and toxin gene profiling were performed to explore the molecular diversity. Moreover, MRSA strains were also characterized by Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing.
The drugs such as linezolid, teicoplanin and vancomycin were efficacious for treating S. aureus including MRSA bloodstream infection. Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) strains displayed distinct diversity in molecular characterization and toxin genes, and three virulent MSSA strains encoding at least five toxins were detected. Five community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) strains were found, but the majority (88.7%) of MRSA strains belonged to two epidemic clones (ST239-MRSA- III and ST5-MRSA- II) with different toxin gene profiles among patients with bloodstream infection.
Healthcare-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) strains were still the main pathogen causing bloodstream infections in spite of the emergence of CA-MRSA strains in hospital setting.
Serum Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH) is linked to the ovarian follicle pool. Little is known about the relationship between serum AMH and ovarian ultrasound (US) features in adolescents with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS).
To confirm that serum AMH is elevated in adolescents with PCOS and to correlate serum AMH with ovarian ultrasound features in this population.
A retrospective chart review of clinical, biochemical, and ultrasonographic data in adolescents with PCOS and normal controls. Serum AMH was measured and compared between groups and correlated with ovarian ultrasound findings.
Two urban tertiary academic medical centers.
Study groups included 23 adolescent females with PCOS and 12 age and BMI matched female controls.
Main Outcome Measures
We hypothesized that serum AMH would be elevated in the PCOS group compared with controls and would positively correlate with follicle number, distribution, and ovarian volume.
Serum AMH was 6.78 +−3.55 ng/mL in the PCOS group versus 3.38 +−1.48 ng/mL in controls (P=0.0004). AMH positively correlated with ovarian volume (left ovary r=0.65, P=0.0007, right ovary r=0.55, P=0.0065) and peripheral follicle distribution (P=0.0027). Ten or more follicles were observed in 83% of ultrasounds.
There is a positive relationship between serum AMH and ovarian volume as well as peripheral follicular distribution in adolescents with PCOS. Our findings support the use of serum AMH as a useful marker to reflect ovarian ultrasound features typical of PCOS in cases where accurate ultrasounds are not available and for follow up.
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome; Anti-Müllerian Hormone; Adolescents
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is considered to be an oncogene. Blocking STAT3 signaling may induce growth arrest and apoptosis in different types of tumors. Cancer cells utilize the glycolytic pathway to maintain cell growth even when adequate oxygen is present. Glycolysis inhibition is a potential therapeutic modality. In the present study, the effects of Prosapogenin A (PSA) from the traditional Chinese medicine, Veratrum, on apoptosis, the STAT3 signaling pathway and glycometabolism in cancer cells were investigated. The results indicated that PSA induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in HeLa, HepG2 and MCF-7 cells. PSA inhibited the STAT3 signaling pathway and modulated the expression of glycometabolism-related genes. The results indicate that the inhibition of the STAT3 signaling and glycometabolism pathways contributes to the PSA-mediated apoptosis of HeLa, HepG2 and MCF-7 cells.
prosapogenin A; apoptosis; STAT3; glycolysis
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has significantly improved the quality of life and the life expectancy of HIV-infected individuals. Still, drug-induced side effects and emergence of drug-resistant viral variants remain important issues that justify the exploration of alternative therapeutic options. One strategy consists of a gene therapy based on RNA interference to induce the sequence-specific degradation of the HIV-1 RNA genome. We have selected four potent short hairpin RNA (shRNA) candidates targeting the viral capside, integrase, protease and tat/rev open-reading frames and screened the safety of them during human hematopoietic cell development, both in vitro and in vivo. Although the four shRNA candidates appeared to be safe in vitro, one shRNA candidate impaired the in vivo development of the human immune system in Balb/c Rag2−/−IL-2Rγc−/− (BRG) mice. The three remaining shRNA candidates were combined into one single lentiviral vector (LV), and safety of the shRNA combination during human hematopoietic cell development was confirmed. Overall, we demonstrate here the preclinical in vivo safety of a LV expressing three shRNAs against HIV-1, which is proposed for a future Phase I clinical trial.
combinational RNA; gene therapy; HIV-1; humanized mouse model; RNA interference