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author:("Tant, lauren")
1.  Imaging of tumour-induced osteomalacia using a gallium-68 labelled somatostatin analogue 
BMJ Case Reports  2010;2010:bcr0220102750.
A 51-year-old man presented with generalised bone pain. Initial evaluation revealed a low serum phosphorus level and elevated urinary phosphorus excretion. Aminoaciduria was normal. Standard imaging showed only minimal changes. The patient was treated with daily oral supplementation with phosphate (1 g/day) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1 μg/day) to maintain euphosphataemia. In spite of the fact that this treatment was maintained for 3 years, there was no modification of renal phosphate clearance. A diagnosis of hypophosphataemic osteomalacia with renal phosphate wasting was proposed. Therefore, tumour-induced osteomalacia was suspected, triggering a diagnostic workup to find the primary tumour. These tumours are known to express somatostatin receptors, so whole body positron emission tomography (CT) imaging was performed after intravenous administration of 68Ga-DOTA-TOC (68Ga-DOTA-D-Phe1-Tyr3-pentreotide). A solitary intense hot spot was detected in soft tissue near the right femoral internal condyle. Based on this result, curative resection of the tumour was performed.
doi:10.1136/bcr.02.2010.2750
PMCID: PMC3028388
2.  Epratuzumab (humanised anti-CD22 antibody) in primary Sjögren's syndrome: an open-label phase I/II study 
This open-label, phase I/II study investigated the safety and efficacy of epratuzumab, a humanised anti-CD22 monoclonal antibody, in the treatment of patients with active primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). Sixteen Caucasian patients (14 females/2 males, 33–72 years) were to receive 4 infusions of 360 mg/m2 epratuzumab once every 2 weeks, with 6 months of follow-up. A composite endpoint involving the Schirmer-I test, unstimulated whole salivary flow, fatigue, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and immunoglobulin G (IgG) was devised to provide a clinically meaningful assessment of response, defined as a ≥20% improvement in at least two of the aforementioned parameters, with ≥20% reduction in ESR and/or IgG considered as a single combined criterion. Fourteen patients received all infusions without significant reactions, 1 patient received 3, and another was discontinued due to a mild acute reaction after receiving a partial infusion. Three patients showed moderately elevated levels of Human anti-human (epratuzumab) antibody not associated with clinical manifestations. B-cell levels had mean reductions of 54% and 39% at 6 and 18 weeks, respectively, but T-cell levels, immunoglobulins, and routine safety laboratory tests did not change significantly. Fifty-three percent achieved a clinical response (at ≥20% improvement level) at 6 weeks, with 53%, 47%, and 67% responding at 10, 18, and 32 weeks, respectively. Approximately 40%–50% responded at the ≥30% level, while 10%–45% responded at the ≥50% level for 10–32 weeks. Additionally, statistically significant improvements were observed in fatigue, and patient and physician global assessments. Further, we determined that pSS patients have a CD22 over-expression in their peripheral B cells, which was downregulated by epratuzumab for at least 12 weeks after the therapy. Thus, epratuzumab appears to be a promising therapy in active pSS, suggesting that further studies be conducted.
doi:10.1186/ar2018
PMCID: PMC1779377  PMID: 16859536
3.  Open-label, randomized, controlled pilot study of the effects of a glucosamine complex on Low back pain 
Background:
A series of studies has suggested some efficacy of glucosamine in arthrosis of the knee, but virtually no documentation exists regarding its effects on low back pain.
Objectives:
The primary objective of this study was to examine whether a 12-week course of a glucosamine complex (GC) could benefit patients having low back pain despite a course of noninvasive physical therapy. In addition, we sought to delineate the subgroup of responders.
Methods:
This open-label, randomized, controlled study was conducted at the Division of Rheumatology and Physical Medicine, Erasme University Hospital, Brussels, Belgium. Male and female outpatients aged 40 to 80 years with low back pain (duration, ≥ 12 weeks; pain score on 10-cm visual analog scale [VAS] [0 = none to 10 = worst imaginable], ≥3 cm) despite noninvasive physical therapy (massage, stretching, heat application, and analgesics for ≥4 weeks) were included. Patients were randomly assigned to receive, in addition to conventional treatment (CT) (physical therapy plus analgesics/antiinflammatories), a GC (enriched with sulfonyl methane, silicon, and a botanical extract of Ribes nigrum) or CT alone (control) for 12 weeks. Pain at rest and on movement (effort) and early morning lumbar stiffness were measured every 4 weeks using the VAS. The primary end point was improvement in VAS score for pain at rest at 12 weeks. Two validated questionnaires were used to assess improvements in quality of life (QOL) (Oswestry Disability Questionnaire [ODQ] [10 items; scale: 0 = no disability to 60 = maximal disability] and Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire [RMDQ] [24 items; scale: 0 = no disability to 24 = severe disability]). Responders were defined as patients who positively assessed the efficacy of the GC. At each visit, patients were also asked about possible adverse events.
Results:
Of 36 enrolled patients, 32 completed the study (18 men, 14 women; mean [SE] age, 64 [2] years; 17 in the GC group and 15 in the control group). Four patients were lost to follow-up. At week 4, changes from baseline VAS scores for pain at rest and lumbar stiffness were significantly greater in the GC group compared with the control group (P < 0.001 and P = 0.011, respectively). At week 4, QOL was found to be improved, as measured using the ODQ, in the GC group compared with the control group (P = 0.028), but the between-group difference as measured using the RMDQ was not significant. The improvements from baseline on the questionnaires were sustained over the 12-week period in the GC group (all, P < 0.001). Gastrointestinal adverse effects were reported by 1 GC-treated patient and 1 patient in the control group, but neither patient withdrew from the study. Of the 17 GC-treated patients, 9 considered themselves responders, but the profile of a responder could not be delineated.
Conclusions:
In this study in patients with low back pain, analgesic effect and improvement in QOL were found with the use of GC. GC was well tolerated.
doi:10.1016/j.curtheres.2005.12.009
PMCID: PMC3965983  PMID: 24678073
arthrosis; back pain; glucosamine; methylsulfonylmethane; silicon; Ribes nigrurn

Results 1-3 (3)