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1.  Characterization of neuraminidases produced by various serotypes of Pasteurella haemolytica. 
Infection and Immunity  1993;61(11):4669-4674.
Neuraminidases produced by 16 strains of Pasteurella haemolytica (serotypes 1 to 16) were characterized by molecular weight, antigenic identity, and substrate specificity. After growth in a chemically defined medium, stage I (lyophilized) culture supernatants were assayed for activity with N-acetylneuramin lactose, human alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, fetuin, colominic acid, and bovine submaxillary mucin. Neuraminidase produced by P. haemolytica serotype A1 (Ph A1) was purified by a combination of salt fractionation, ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephacel, and gel filtration on Sephadex G-200. Purified Ph A1 neuraminidase was used to immunize rabbits, and the resultant antiserum reduced the activity of Ph A1 neuraminidase by 46%. This antiserum also reduced the activity of neuraminidase produced by the other serotypes by between 15 and 66%. Molecular weight estimates of the neuraminidases produced by the various serotypes were obtained by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-200. Fifteen of the 16 serotypes examined produced a neuraminidase with a molecular weight of approximately 150,000 to 200,000. One serotype (serotype 11) produced no material with neuraminidase activity. In addition, all 15 high-molecular-weight neuraminidases showed similar substrate specificities. That is, they were all most active against N-acetylneuramin lactose and least active against bovine submaxillary mucin. On the basis of these results, it appears that the high-molecular-weight neuraminidases produced by the different P. haemolytica serotypes are quite similar.
PMCID: PMC281219  PMID: 8406865
2.  Extracellular neuraminidase production by a Pasteurella multocida A:3 strain associated with bovine pneumonia. 
Infection and Immunity  1995;63(5):1703-1709.
The properties of an extracellular neuraminidase produced by a Pasteurella multocida A:3 strain that was isolated in a case of bovine pneumonia were examined during growth in a defined medium. This enzyme (isolated from concentrated culture supernatants of P. multocida A:3) was active against N-acetylneuramin lactose, human alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, fetuin, colominic acid, and bovine submaxillary mucin. Enzyme elaboration was correlated with the growth of the organism in a defined medium, with maximum quantities produced in the stationary phase. The enzyme was purified by a combination of ammonium sulfate fractionation, ion exchange on DEAE-Sephacel, and gel filtration on Sephadex G-200. The purified neuraminidase possessed a specific activity of 9.36 mumol of sialic acid released per min per mg of protein against fetuin. The enzyme possessed a pH optimum of 6.0 and a Km of 0.03 mg/ml. The P. multocida A:3 neuraminidase had a molecular weight of approximately 500,000 as estimated by gel filtration. The enzyme was stable at 4 and 37 degrees C for 3 h. Approximately 75% of the neuraminidase activity was lost within 30 min at 50 degrees C. Greater than 90% of the enzyme activity was destroyed within 10 min at temperatures of > or = 65 degrees C. The P. multocida neuraminidase does not appear to be serologically related to the Pasteurella haemolytica A1 neuraminidase since antiserum prepared against the purified P. haemolytica enzyme did not neutralize the P. multocida enzyme.
PMCID: PMC173213  PMID: 7729875
3.  Characterization of neuraminidases produced by various serotypes of group B streptococci. 
Infection and Immunity  1987;55(1):1-6.
Neuraminidase produced by 11 strains of group B streptococci (GBS), from serotypes Ia, Ib, Ic, II, and III, were characterized according to molecular weight, antigenic identity, and substrate specificity. Following growth in a chemically defined medium, ammonium sulfate-concentrated culture supernatants were assayed for activity with bovine submaxillary mucin as substrate. Neuraminidase produced by GBS strain 122 (serotype III) was purified by a combination of salt fractionation, affinity chromatography with Affi-Gel Blue, ion-exchange chromatography with DEAE-cellulose, and gel filtration on Sephadex G-200. Purified neuraminidase was used to immunize rabbits, and the resultant antiserum reduced the activity of purified neuraminidase from strain 122 by 87.7%. The antiserum also reduced the activity of neuraminidases produced by the other four serotypes by between 78.3 and 90%. Molecular weight estimates of the neuraminidases produced by the various serotypes were obtained by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-200. The molecular weights obtained for the neuraminidases from the representative strains of each serotype ranged from 110,000 to 180,000. In addition, all of the GBS neuraminidases examined (regardless of the producing serotype) were active only on bovine submaxillary mucin. On the basis of these results, it appears that the neuraminidases produced by different GBS serotypes are quite similar.
PMCID: PMC260272  PMID: 3539798
4.  Neuraminidase production by a Pasteurella haemolytica A1 strain associated with bovine pneumonia. 
Infection and Immunity  1993;61(1):253-259.
The properties of an extracellular neuroaminidase produced by a Pasteurella haemolytica A1 strain (isolated from a case of bovine pneumonia) during growth in a defined medium were examined in this investigation. This enzyme, isolated from concentrated culture supernatants of P. haemolytica A1, was active against N-acetylneuramin lactose, human alpha 1-acid glycoprotein, fetuin, and bovine submaxillary mucin. Neuraminidase production paralleled bacterial growth in a defined medium and was maximal in the stationary phase of growth. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity by a combination of salt fractionation, ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephacel, and gel filtration on Sephadex G-200. These procedures yielded an enzyme preparation that possessed a specific activity of 100.62 mumol of sialic acid released per min per mg of protein against human alpha 1-acid glycoprotein. The Km value for this enzyme with human alpha 1-acid glycoprotein as the substrate was 1.1 mg/ml, and the enzyme possessed a pH optimum of 6.5. The P. haemolytica A1 neuraminidase had a molecular weight of approximately 150,000 as estimated by gel filtration and approximately 170,000 when analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The enzyme was stable at 4 degrees C for 3 h. At 37 degrees C for 3 h, 25% of enzymatic activity was lost. Approximately 55% of the enzyme activity was lost within 30 min at 50 degrees C, with greater than 70% of the enzyme activity being destroyed within 10 min at temperatures of > or = 65 degrees C.
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PMCID: PMC302712  PMID: 8418046
5.  Neuraminidase production by a Streptococcus sanguis strain associated with subacute bacterial endocarditis. 
Infection and Immunity  1983;41(2):507-515.
The properties of an extracellular neuraminidase produced by a Streptococcus sanguis strain (isolated from a confirmed case of subacute bacterial endocarditis) during growth in a defined medium was examined in this investigation. This enzyme, isolated from concentrated culture supernatants of S. sanguis biotype II, was active against human alpha-1 acid glycoprotein, N-acetylneuramin lactose, bovine submaxillary mucin, and fetuin. Neuraminidase production paralleled bacterial growth in defined medium and was maximal in the early stationary phase of growth but decreased dramatically, probably owing to protease production, during the late stationary phase. The enzyme was purified to near homogeneity by a combination of salt fractionation, ion-exchanged chromatography on DEAE-Sephacel, and gel filtration on Sephadex G-200. These procedures yielded an enzyme preparation that possessed a specific activity of 174.4 mumol of sialic acid released per min per mg of protein against human alpha-1 acid glycoprotein. The Km value for this enzyme with human alpha-1 acid glycoprotein as substrate was 2.5 X 10(-3) M, and the enzyme possessed a pH optimum of 6.5. The S. sanguis neuraminidase had a molecular weight of approximately 85,000 as estimated by gel filtration and approximately 90,000 when analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The enzyme was stable at temperatures of 4 and 37 degrees C for 3 h, but approximately 50% of the enzymatic activity was lost within 30 min at 50 degrees C, with 100% of the enzymatic activity being destroyed within 10 min at temperatures of greater than or equal to 65 degrees C.
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PMCID: PMC264670  PMID: 6874067
6.  Neuraminidase in Bacteroides fragilis. 
A neuraminidase from Bacteroides fragilis was purified 542-fold by isoelectric focusing, adsorption chromatography on Affi-Gel 202, and gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-200. On isoelectric focusing the neuraminidase was resolved into three differently charged fractions with pI values of 6.8, 7.1, and 7.4. The major component of pI 7.1 was used for further purification. The purified enzyme had optimal activity at pH 6.4 with N-acetylneuraminlactose as the substrate. Its molecular weight, determined by Sephadex G-200 gel filtration chromatography, was 92,000. The neuraminidase hydrolyzed terminal neuraminic acid residues from N-acetylneuraminlactose, fetuin, bovine submaxillary mucin, and porcine stomach lining mucin. A new method for the detection of neuraminidase activity is described which is based on rocket affinoelectrophoresis. It utilizes the differences in the interaction of sialylated and desialylated mucin with Helix pomatia lectin, enzymatic activity being detected by formation of affinorockets after incubation of the neuraminidase with bovine submaxillary mucin.
PMCID: PMC239270  PMID: 6614909
7.  Purification and partial characterization of neuraminidase from type III group B streptococci. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1980;144(1):164-171.
Extracellular neuraminidase from a type III fresh clinical isolate of a group B streptococcus was purified by a combination of salt fractionation, affinity chromatography of Affi-Gel blue, ion-exchange chromatography on diethylaminoethylcellulose, and gel filtration on Sephacryl S-200. These procedures yielded enzyme which was purified approximately 1,000-fold compared with the enzyme found in the original supernatant fluid. This type III streptococcal neuraminidase had a molecular weight of approximately 125,000 as estimated by filtration on Sephacryl S-200 and approximately 106,000 when analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In contrast to the majority of other bacterial neuraminidases, the type III group B streptococcal enzyme had no effect on colominic acid or N-acetylneuramin-lactose; however, it was quite active on bovine submaxillary mucin.
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PMCID: PMC294612  PMID: 6998945
8.  Purification of dermonecrotic toxin from a sonic extract of Pasteurella multocida SP-72 serotype D. 
Infection and Immunity  1984;46(2):429-434.
A procedure was developed to purify dermonecrotic toxin (DNT) from a sonic extract of a serotype D strain of Pasteurella multocida. Sonic extract containing DNT was applied to a DEAE-Sephacel column and eluted by a linear gradient of NaCl. Upon rechromatographing, fractions with dermonecrotic activity for guinea pigs were applied on a second Sephacel column, and a pooled fraction with the toxic activity was filtered through a Sephadex G-200 column. Pooled fractions with the toxic activity were subjected to polyacrylamide disc gel electrophoresis (PAGE), and the toxic substance was eluted from each sliced gel. Eluted fractions with the toxic activity were rechromatographed on a second Sephadex G-200 column, and a pooled fraction with high dermonecrotic activity was referred to as a purified DNT. The activity of purified DNT was increased by 1,000 times, and the average yield was about 1.8%. The purified DNT was homogeneous as determined by Ouchterlony double immunodiffusion, crossed immunoelectrophoresis, and thin-layer isoelectric focusing in polyacrylamide gels and gave a single band on PAGE and sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE. The molecular weight of the toxin was ca. 160,000 as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE. The isoelectric point of the toxin was ca. 4.7 to 4.8. Amino acid analysis of the purified DNT revealed that the toxin was composed of characteristically high proportions of glutamic acid, aspartic acid, glycine, proline, alanine, and leucine. The minimal necrotizing dose of the toxin was about 1 ng of protein, and the 50% lethal dose per mouse was 0.2 micrograms. The purified DNT was heat labile and sensitive to inactivation by trypsin, Formalin, and glutaraldehyde.
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PMCID: PMC261550  PMID: 6542070
9.  Purification of a Protective Antigen from a Saline Extract of Pasteurella multocida 
Infection and Immunity  1982;37(3):1218-1226.
It has been shown previously that soluble material extracted from Pasteurella multocida P-1059 by a 2.5% NaCl solution protects turkeys from generalized septicemia at a subsequent challenge exposure to the organism. In the present study, a protective antigen was purified from the crude soluble material by chromatographic methods. Four protein peaks were obtained by gel filtration with Sephadex G-200. The protective antigen was detected only in the first peak fraction, which contained a substantial amount of carbohydrate. The peak 1 fraction was adsorbed onto DEAE-cellulose and eluted by a linear gradient of NaCl. Fractions corresponding to a single protein peak were pooled and passed through an immunoadsorbent column to remove any possible serum component originating from the growth medium. The purified antigen had a carbohydrate/protein ratio of 1.5 and formed a single precipitin line with rabbit antiserum against the crude material in gel diffusion and immunoelectrophoresis analyses. The antigen produced antibodies in rabbits and turkeys which formed a single precipitin line against the crude material. Upon sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacryl-amide gel electrophoresis, the purified antigen showed three protein bands, corresponding to molecular weights of 44,000, 31,000, and 25,000, and one carbohydrate band. The carbohydrate band did not correspond to any of the three protein bands. Upon isoelectric focusing gel analysis, the purified antigen showed two bands (pI = 3.5 to 4.0 and 4.5 to 5.5), but the two bands were antigenically identical by isoelectric focusing crossed immunoelectrophoresis. The 50% protective dose of the purified antigen was between 10 and 50 μg of protein in trials where two doses were given at 14-day intervals to 10- to 20-week-old turkeys.
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PMCID: PMC347668  PMID: 6752022
10.  Properties of extracellular neuraminidase produced by group A streptococcus. 
Infection and Immunity  1979;24(3):780-786.
Extracellular neuraminidase production by group A streptococci was examined in 92 strains. Fourteen of these strains produced appreciable amounts of enzyme; 12 of the neuraminidase-producing strains belonged to T types 1, 4, and 12. Production of the enzyme paralleled bacterial growth in culture and was maximal in medium containing 0.2% glucose. The enzyme produced by one of these strains was partially purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation and filtration on G-200 Sephadex. Its molecular weight was estimated at 90,000. Activity was optimal at pH 5.7 and in the presence of 0.01 to 0.03 M calcium and magnesium cations. The enzyme was stable at temperatures of 4 and 37 degrees C for at least 24 h but was inactivated within 10 min at temperatures of 50 and 65 degrees C. The enzyme hydrolyzed 40% of the sialic acid in bovine submaxillary mucin, but was inactive on sialyl-lactose, porcine submaxillary mucin, oligosaccharides derived from porcine mucin, or human orosomucoid. The Km value for this enzyme with bovine submaxillary mucin as substrate was in the order of 3.6 x 10(-4) M.
PMCID: PMC414374  PMID: 38208
11.  Partial purification and characterization of heat-stable enterotoxin produced by Yersinia enterocolitica. 
Infection and Immunity  1981;31(2):554-559.
By using a suckling mouse assay, heat-stable enterotoxin (ST) was purified from the culture filtrate of Yersinia enterocolitica isolated from a diarrheal patient. The purification procedures involve ultrafiltration with an Amicon HIP-10 hollow fiber, ethanol fractionation, protamine sulfate treatment, diethylaminoethyl-Sephacel and hydroxylapatite column chromatographies, and Sephacryl S-200 superfine gel filtration. About 408-fold purification was achieved, with a yield of 12.0%. The minimal effective dose of purified ST was about 110 ng in the suckling mouse assay. The molecular weight of purified ST was 9,000 by Sephadex G-100 superfine gel filtration. The purified ST was stable to heating (100 degrees C for 20 min, 121 degrees C for 20 min) and did not lose its toxicity after treatment with protease, trypsin, lipase, phospholipase C, ribonuclease, deoxyribonuclease, beta-glucosidase, and neuraminidase. The purified ST was separated by isoelectric focusing into two active fractions, with pI's of 3.29 (ST-1) and 3.00 (ST-2), respectively. Antiserum from guinea pigs immunized with the purified ST neutralized the activity of both Y. enterocolitica ST and Escherichia coli ST.
PMCID: PMC351343  PMID: 7216460
12.  Comparisons of Pasteurella multocida lipopolysaccharides by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to determine relationship between group B and E hemorrhagic septicemia strains and serologically related group A strains. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1990;28(4):654-659.
Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) purified from 16 reference somatic serotypes of Pasteurella multocida were examined and compared by discontinuous sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Resolution of LPS patterns in a gel was optimum when sample wells were cast separately from the stacking gel and the running gel consisted of 15% T (total monomer) polyacrylamide and 4 M deionized urea. Band patterns of P. multocida LPSs in a gel differed from control Salmonella minnesota wild-type and core mutant LPSs. Although the band patterns and mobilities of LPSs from some P. multocida reference serotypes were similar, none were identical. Evidence for O antigens similar to those produced by enterobacteria was not observed. Proteinase K digestion of whole P. multocida cells resulted in LPS band patterns similar to those of purified LPS. The presence or absence of a capsule on a strain had no major influence on band patterns in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Comparisons of LPS patterns of group B and E hemorrhagic septicemia strains with those of serologically related group A strains of P. multocida indicated that they were similar. Typing antisera made with purified serotype 2 or 5 LPS reacted with electroblots of all these strains. However, the reactions did not distinguish strains as being serotype 2 or 5.
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PMCID: PMC267771  PMID: 2332462
13.  Purification and properties of hemagglutinin from culture supernatant of Bacteroides gingivalis. 
Infection and Immunity  1986;54(3):659-665.
The hemagglutinating factor (hemagglutinin) of Bacteroides gingivalis was prepared from the supernatant of a 5-day diffusate broth culture by ammonium sulfate precipitation and column chromatography with a hydrophobic column of Phenyl-Sepharose CL-4B, DEAE-Sephadex A-50, and Sephadex G-100 gel filtration. The hemagglutinating activity of the preparation was 53.3 times higher than that of ammonium sulfate precipitate. In electron microphotographs, hemagglutinin appears to have a vesicle or tubelike structure. The hemagglutinating activity of intact cells was completely destroyed by heating at 100 degrees C for 10 min, but the activity of extracted hemagglutinin was heat stable. The activity of hemagglutinin was inhibited by L-arginine and L-lysine and partially inhibited by phospholipase D, but it was not affected by proteolytic enzymes, neuraminidase, hyaluronidase, lipase, phospholipase A and C, or sugars. The B. gingivalis hemagglutinin appeared to be comprised mainly of a 40,000-molecular-weight material. The Fab fragment of immunoglobulin G prepared from rabbit antiserum to whole cells of B. gingivalis and monoclonal antibody against the hemagglutinin bound to the cell surface and inhibited the hemagglutinating activity of both the cells and the purified hemagglutinin.
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PMCID: PMC260220  PMID: 3781621
14.  Isolation of Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase Subunits of Hemagglutinating Virus of Japan 
Journal of Virology  1970;6(4):492-499.
When purified hemagglutinating virus of Japan (HVJ) was treated with trypsin, two major surface antigens were released from the virus. The “hemagglutinin” subunits obtained by this method were reactive with homologous hemagglutination-inhibition antibody and could be detected by an antibody-blocking test. They adsorbed to but did not agglutinate red cells and thus appeared to be “monovalent.” The neuraminidase subunits were obtained in fully active form and did not adsorb to red cells. This finding suggests that these two activities of HVJ are associated with different subunits of the virus particle. The hemagglutinin and neuraminidase subunits could be partially separated by zonal rate centrifugation or gel filtration on Sephadex G-200. The molecular weights estimated for these subunits were approximately 124,000 and 114,000, respectively. After treatment with trypsin, virus-associated hemagglutinin and neuraminidase activities were both reduced significantly. The electron micrographs of such trypsinized virus particles showed complete or partial loss of surface projections. These results suggested that the subunits obtained by this method seemed to be those projections liberated from the virus by the action of trypsin.
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PMCID: PMC376148  PMID: 5497896
15.  Adherence of Pasteurella multocida or Bordetella bronchiseptica to the swine nasal epithelial cell in vitro. 
Infection and Immunity  1988;56(1):234-240.
The interaction of Bordetella bronchiseptica or Pasteurella multocida with swine nasal epithelial cells was studied in vitro. The mean number of B. bronchiseptica organisms adhered per cell was about three times as high as that of P. multocida (P less than 0.01), and the adherence was specifically inhibited by the homologous antiserum prepared with the whole-cell antigen of each bacterium. The poor affinity of P. multocida to the swine nasal mucosa as compared with that of B. bronchiseptica was also demonstrated in the cultured fragments of the nasal mucosa. When observed with a scanning electron microscope, B. bronchiseptica organisms colonized the fragments, whereas few P. multocida organisms adhered. Morphologically, the P. multocida-infected fragments had an essentially normal structure, whereas marked degeneration and marked desquamation of the epithelial cells and severe inflammatory reactions were observed in many areas of the B. bronchiseptica-infected fragments. These morphological observations were consistent with those for the nasal mucosa of P. multocida- or B. bronchiseptica-infected neonatal pigs (T. Nakai, K. Kume, H. Yoshikawa, T. Oyamada, and T. Yoshikawa, Jpn. J. Vet. Sci. 48:693-701, 1986; T. Oyamada, T. Yoshikawa, H. Yoshikawa, M. Shimizu, T. Nakai, and K. Kume, Jpn. J. Vet. Sci. 48:377-387, 1986). Cultured swine nasal fragments, however, were equally injured when they were incubated in a medium containing purified dermonecrotic toxin (DNT) preparations of B. bronchiseptica or P. multocida. Therefore, these DNT preparations can induce morphological damage closely resembling that induced in vivo. Hence, colonization of B. bronchiseptica and production of its DNT on the swine nasal mucosa appear to result in the production of mucosal damage. On the other hand, P. multocida seems to lack the ability to colonize normal swine nasal mucosa, thus resulting in no production or the slight production of DNT to such an extent as to produce mucosal damage. The present data support our previous hypothesis (Nakai et al.; Oyamada et al.) that B. bronchiseptica induces swine atrophic rhinitis, whereas P. multocida does not.
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PMCID: PMC259262  PMID: 3335403
16.  Protease production by clinical isolates of type III group B streptococci. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1980;12(3):421-423.
Six strains of serotype III group B streptococci isolated from confirmed cases of neonatal disease were examined for their ability to produce proteolytic enzymes. Three neuraminidase-producing strains and three non-neuraminidase-producing strains were employed in this study. Protease production was examined in 1,000-fold concentrated filtrates of stationary-phase cells with an insoluble substrate derived from horse hide powder labeled covalently with Remazol brilliant blue. Protease activity was not detected in any cultural supernatant fluids until they were fractionated on Sephadex G-100. After fractionation, the neuraminidase-producing strains were shown to elaborate approximately sixfold more protease than the non-neuraminidase-producing strains. The finding that clinical isolates of group B streptococci that elaborated high levels of neuraminidase also produced elevated levels of extracellular protease may indicate that the production of several different factors may determine the virulence of these organisms.
PMCID: PMC273600  PMID: 7012176
17.  Immunogenic and toxic properties of a purified lipopolysaccharide-protein complex from Pasteurella multocida. 
Infection and Immunity  1976;14(4):990-999.
An immunogenic fraction from Pasteurella multocida was found to consist chiefly of a high-molecular-weight protein-polysaccharide complex containing 25 to 27% protein and 10.7% carbohydrate. The starting material was obtained by differential centrifugation at 105,000 X g of saline extract of P. multocida cells and further purified by gel filtration on Sepharose 2B. Three peaks were usually obtained after gel filtraion.pharose 2B. Three peaks were usually obtained after gel filtration. The component in the first peak amounted to about 10% of the starting material and eluted in the void volume. It was predominately carbohydrate, although some protein was present. Two inoculations of 10 to 20 mug of the first component induced up to 80% protection in mice against a challenge inoculation with P. multocida that killed 100% of the controls. The second, or major, component amounted to about 75 to 95% of the starting material. This fraction contained 25 to 27% protein and 10.7% carbohydrate. Small amounts, 10 to 20 mug, induced active immunity in mice and turkeys, but large amounts could be lethal; the mean lethal dose was 195 mug for mice and 5.7 mug for 10-day-old chicken embryos. The components in the third peak were primarily proteins that gave reactions of nonidentity with the antigens of peak II in gel diffusion. The components present in the third fraction were definitely less effective in the induction of protective immunity than those present in the first or second. Analyses of the protective antigen(s) by the isoelectric focusing procedure in a pH 3 to 10 gradient showed that all of the precipitinogenic activity was found in the range of pH 3 to 4, with a peak at pH 3.7.
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PMCID: PMC415483  PMID: 825472
18.  Immunization with Native or Recombinant Streptococcus pneumoniae Neuraminidase Affords Protection in the Chinchilla Otitis Media Model  
Infection and Immunity  2004;72(7):4309-4313.
Streptococcus pneumoniae neuraminidase has been implicated as a virulence factor in the pathogenesis of pneumococcal otitis media. In this study, native neuraminidase was partially purified from cultures of S. pneumoniae by serial chromatography with DEAE-Sepharose and Sephacryl S-200. Recombinant neuraminidase, a 3,038-bp fragment of the neuraminidase A (nanA) gene, was cloned into the pET-28b vector and then expressed at high levels in Escherichia coli. Chinchillas were immunized subcutaneously with either the gel-purified native or recombinant neuraminidase, and all responded with elevated titers of antineuraminidase antibody in serum. Immunization with neuraminidase resulted in a significant reduction in nasopharyngeal colonization as well as in the incidence of otitis media with effusion. These data demonstrate for the first time that neuraminidase affords protection against S. pneumoniae nasopharyngeal colonization and experimental otitis media.
doi:10.1128/IAI.72.7.4309-4313.2004
PMCID: PMC427438  PMID: 15213181
19.  Cloning and expression of the Pasteurella multocida toxin gene, toxA, in Escherichia coli. 
Infection and Immunity  1989;57(12):3907-3913.
A chromosomal DNA library of a toxigenic type D strain of Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida was established in Escherichia coli. From this library two clones, SPE308 and SPE312, were identified by using a monoclonal antibody against the osteoclast-stimulating P. multocida toxin (PMT). Extracts of these clones showed cytopathic activity identical to that of extracts of toxigenic P. multocida. The recombinant plasmids, pSPE308 and pSPE312, directed the synthesis of a protein with an apparent molecular weight of 143,000 which could be specifically detected by anti-PMT antibody. The recombinant toxin, which was located in the cytoplasm of E. coli, was purified by affinity chromatography with immobilized monoclonal antibody and was shown to react in a manner identical to that of PMT in a quantitative structural test using a series of monoclonal antibodies as well as in all quantitative functional tests used, i.e., tests for dermonecrotic activity and mouse lethality and the embryonic bovine lung cell test for cytopathic activity. The gene encoding this toxic activity was named toxA and was found to be present in the chromosome of toxigenic strains only of P. multocida. A probe spanning the toxA gene therefore has potential in the diagnosis and surveillance of progressive atrophic rhinitis in pigs.
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PMCID: PMC259925  PMID: 2680987
20.  Partial Purification of Osteoclast-Activating Factor from Phytohemagglutinin-Stimulated Human Leukocytes 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1974;53(5):1473-1480.
Osteoclast-activating factor (OAF) is a soluble mediator found in supernates of human peripheral leukocytes which have been cultured with antigens or phytomitogens. OAF is a potent stimulator of osteoclastic resorption of fetal bone in organ culture. The present studies were designed to characterize OAF chemically. Bone resorbing activity from supernates of leukocytes cultured without added plasma was not lost on dialysis using a membrane with a molecular weight cutoff of 3,500, but was lost when heated to 60°C for 30 min. The activity was lost after treatment with trypsin or pronase but not after treatment with ribonuclease or neuraminidase. Papain, which inactivated parathyroid hormone at a concentration of 25 μg/ml, did not inactivate OAF at 250 μg/ml. OAF did not react with an antibody to bovine parathyroid hormone which cross-reacts with human parathyroid hormone. OAF was also distinguished from active metabolites of vitamin D and from prostaglandin by extraction procedures and immunoassay for prostaglandin E2.
When the medium from activated leukocytes cultured with autologous plasma was fractionated by gel filtration on Sephadex, bone resorbing activity eluated both with plasma proteins and in lower molecular weight fractions. However, when medium from leukocytes cultured without added plasma was chromatographed, all the OAF activity was eluted in a sharp low molecular weight peak located between chymotrypsinogen (25,000 molecular weight) and ribonuclease A (13,700 molecular weight). This peak contained about 4% of the total protein originally present in the supernate. Its activity was destroyed by overnight incubation at 37°C at pH 6 or 8, but not at pH 7.2. After incubation at 4°C, the activity was lost at pH 3 or 10, but not at pH 4-9.
The active fraction from Sephadex G-100 was therefore chromatographed at pH 7.2 on DEAE cellulose and carboxymethyl cellulose. The active material was not adsorbed; however, about sevenfold further purification was achieved by removal of contaminants. The material obtained after sequential Sephadex, DEAE and, carboxymethyl cellulose chromatography stimulated resorption of fetal rat bone in culture at concentrations of 0.75-3 μg protein/ml, indicating that this preparation of OAF was nearly as potent as bovine parathyroid hormone in this system.
PMCID: PMC302636  PMID: 4825237
21.  A monoclonal antibody against a Pasteurella multocida outer membrane protein protects rabbits and mice against pasteurellosis. 
Infection and Immunity  1991;59(1):172-180.
Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against the 37.5-kDa outer membrane protein were produced by fusing myeloma cells with spleen cells obtained from mice immunized with a pathogenic strain of Pasteurella multocida isolated from a rabbit. Desirable MAbs were selected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, whole-cell radioimmunoprecipitation (WC-RIP), and Western blot (immunoblot) analysis. WC-RIP and Western blot analyses, using MAb 1608 adsorbed with intact P. multocida cells and the eluted MAb, demonstrated that the antigen recognized by this MAb is exposed on the cell surface, is antibody accessible, and has an estimated molecular mass of 37.5 kDa. Treatment of outer membrane vesicles of P. multocida with proteinase K totally abrogated the MAb 1608 activity, indicating that this MAb binds to a protein antigenic determinant. Furthermore, MAb 1608 was nonreactive to purified lipopolysaccharide in Western blot analysis. Passive transfer studies showed that nine rabbits inoculated intranasally with MAb 1608 and homologously challenged intranasally had significantly reduced mortality, severity of pneumonia, prevalence of P. multocida colonization in nonrespiratory organs, and numbers of P. multocida in nasal cavities compared with the controls. Furthermore, the number of P. multocida in lungs was reduced 84,750-fold. Similarly, passive transfer experiments indicated that MAb 1608 protected mice against homologous and heterologous challenges with P. multocida strains bearing the antigenic determinant recognized by MAb 1608. However, no protection was afforded by MAb 1608 when mice were challenged with a P. multocida strain lacking the antigenic determinant recognized by MAb 1608. This study establishes that the 37.5-kDa outer membrane protein is the target for a protective MAb.
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PMCID: PMC257723  PMID: 1987031
22.  Molecular weight and other characteristics of mycobacterial growth inhibitory factor produced by spleen cells obtained from mice immunized with viable attenuated mycobacterial cells. 
Infection and Immunity  1975;12(4):841-850.
Exposure of mycobacterial growth inhibitory factor (MycoIF) to trypsin, chymotrypsin, or neuraminidase decrease its ability to produce intracellular inhibition of mycobacterial growth within macrophages, suggesting that MycoIF was a glycoprotein. MycoIF was unaffected by deoxyribonuclease or ribonuclease. Supernatant fluids from antigenically stimulated H37Ra-immunized mouse spleen cells exposed to puromycin were unable to produce significant intracellular inhibition. This indicated that the presence of MycoIF activity in supernatant fluids required protein synthesis. The filtration of MycoIF-containing supernatant fluids on Sephadex G-150 demonstrated that significant MycoIF activity appeared only in those fractions which eluted on the downward side of the serum albumin peak. Based on protein standards filtered through the Sephadex gel, the molecular weight of MycoIF was calculated to be between 20,000 and 35,000. These calculations assumed that MycoIF is a globular protein. Attempts to purify MycoIF by anion exchange chromatography (diethylaminoethylcellulose) was not successful.
PMCID: PMC415365  PMID: 811560
23.  Host response to Pasteurella multocida turbinate atrophy toxin in swine. 
A porcine strain of Pasteurella multocida (serotype D:3) produced a toxin causing turbinate atrophy (TA) in pigs. The toxin (TAT), processed on a high performance liquid chromatography size exclusion column, eluted as a single peak (molecular weight of about 160,000) containing trace amounts of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS; protein:LPS, 85:1). The eluted fraction migrated on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gels as a single band. It could be prevented from dissociating into two prominent polypeptides by addition of a protease inhibitor. A single dose (2.0 to 79.0 micrograms/kg) of TAT given to pigs intravenously was lethal. Doses from 0.02 to 1.0 microgram/kg caused transient clinical signs of porcine systemic toxicosis with reduced appetite, generalized weakness, depression, lethargy, weight loss, and in some instances, death. Intradermal doses of TAT (greater than or equal to 0.1 microgram/site) produced hemorrhagic areas within four hours. Systemically, TAT causes bilateral TA, lymphopenia, liver dysfunctions, and possible renal impairment. Affinity of TAT for cells of epithelial origin was demonstrated in mice given 125I-TAT. In vitro, TAT stimulated DNA and protein syntheses of peripheral blood lymphocytes and suppressed syntheses in turbinate and kidney cell cultures without being cytolytic. Biological effects of TAT were eliminated by exposure to either heat, trypsin or anti-TAT antibody.
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PMCID: PMC1255621  PMID: 2306667
24.  Cloning and characterization of the major outer membrane protein gene (ompH) of Pasteurella multocida X-73. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1997;179(24):7856-7864.
The major outer membrane protein (OmpH) of Pasteurella multocida X-73 was purified by selective extraction with detergents, followed by size exclusion chromatography. The planar lipid bilayer assay showed that OmpH has pore-forming function. The average single channel conductance in 1.0 M KCl was 0.62 nS. The gene (ompH) encoding OmpH has been isolated and sequenced by construction of a genomic library and PCR techniques. The coding region of this gene is 1,059 bp long. The predicted primary protein is composed of 353 amino acids, with a 20-amino-acid signal peptide. The mature protein is composed of 333 amino acids with a molecular mass of 36.665 kDa. The ompH gene encoding mature protein has been expressed in Escherichia coli by using a regulatable expression system. The ompH gene was distributed among 15 P. multocida serotypes and strain CU. Protection studies showed that OmpH was able to induce homologous protection in chickens. These findings demonstrate that OmpH is a protective outer membrane porin of strain X-73 and is conserved among P. multocida somatic serotypes.
PMCID: PMC179751  PMID: 9401047
25.  Purification and partial characterization of a novel antibacterial agent (Bac1829) Produced by Staphylococcus aureus KSI1829. 
A novel antimicrobial agent from Staphylococcus aureus KSI1829, designated Bac1829, was purified by sequential steps of ammonium sulfate precipitation, Sephadex G-50 gel filtration chromatography, and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. Purified Bac1829 has a molecular mass of 6,418 +/- 2 Da. The peptide in heat stable, since full biological activity is retained after heating at 95 degrees C for 15 min, and it is destroyed by digestion with proteases. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed a high concentration of Ala and Gly residues, which respectively comprised 24 and 19% of the total amino acid content. Additionally, high levels of hydrophobic amino acids were present, accounting for the hydrophobic nature of Bac1829. Purified Bac1829 killed exponentially growing Corynebacterium renale in a dose-dependent manner by a bactericidal mode of action. A partial inhibitory spectrum analysis revealed that the following organisms were sensitive to the inhibitory activity of Bac1829: S. aureus RN4220, Streptococcus suis, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, C. renale, Corynebacterium diptheriae, Haemophilus parasuis, Bordetella pertussis, Bordetella bronchoseptica, Moraxella bovis, and Pasteurella multocida.
PMCID: PMC168112  PMID: 8795206

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