An increasing focus has over recent years been directed to the use of categorical endpoints to define response, i.e. to define cut‐points for important improvement and/or acceptable clinical state. The levels of Minimal Clinically Important Improvement (MCII) are typically defined according to the patients perception of what is an important improvement. It can be defined as the smallest change in measurement that signifies an important improvement. MCII signifies an improvement of relevance in a clinical trial, or the minimal meaningful change at an individual level. The Minimal Clinically Important Difference (MCID) may reflect either an improvement or a worsening. Patient Acceptable Symptom State (PASS) has been defined as the highest level of symptom beyond which patients consider themselves well. Cut‐points for MCII and PASS are usually identified through two different statistical approaches. The 75th percentage approach identifies the cut‐point corresponding to the 75 percentile of the scores for improvement in patients who report an important improvement by the anchoring question. Applying receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves allows for choosing the threshold that is the best compromise between sensitivity and specificity for each outcome criterion.
The identified cut‐points for MCII and PASS may easily be incorporated as endpoints in clinical trials, and will provide information about the proportion of patients that achieve an improvement exceeding the level accepted as MCII and achieve a state accepted as PASS.
To describe a novel scoring system for the assessment of tenosynovitis by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and assess its intra‐ and inter‐reader reliability in a multireader, longitudinal setting.
Flexor and extensor tenosynovitis were evaluated at the level of the wrist in 10 different anatomical areas, graded semi‐quantitatively from grade 0 to 3 (total score 0–30), based on the maximum width of post‐contrast enhancement within each anatomical area on axial T1‐weighted MR images. Ten sets of baseline and 1‐year follow‐up MR images of the wrists of patients with rheumatoid arthritis with early and established disease were scored independently by four readers twice on 2 consecutive days. Intra‐ and inter‐reader agreements were evaluated.
The intrareader intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were high for status scores (median ICCs 0.84–0.88) and slightly lower for change score (0.74). The smallest detectable difference (SDD) in % of the maximum score was 11.2–11.5% for status scores and 13.3% for change scores. Inter‐reader single‐measure ICCs were acceptable for both status scores (median 0.73–0.74) and change scores (0.67), while average‐measures ICCs were very high for both status and change score (all ⩾0.94). The median scoring time per patient (baseline and follow‐up images) was 7 min (range 3–10).
The introduced tenosynovitis scoring system demonstrates a high degree of multireader reliability, is feasible, and may be used as an adjuvant to the existing OMERACT RAMRIS score, allowing improved quantification of inflammatory soft tissue changes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
Calprotectin is a major leucocyte protein, shown to correlate well with laboratory and clinical assessments in several inflammatory rheumatic diseases, and large concentrations of calprotectin have been found in synovial fluid from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The objective of the present study was to examine correlations between calprotectin and joint damage.
145 patients with RA were analysed cross sectionally with laboratory (calprotectin, C reactive protein (CRP), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)), clinical (28 joint counts (tender, swollen), physician global VAS, DAS28 and RA Articular Damage score (RAAD)), and radiographic (plain hand radiographs; modified Sharp's method) measurements, on the same day.
Calprotectin showed a highly significant correlation with measures of joint damage; modified Sharp score r = 0.43 (p<0.001) and RAAD r = 0.40 (p<0.001). The association with modified Sharp score and RAAD score was maintained after adjustment for CRP, ESR, rheumatoid factor, DAS28, sex, and age in a multiple regression analysis (p = 0.018 and p = 0.04, respectively), while neither CRP nor ESR showed any independent associations. Highly significant correlations (p<0.001) were also found between calprotectin and both laboratory and clinical markers of inflammation.
Calprotectin was found to significantly and independently explain the variation in the radiological and clinical assessments of joint damage. Longitudinal studies are required to examine whether calprotectin may predict the progression of joint damage in RA.
calprotectin; rheumatoid arthritis; joint inflammation; joint damage; radiographs
To investigate whether the PTPN22 1858T risk variant is associated with the rate of radiographic progression in rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
A longitudinally followed cohort of 238 Norwegian patients with RA (the EURIDISS cohort) was genotyped for the PTPN22 1858C→T polymorphism. Radiographic damage was assessed by hand radiographs at baseline and after 1, 2, 5 and 10 years, and the radiographs were scored with the Sharp method modified by van der Heijde (Sharp–van der Heijde score) by a single experienced reader. Baseline serum levels of rheumatoid factor and anti‐cyclic citrullinated peptide autoantibodies were also examined.
The reported association between RA susceptibility and carriage of the T allele (34.4% in patients vs 21.4% in controls; odds ratio 1.92, 95% confidence interval 1.36 to 2.71, p = 0.0002) was confirmed. An association between annual progression rate of Sharp–van der Heijde score and T‐allele carriers (p = 0.01),was also found, which was also present when only patients positive for the shared epitope were analysed (p = 0.03). This association was also maintained in multivariate analyses adjusting for shared epitope and demographic variables.
An association between the PTPN22 risk variant and increased progression rate for structural damage was found. The results indicate that the PTPN22 gene may not only be associated with disease susceptibility, but also with disease progression.
rheumatoid arthritis; PTPN22; longitudinal study; radiographic damage; genetic predisposition
To examine rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with short disease duration over 10 years, and to identify factors that are associated with the course of pain, depression and anxiety.
A cohort of 238 patients with RA (age 20–70 years, mean disease duration 2.3 years, 68% rheumatoid factor positive) was followed with assessments at baseline and after 1, 2, 5 and 10 years. Self‐reported health status was assessed by pain on a 100 mm visual analogue scale, the Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales (AIMS), the 28‐item version of General Health Questionnaires, and the Health Assessment Questionnaire. We also examined the erythrocyte sedimentation ratio, grip strength (kg) and radiographic progression of the hands (van der Heijde modified Sharp score). Repeated measures analyses of variance were used to explore the effect of time on measures of outcome among completers, whereas repeated measures analyses using a mixed model were applied to identify factors that were longitudinally associated with pain, depression and anxiety.
At the various assessment points 30% had a visual analogue scale pain score of ⩾40 mm, 5–13% had an AIMS depression score of ⩾4.0 and 20–30% had an AIMS anxiety score of ⩾4.0. The perceived level of pain was explained longitudinally by anxiety, disease activity, physical function and female gender, depression by high disease activity and anxiety, whereas anxiety was explained by low disease activity and depression.
More patients had increased levels of anxiety (20–30%) than increased levels of depression (5–13%). Several factors, including anxiety, but not depression, were associated with the course of pain.
To describe the prevalence and longitudinal course of radiographic, erosive and symptomatic hand osteoarthritis (HOA) in the general population.
Framingham osteoarthritis (OA) study participants obtained bilateral hand radiographs at baseline and 9-year follow-up. The authors defined radiographic HOA at joint level as Kellgren–Lawrence grade (KLG)≥2, erosive HOA as KLG≥2 plus erosion and symptomatic HOA as KLG≥2 plus pain/aching/stiffness. Presence of HOA at individual level was defined as ≥1 affected joint. The prevalence was age-standardised (US 2000 Population 40–84 years).
Mean (SD) baseline age was 58.9 (9.9) years (56.5% women). The age-standardised prevalence of HOA was only modestly higher in women (44.2%) than men (37.7%), whereas the age-standardised prevalence of erosive and symptomatic OA was much higher in women (9.9% vs 3.3%, and 15.9% vs 8.2%). The crude incidence of HOA over 9-year follow-up was similar in women (34.6%) and men (33.7%), whereas the majority of those women (96.4%) and men (91.4%) with HOA at baseline showed progression during follow-up. Incident metacarpophalangeal and wrist OA were rare, but occurred more frequently and from an earlier age in men than women. Development of erosive disease occurred mainly in those with non-erosive HOA at baseline (as opposed to those without HOA), and was more frequent in women (17.3%) than men (9.6%).
The usual female predominance of prevalent and incident HOA was less clear for radiographic HOA than for symptomatic and erosive HOA. With an ageing population, the impact of HOA will further increase.
Knowledge about the prevalence and consequences of osteoarthritis (OA) in the Norwegian population is limited. This study has been designed to gain a greater understanding of musculoskeletal pain in the general population with a focus on clinically and radiologically confirmed OA, as well as risk factors, consequences, and management of OA.
The Musculoskeletal pain in Ullensaker STudy (MUST) has been designed as an observational study comprising a population-based postal survey and a comprehensive clinical examination of a sub-sample with self-reported OA (MUST OA cohort). All inhabitants in Ullensaker municipality, Norway, aged 40 to 79 years receive the initial population-based postal survey questionnaire with questions about life style, general health, musculoskeletal pain, self-reported OA, comorbidities, health care utilisation, medication use, and functional ability. Participants who self-report OA in their hip, knee and/or hand joints are asked to attend a comprehensive clinical examination at Diakonhjemmet Hospital, Oslo, including a comprehensive medical examination, performance-based functional tests, different imaging modalities, cardiovascular assessment, blood and urine samples, and a number of patient-reported questionnaires including five OA disease specific instruments. Data will be merged with six national data registries. A subsample of those who receive the questionnaire has previously participated in postal surveys conducted in 1990, 1994, and 2004 with data on musculoskeletal pain and functional ability in addition to demographic characteristics and a number of health related factors. This subsample constitutes a population based cohort with 20 years follow-up.
This protocol describes the design of an observational population-based study that will involve the collection of data from a postal survey on musculoskeletal pain, and a comprehensive clinical examination on those with self-reported hand, hip and/or knee OA. These data, in addition to data from national registries, will provide unique insights into clinically and radiologically confirmed OA with respect to risk factors, consequences, and management.
Osteoarthritis; Hand; Hip; Knee; Observational study; Study protocol
Premature arterial stiffening and atherosclerosis are increased in patients with inflammatory arthropathies such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA). The proinflammatory protein calprotectin is associated with inflammatory arthropathies, vascular pathology, and acute coronary events. We examined the long-term effects of treatment with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α antagonists on aortic stiffness and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) in patients with inflammatory arthropathies, and the relationships to the levels of calprotectin.
Fifty-five patients with RA, AS, or PsA and a clinical indication for anti-TNF-α therapy were included and followed with regular examinations for 1 year. Thirty-six patients starting with anti-TNF-α therapy were compared with a nontreatment group of 19 patients. Examinations included assessments of aortic stiffness (aortic pulse wave velocity, aPWV), CIMT, and plasma calprotectin.
After 1 year, aPWV (mean (s.d.)) was improved in the treatment group, but not in the control group (−0.54 [0.79] m/s vs. 0.06 [0.61] m/s, respectively; P = 0.004), and CIMT progression (median (quartile cut-points, 25th and 75th percentiles)) was reduced in the treatment group compared to the control group (−0.002 [–0.038, 0.030] mm vs. 0.030 [0.011, 0.043] mm, respectively; P = 0.01). In multivariable analyses, anti-TNF-α therapy over time was associated with improved aPWV (P = 0.02) and reduced CIMT progression (P = 0.04), and calprotectin was longitudinally associated with aPWV (P = 0.02).
Long-term anti-TNF-α therapy improved aortic stiffness and CIMT progression in patients with inflammatory arthropathies. Calprotectin may be a soluble biomarker reflecting aortic stiffening in these patients.
anti-TNF-α; arterial stiffness; blood pressure; carotid intima media thickness; hypertension; rheumatoid arthritis
Calprotectin (MRP8/MRP14, S100A8/A9) is associated with disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Ultrasonography (US) is a reliable method for evaluation of synovitis (B-mode (BM) and power Doppler (PD)). The present objectives were to explore in RA patients the associations between calprotectin and a comprehensive US examination, as well as the responsiveness of calprotectin compared to other inflammatory markers during anti-TNF treatment.
A total of 20 RA patients starting treatment with adalimumab were examined longitudinally by US (BM and PD (semi-quantitative scores 0 to 3) of 78 joints, 36 tendons/tendon groups and 2 bursae) and clinically at baseline and after 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. Associations between the US sum scores and the inflammatory markers calprotectin, serum amyloid A (SAA), CRP and ESR were explored by correlation and linear regression analyses, and the response to treatment was assessed by Standardized Response Mean (SRM).
The inflammatory markers, clinical examinations and US sum scores improved during treatment (P < 0.001). Of the inflammatory markers, calprotectin had the highest correlation coefficients with the total BM and PD sum scores (median (range) 0.59 (0.37 to 0.76) for BM and 0.56 (0.38 to 0.72) for PD). Even higher correlations were found between calprotectin and sum US scores of reduced number of joint counts. Calprotectin made a considerable contribution to total US sum scores in the linear regression analyses (P = 0.001 to 0.031) and among the inflammatory markers, calprotectin had the highest SRM (0.84 at one month).
Calprotectin was associated with the sum scores from a comprehensive US assessment and was responsive to change during anti-TNF treatment. Thus, examination of this leukocyte protein could be of additional value in the assessment of RA patients on biologic treatment.
Calprotectin; acute phase proteins; rheumatoid arthritis; ultrasonography; anti-TNF treatment
The primary objectives were to explore the associations between a comprehensive ultrasonographic (US) assessment of joints, tendons and bursae and previously described reduced joint counts (7-, 12-, 28- and 44-joint score) as well as to assess the sensitivity to change of these different US joint combinations during biological treatment.
Twenty patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were examined by US (B-mode (BM) and power Doppler (PD)) with use of a semi-quantitative (0 to 3) score of 78 joints, 36 tendons/tendon groups and two bursae (hereafter described as the 78-joint score) at baseline and 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after initiating treatment with adalimumab. BM and PD scores for the different joint combinations were generated.
The reduced joint scores had high correlation coefficients with the 78-joint score at all examinations (range 0.79 to 0.99 for BM and 0.77 to 0.99 for PD, each P < 0.001) and sum BM and PD scores of all the different joint combinations improved significantly during follow-up (P ≤ 0.05 to 0.001).
The reduced joint combinations were highly associated to the 78-joint score. Furthermore, all the joint combinations presently explored responded well to biological treatment. This indicates that an approach focusing on few joints and tendons gives equivalent information about the inflammatory activity in RA patients as a comprehensive US examination. The optimal combination of joints and tendons for a valid, reliable and feasible US measurement should be further explored to define a US score for follow-up of RA patients on biological treatment.
Since initial approval for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), rituximab has been evaluated in clinical trials involving various populations with RA. Information has also been gathered from registries. This report therefore updates the 2007 consensus document on the use of rituximab in the treatment of RA.
Preparation of this new document involved many international experts experienced in the treatment of RA. Following a meeting to agree upon the core agenda, a systematic literature review was undertaken to identify all relevant data. Data were then interrogated by a drafting committee, with subsequent review and discussion by a wider expert committee leading to the formulation of an updated consensus statement. These committees also included patients with RA.
The new statement covers wide-ranging issues including the use of rituximab in earlier RA and impact on structural progression, and aspects particularly pertinent to rituximab such as co-medication, optimal dosage regimens, repeat treatment cycles and how to manage non-response. Biological therapy following rituximab usage is also addressed, and safety concerns including appropriate screening for hepatitis, immunoglobulin levels and infection risk. This consensus statement will support clinicians and inform patients when using B-cell depletion in the management of RA, providing up-to-date information and highlighting areas for further research.
New therapeutic strategies and treatment options for RA, a chronic destructive and disabling disease, have expanded over recent years. These have been summarised in general strategic suggestions and specific management recommendations, emphasising the importance of expedient disease-modifying antirheumatic drug implementation and tight disease control. This consensus statement is in line with these fundamental principles of management.
Anti-TNF therapy has been shown to reduce radiographic joint damage in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) independent of clinical response. This has previously not been examined for periarticular bone loss, the other characteristic feature of bone involvement in RA.
The objective of this study was to examine if treatment with the TNF-α inhibitor adalimumab also could reduce periarticular bone loss in RA patients independent of disease activity.
RA patients were recruited from the PREMIER study and included 214 patients treated with methotrexate (MTX) plus adalimumab and 188 patients treated with MTX monotherapy. Periarticular bone loss was assessed by digital X-ray radiogrammetry metacarpal cortical index (DXR-MCI). Change in DXR-MCI was evaluated in patients with different levels of clinical response, as assessed by changes in DAS28 score at 52 weeks and in mean C-reactive protein (CRP) levels during follow-up.
In the MTX group, there was a greater median DXR-MCI loss among patients with moderate and high disease activity compared to those in remission or with low disease activity (-3.3% vs. -2.2%, p = 0.01). In contrast, periarticular bone loss was independent of disease activity (-1.9% vs. -2.4%, p = 0.99) in the combination group. In the MTX group patients with a mean CRP of ≥ 10 mg/l lost significantly more DXR-MCI than patients with low CRP (-3.1% vs. -1.9%, p <0.01) whereas in the combination group no significant differences between the two CRP groups was seen (-2.4% vs. -2.0%, p = 0.48).
Adalimumab in combination with MTX reduces periarticular bone loss independently of clinical response. These results support the hypothesis that TNF-α stimulates the osteoclast not only by the inflammatory pathway but do also have a direct effect on the osteoclast.
ClinicalTrials (NCT): NCT001195663
Isoform 4 of the human peptidylarginine deiminase (hPAD4) enzyme may be responsible for the citrullination of antigens in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and has been shown to be itself the target of disease-specific autoantibodies. Here, we have tested whether the level of serum anti-hPAD4 antibodies in RA patients is stable over a period of 10 years and whether the antibodies influence hPAD4-mediated deimination of the small substrate N-α-Benzoyl-l-arginine ethyl ester. RA sera (n = 128) obtained at baseline and after 10 years were assessed for anti-hPAD4 antibodies by a specific immunoassay. For 118 RA patients, serum anti-hPAD4 IgG levels were stable over 10 years. Seven patients who were negative for anti-PAD4 IgG at baseline had become positive after 10 years. Further, total IgG from selected RA patients and controls were purified, and a fraction was depleted for anti-hPAD4 antibodies. Kinetic deimination assays were performed with total IgG and depleted fractions. The kcat and Km values of hPAD4-mediated deimination of N-α-Benzoyl-l-arginine ethyl ester were not affected by the depletion of the anti-hPAD4 antibodies from the total IgG pool. In conclusion, RA patients remain positive for anti-hPAD4 antibodies over time and some patients who are initially anti-hPAD4 negative become positive later in the disease course. The anti-hPAD4 antibodies did not affect the enzymatic activity of hPAD4 when the small substrate N-α-Benzoyl-l-arginine ethyl ester was used. However, this finding may not exclude an effect of these autoantibodies on citrullination of protein substrates in RA.
Rheumatoid arthritis; Peptidylarginine deiminase 4; Citrulline; Autoantibodies; Medicine & Public Health; Rheumatology
Osteoarthritis of the hands is a prevalent musculoskeletal disease with a considerable effect on patients' lives, but knowledge and research results in the field of hand osteoarthritis are limited. Therefore, the Disease Characteristics in Hand OA (DICHOA) initiative was founded in early 2005 with the aim of addressing key issues and facilitating research into hand osteoarthritis.
To review and discuss current knowledge on hand osteoarthritis with regard to aetiopathogenesis, diagnostic criteria, biomarkers and clinical outcome measures.
Recommendations were made based on a literature review.
Outcomes of hand osteoarthritis should be explored, including patient perspective on the separate components of disease activity, damage and functioning. All imaging techniques should be cross‐validated for hand osteoarthritis with clinical status, including disease activity, function and performance, biomarkers and long‐term outcome. New imaging modalities are available and need scoring systems and validation. The role of biomarkers in hand osteoarthritis has to be defined.
Future research in hand osteoarthritis is warranted.
osteoarthritis; hand; outcome measures; biomarkers; imaging
Variants in CLEC16A have conferred susceptibility to autoimmune diseases in genome-wide association studies. The present work aimed to investigate the locus' involvements in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and further explore the association with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), type 1 diabetes (T1D) and Addison's disease (AD) in the Norwegian population.
Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in patients with RA (n=809), JIA (n=509), T1D (n=1211) and AD (n=414) and in healthy controls (n=2149).
All diseases were associated with CLEC16A, but with different SNPs. The intron 22 SNP, rs6498169, was associated with RA (p=0.006) and JIA (p=0.016) and the intron 19 SNPs, rs12708716/rs12917716, with T1D (p=1×10−5) and AD (p=2×10−4). The RA association was confined to the anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (anti-CCP) negative subgroup (p=2×10−4).
This is the first report of a CLEC16A association with JIA and a split of the RA association according to anti-CCP status. Different causative variants underlie the rheumatic versus the organ specific diseases.
Antitumour necrosis factor can produce remission if started early
Obesity is one of the most important risk factors for osteoarthritis (OA) in knee(s). However, the relationship between obesity and OA in hand(s) and hip(s) remains controversial and needs further investigation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of obesity on incident osteoarthritis (OA) in hip, knee, and hand in a general population followed in 10 years.
A total of 1854 people aged 24–76 years in 1994 participated in a Norwegian study on musculoskeletal pain in both 1994 and 2004. Participants with OA or rheumatoid arthritis in 1994 and those above 74 years in 1994 were excluded, leaving n = 1675 for the analyses. The main outcome measure was OA diagnosis at follow-up based on self-report. Obesity was defined by a body mass index (BMI) of 30 and above.
At 10-years follow-up the incidence rates were 5.8% (CI 4.3–7.3) for hip OA, 7.3% (CI 5.7–9.0) for knee OA, and 5.6% (CI 4.2–7.1) for hand OA. When adjusting for age, gender, work status and leisure time activities, a high BMI (> 30) was significantly associated with knee OA (OR 2.81; 95%CI 1.32–5.96), and a dose-response relationship was found for this association. Obesity was also significantly associated with hand OA (OR 2.59; 1.08–6.19), but not with hip OA (OR 1.11; 0.41–2.97). There was no statistically significant interaction effect between BMI and gender, age or any of the other confounding variables.
A high BMI was significantly associated with knee OA and hand OA, but not with hip OA.
Disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, of which N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is a predictor. Our objective was to examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between markers of inflammation, measures of RA disease activity, medication used in the treatment of RA, and NT-proBNP levels (dependent variable).
Two hundred thirty-eight patients with RA of less than 4 years in duration were followed longitudinally with three comprehensive assessments of clinical and radiographic data over a 10-year period. Serum samples were frozen and later batch-analyzed for NT-proBNP levels and other biomarkers. Bivariate, multivariate, and repeated analyses were performed.
C-reactive protein (CRP) levels at baseline were cross-sectionally associated with NT-proBNP levels after adjustment for age and gender (r2 adjusted = 0.23; P < 0.05). At the 10-year follow-up, risk factors for cardiovascular disease were recorded. Duration of RA and CRP levels were independently associated with NT-proBNP in the final model that was adjusted for gender, age, and creatinine levels (r2 adjusted = 0.38; P < 0.001). In the longitudinal analyses, which adjusted for age, gender, and time of follow-up, we found that repeated measures of CRP predicted NT-proBNP levels (P < 0.001).
CRP levels are linearly associated with levels of NT-proBNP in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of patients with RA. The independent associations of NT-proBNP levels and markers of disease activity with clinical cardiovascular endpoints need to be further investigated.
Prognosis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is difficult to assess. The aim of this study was to examine whether serum levels of a spectrum of cytokines were predictive of radiographic progression in early RA patients.
A total of 82 early RA patients (disease duration < 1 year) were followed for 12 months. Clinical assessments, X-rays of hands and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the dominant wrist were assessed at baseline and after 3, 6 and 12 months. The X-rays were scored according to the van der Heijde modified Sharp score (vdHSS). Cytokine analyses were performed with multiplex technology. Associations between cytokines and radiographic progression were examined by logistic regression.
In all, 49% of the patients developed radiographic progression. The median (interquartile range (IQR)) baseline eotaxin level (pg/ml) was significantly lower in patients with (193 (119 to 247)) than without progression (265 (166 to 360)). In the univariate logistic regression analyses, eotaxin was negatively associated to radiographic progression, and this association was maintained in the multivariate model with an odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI)) for progression of 0.58 (0.41 to 0.82) per 50 pg/ml increase in eotaxin level. None of the other measured cytokines showed any association to radiographic progression.
This study raises the hypothesis that high serum levels of eotaxin predict less radiographic progression in early RA patients.
The aim of this 2-year longitudinal observational study was to explore hand bone loss as a disease outcome measure in established rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
A cohort of 215 patients with RA (170 women and 45 men, aged 20–70 years) were recruited from the Oslo RA registry and studied for changes in hand bone mass during a 2-year follow-up. Digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) was used to measure cortical hand bone mineral density (BMD) and metacarpal cortical index, whereas dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to assess whole hand BMD, which measures total cortical and trabecular bone. DXA-BMD total hip and spine and informative data for disease and therapy were also collected.
Hand bone loss could be revealed over a 2-year follow-up measured by DXR-BMD (-0.90%, P < 0.01), but not by DXA-BMD (0.00%, P = 0.87). DXA-BMD hand bone loss was only observed in patients with disease duration ≤3 years and not in patients with longer disease duration (-0.96% versus 0.24%, P < 0.01), whereas loss of DXR-BMD was independent of disease duration. Disease activity (measured by the disease activity score including 28 joints) independently predicted loss of DXR-BMD but not changes in the DXA-BMD hand in the multivariate analysis. The change in DXR metacarpal cortical index was highly correlated to DXR-BMD (r = 0.94, P < 0.001).
These data suggest that DXR-BMD may be a more appropriate technique to identify RA-related bone involvement in hands compared with DXA-BMD measurement, but further studies are needed to explore this hypothesis.
Therapeutic targets have been defined for diseases like diabetes, hypertension or rheumatoid arthritis and adhering to them has improved outcomes. Such targets are just emerging for spondyloarthritis (SpA).
To define the treatment target for SpA including ankylosing spondylitis and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and develop recommendations for achieving the target, including a treat-to-target management strategy.
Based on results of a systematic literature review and expert opinion, a task force of expert physicians and patients developed recommendations which were broadly discussed and voted upon in a Delphi-like process. Level of evidence, grade and strength of the recommendations were derived by respective means. The commonalities between axial SpA, peripheral SpA and PsA were discussed in detail.
Although the literature review did not reveal trials comparing a treat-to-target approach with another or no strategy, it provided indirect evidence regarding an optimised approach to therapy that facilitated the development of recommendations. The group agreed on 5 overarching principles and 11 recommendations; 9 of these recommendations related commonly to the whole spectrum of SpA and PsA, and only 2 were designed separately for axial SpA, peripheral SpA and PsA. The main treatment target, which should be based on a shared decision with the patient, was defined as remission, with the alternative target of low disease activity. Follow-up examinations at regular intervals that depend on the patient's status should safeguard the evolution of disease activity towards the targeted goal. Additional recommendations relate to extra-articular and extramusculoskeletal aspects and other important factors, such as comorbidity. While the level of evidence was generally quite low, the mean strength of recommendation was 9–10 (10: maximum agreement) for all recommendations. A research agenda was formulated.
The task force defined the treatment target as remission or, alternatively, low disease activity, being aware that the evidence base is not strong and needs to be expanded by future research. These recommendations can inform the various stakeholders about expert opinion that aims for reaching optimal outcomes of SpA.
Treat-to-target; spondyloarthritis; ankylosing spondylitis; psoriatic arthritis; therapy
Apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and lipid levels. In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), an association has been found with disease activity. We examined the associations between APOE genotypes and disease susceptibility and markers of disease severity in RA, including radiographic joint damage, inflammatory markers, lipid levels and cardiovascular markers.
A Norwegian cohort of 945 RA patients and 988 controls were genotyped for two APOE polymorphisms. We examined longitudinal associations between APOE genotypes and C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) as well as hand radiographs (van der Heijde Sharp Score(SHS)) in 207 patients with 10 year longitudinal data. Lipid levels, cardiovascular markers and history of CVD were compared across genotypes in a cross sectional study of 136 patients. Longitudinal radiological data of cohorts from Lund and Leiden were available for replication. (N = 935, with 4799 radiographs).
In the Norwegian cohort, associations between APOE genotypes and total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) were observed (ε2<ε3/ε3<ε4, p = 0.03 and p = 0.02, respectively). No association was present for acute phase reactant or CVD markers, but a longitudinal linear association between APOE genotypes and radiographic joint damage was observed (p = 0.007). No association between APOE genotypes and the severity of joint destruction was observed in the Lund and Leiden cohorts, and a meta- analysis combining all data was negative.
APOE genotypes are associated with lipid levels in patients with RA, and may contribute to dyslipidemia in some patients. APOE genotypes are not consistently associated with markers of inflammation or joint destruction in RA.
HLA-DRB1 shared epitope (SE) alleles are the strongest genetic determinants for autoantibody positive rheumatoid arthritis (RA). One of the key regulators in expression of HLA class II receptors is MHC class II transactivator (CIITA). A variant of the CIITA gene has been found to associate with inflammatory diseases.
We wanted to explore whether the risk variant rs3087456 in the CIITA gene interacts with the HLA-DRB1 SE alleles regarding the risk of developing RA. We tested this hypothesis in a case-control study with 11767 individuals from four European Caucasian populations (6649 RA cases and 5118 controls).
We found no significant additive interaction for risk alleles among Swedish Caucasians with RA (n = 3869, attributable proportion due to interaction (AP) = 0.2, 95%CI: −0.2–0.5) or when stratifying for anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) presence (ACPA positive disease: n = 2945, AP = 0.3, 95%CI: −0.05–0.6, ACPA negative: n = 2268, AP = −0.2, 95%CI: −1.0–0.6). We further found no significant interaction between the main subgroups of SE alleles (DRB1*01, DRB1*04 or DRB1*10) and CIITA. Similar analysis of three independent RA cohorts from British, Dutch and Norwegian populations also indicated an absence of significant interaction between genetic variants in CIITA and SE alleles with regard to RA risk.
Our data suggest that risk from the CIITA locus is independent of the major risk for RA from HLA-DRB1 SE alleles, given that no significant interaction between rs3087456 and SE alleles was observed. Since a biological link between products of these genes is evident, the genetic contribution from CIITA and class II antigens in the autoimmune process may involve additional unidentified factors.
The American College of Rheumatology and the European League Against Rheumatism have developed new classification criteria for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of Phase 2 of the development process was to achieve expert consensus on the clinical and laboratory variables that should contribute to the final criteria set.
Twenty-four expert RA clinicians (12 from Europe and 12 from North America) participated in Phase 2. A consensus-based decision analysis approach was used to identify factors (and their relative weights) that influence the probability of “developing RA,” complemented by data from the Phase 1 study. Patient case scenarios were used to identify and reach consensus on factors important in determining the probability of RA development. Decision analytic software was used to derive the relative weights for each of the factors and their categories, using choice-based conjoint analysis.
The expert panel agreed that the new classification criteria should be applied to individuals with undifferentiated inflammatory arthritis in whom at least 1 joint is deemed by an expert assessor to be swollen, indicating definite synovitis. In this clinical setting, they identified 4 additional criteria as being important: number of joints involved and site of involvement, serologic abnormality, acute-phase response, and duration of symptoms in the involved joints. These criteria were consistent with those identified in the Phase 1 data-driven approach.
The consensus-based, decision analysis approach used in Phase 2 complemented the Phase 1 efforts. The 4 criteria and their relative weights form the basis of the final criteria set.
Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may differ among rheumatologists and currently, clear and consensual international recommendations on RA treatment are not available. In this paper recommendations for the treatment of RA with synthetic and biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and glucocorticoids (GCs) that also account for strategic algorithms and deal with economic aspects, are described. The recommendations are based on evidence from five systematic literature reviews (SLRs) performed for synthetic DMARDs, biological DMARDs, GCs, treatment strategies and economic issues. The SLR-derived evidence was discussed and summarised as an expert opinion in the course of a Delphi-like process. Levels of evidence, strength of recommendations and levels of agreement were derived. Fifteen recommendations were developed covering an area from general aspects such as remission/low disease activity as treatment aim via the preference for methotrexate monotherapy with or without GCs vis-à-vis combination of synthetic DMARDs to the use of biological agents mainly in patients for whom synthetic DMARDs and tumour necrosis factor inhibitors had failed. Cost effectiveness of the treatments was additionally examined. These recommendations are intended to inform rheumatologists, patients and other stakeholders about a European consensus on the management of RA with DMARDs and GCs as well as strategies to reach optimal outcomes of RA, based on evidence and expert opinion.