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1.  Computer-Aided Quantification of Interstitial Lung Disease from High Resolution Computed Tomography Images in Systemic Sclerosis: Correlation with Visual Reader-Based Score and Physiologic Tests 
BioMed Research International  2015;2015:834262.
Objective. To evaluate the performance of a computerized-aided method (CaM) for quantification of interstitial lung disease (ILD) in patients with systemic sclerosis and to determine its correlation with the conventional visual reader-based score (CoVR) and the pulmonary function tests (PFTs). Methods. Seventy-nine patients were enrolled. All patients underwent chest high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scored by two radiologists adopting the CoVR. All HRCT images were then analysed by a CaM using a DICOM software. The relationships among the lung segmentation analysis, the readers, and the PFTs results were calculated using linear regression analysis and Pearson's correlation. Receiver operating curve analysis was performed for determination of CaM extent threshold. Results. A strong correlation between CaM and CoVR was observed (P < 0.0001). The CaM showed a significant negative correlation with forced vital capacity (FVC) (P < 0.0001) and the single breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity of the lung (DLco) (P < 0.0001). A CaM optimal extent threshold of 20% represented the best compromise between sensitivity (75.6%) and specificity (97.4%). Conclusions. CaM quantification of SSc-ILD can be useful in the assessment of extent of lung disease and may provide reliable tool in daily clinical practice and clinical trials.
doi:10.1155/2015/834262
PMCID: PMC4299560  PMID: 25629053
2.  Memory B cell subsets and plasmablasts are lower in early than in long-standing Rheumatoid Arthritis 
BMC Immunology  2014;15(1):28.
Background
Alterations of B cell subset distribution have been described in the peripheral blood (PB) of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, but no data are available on differences between the onset and the established phases of the disease. The purpose of the study was to clarify whether a peculiar distribution of B cell subsets characterizes RA onset, thus leading to a more favorable clinical response to treatment, and to evaluate the possible association of a particular B cell subpopulation with response to therapy.
Results
122 RA patients were enrolled: 25 had symptom duration less than 3 months and were defined as having “very early RA” (VERA), and 43 had symptom duration from more than 3 months up to one year (early-RA: ERA). The other 54 RA patients had long-standing RA (LSRA). At baseline and at 6-month follow-up visit peripheral blood samples were collected and analyzed by flow cytometry for the distribution of circulating B cell subsets by staining with surface markers CD45, CD19, CD38, CD27 and IgD and intracellular marker ZAP70.
VERA and ERA patients showed higher percentages and absolute counts of circulating antigen inexperienced naïve B cells (IgD + CD27-) and lower percentages and absolute numbers of double negative (IgD-CD27-) memory B cells and plasmablasts (CD38 + CD27+) compared to LSRA patients. At the multivariate analysis, a higher frequency of naïve B cells (IgD + CD27-) at baseline arose as significant predictor of CDAI remission, together with “having VERA disease” and a low disease activity at baseline.
Conclusions
The onset of RA is characterized by higher percentages and absolute numbers of naïve B cells and lower numbers of plasmablasts and double negative memory B cells compared to established RA. Naïve B cells could represent a promising biomarker of outcome.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12865-014-0028-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12865-014-0028-1
PMCID: PMC4168163  PMID: 25187226
Rheumatoid arthritis; B cells; ZAP-70; Autoantibodies; IL-6; BAFF
3.  Toll-Like Receptor 4 Mediates Endothelial Cell Activation Through NF-κB but Is Not Associated with Endothelial Dysfunction in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(6):e99053.
Objective
To investigate the effects of TLR4 antagonism on human endothelial cells activation and cytokine expression, and whether the Asp299Gly TLR4 polymorphism is associated with better endothelial function in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
Methods
Human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), OxPAPC, and free fatty acids (FFA) at baseline and after incubation with the TLR4 antagonist eritoran (E5564). Cytokine expression was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR. In vivo endothelial function was assessed as brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in RA patients with the wild type gene (aa) and with the Asp299Gly TLR4 polymorphic variant (ag).
Results
In HAEC, TLR4 antagonism with eritoran inhibited LPS-induced mRNA expression of IL-6, IL-8, TNFα, CCL-2, VCAM and ICAM (P<0.05 for all) and inhibited Ox-PAPC-induced mRNA expression of IL-8 (P<0.05) and IL-6, albeit not to a statistically significant level (p = 0.07). In contrast, eritoran did not affect FFA-induced mRNA expression of IL-6 (P>0.05). In 30 patients with RA (15 with the ag allele) undergoing measurement of FMD, no differences in FMD and plasma levels of IL-6, IL-8, VCAM, and ICAM were found between the aa and the ag phenotype (P>0.05 for all).
Conclusions
TLR4 signaling in endothelial cells may be triggered by LPS and oxidized phospholipids, leading to endothelial activation and inflammation, which are inhibited by eritoran. Our in vivo investigation, however, does not support an association between the Asp299Gly TLR4 polymorphism and improved endothelium-dependent vasodilator function in patients with RA. Further study is needed to better understand the potential role of TLR4 on endothelial dysfunction in this and other patient populations.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0099053
PMCID: PMC4053330  PMID: 24918924
4.  Obesity as a Risk and Severity Factor in Rheumatic Diseases (Autoimmune Chronic Inflammatory Diseases) 
The growing body of evidence recognizing the adipose tissue (AT) as an active endocrine organ secreting bioactive mediators involved in metabolic and inflammatory disorders, together with the global epidemic of overweight and obesity, rise obesity as a hot topic of current research. The chronic state of low-grade inflammation present in the obese condition and the multiple pleiotropic effects of adipokines on the immune system has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory conditions including rheumatic autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. We will discuss the main relevant evidences on the role of the AT on immune and inflammatory networks and the more recent evidences regarding the effects of obesity on the incidence and outcomes of the major autoimmune chronic inflammatory diseases.
doi:10.3389/fimmu.2014.00576
PMCID: PMC4227519  PMID: 25426122
rheumatic diseases; body mass index; obesity; adipokines; inflammation; rheumatoid arthritis
5.  Porphyromonas gingivalis and the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis: analysis of various compartments including the synovial tissue 
Introduction
We evaluated the presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) DNA in the synovial tissue through synovial biopsy and in other compartments of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients in comparison with patients affected by other arthritides. Possible links with clinical, immunologic and genetic features were assessed.
Methods
Peripheral blood (PB), sub-gingival dental plaque, synovial fluid (SF) and synovial tissue samples were collected from 69 patients with active knee arthritis (32 with RA and 37 with other arthritides, of which 14 had undifferentiated peripheral inflammatory arthritis - UPIA). Demographic, clinical, laboratory and immunological data were recorded. The presence of Pg DNA was evaluated through PCR. The HLA-DR haplotype was assessed for 45 patients with RA and UPIA.
Results
No differences arose in the positivity for Pg DNA in the sub-gingival plaque, PB and SF samples between RA and the cohort of other arthritides. Full PB samples showed a higher positivity for Pg DNA than plasma samples (11.8% vs. 1.5%, P = 0.04). Patients with RA showed a higher positivity for Pg DNA in the synovial tissue compared to controls (33.3% vs. 5.9%, P <0.01). UPIA and RA patients carrying the HLA DRB1*04 allele showed a higher positivity for Pg DNA in the synovial tissue compared to patients negative for the allele (57.1% vs. 16.7%, P = 0.04). RA patients positive for Pg DNA in the sub-gingival plaque had a lower disease duration and a higher peripheral blood leucocyte and neutrophil count. The presence of Pg DNA did not influence disease activity, disease disability or positivity for autoantibodies.
Conclusions
The presence of Pg DNA in the synovial tissue of RA patients suggests a pathogenic role of the bacterium. The higher positivity of Pg DNA in full peripheral blood and synovial tissue samples compared to plasma and synovial fluid suggests a possible intracellular localization of Pg, in particular in patients positive for HLA-DR4.
doi:10.1186/ar4243
PMCID: PMC4060366  PMID: 23777892
6.  Biomarkers of Good EULAR Response to the B Cell Depletion Therapy in All Seropositive Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: Clues for the Pathogenesis 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(7):e40362.
Objective
To find out whether a high number of auto-antibodies can increase the probability of a “good-EULAR response” and to identify the possible biomarkers of response in seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients undergoing the B cell depletion therapy (BCDT).
Patients and Methods
One hundred and thirty-eight patients with long standing RA (LSRA), 75% non or poorly responsive to one or more TNFα blockers, all seropositive for at least one autoantibody (AAB) (RF-IgM, RF-IgA, RF-IgG, anti-MCV, ACPA-IgG, ACPA-IgA, ACPA-IgM) received one full course of BCDT. The major outcomes (moderate or good-EULAR response) were assessed after 6 months of therapy. The IL6 and BAFF levels were also determined.
Results
At a 6-month follow-up, 33 (23.9%) of the RA patients achieved a good EULAR response. Having up to 5-AABs positivity increased the chances for treatment response. After a logistic regression analysis, however, only 4 baseline factors arose as associated with a good-EULAR response: no steroid therapy (OR = 6.25), a lymphocyte count <1875/uL (OR = 10.74), a RF-IgG level >52.1 IU/ml (OR = 8.37) and BAFF levels <1011 pg/ml (OR = 7.38). When all the AABs, except for RF-IgM and ACPA-IgG, were left in the analysis, the two final predictors were no-steroid therapy and low lymphocyte count.
Discussion
The number of AABs increased the chances of being a “good-EULAR” responder. The only predictors, however, at the baseline of a good response in this seropositive cohort of RA patients were 2 simple variables – no steroids and lymphocyte count – and two laboratory assays – IgG-RF and BAFF.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0040362
PMCID: PMC3408482  PMID: 22859946
7.  PTPN22 1858C>T Polymorphism Distribution in Europe and Association with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Case-Control Study and Meta-Analysis 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(9):e24292.
Objective
The PTPN22 rs2476601 polymorphism is associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA); nonetheless, the association is weaker or absent in some southern European populations. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between the PTPN22 rs2476601 polymorphism and RA in Italian subjects and to compare our results with those of other European countries, carrying out a meta-analysis of European data.
Methods
A total of 396 RA cases and 477 controls, all of Italic ancestry, were genotyped for PTPN22 rs2476601 polymorphism. Patients were tested for autoantibodies positivity. The meta-analysis was performed on 23 selected studies.
Results
The PTPN22 T1858 allele was significantly more frequent in RA patients compared to controls (5.7% vs. 3.7%, p = 0.045). No clear relationship arose with the autoantibodies tested. The 1858T allele frequency in Italian RA patients was lower than the one described in northern European populations and similar to the frequency found in Spain, Turkey, Greece, Tunisia. A clear-cut North-South gradient arose from the analysis.
Conclusions
The PTPN22 T1858 allele is associated with RA in the Italian population. A North-South gradient of the allele frequency seems to exist in Europe, with a lower prevalence of the mutation in the Mediterranean area.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0024292
PMCID: PMC3174938  PMID: 21949702
8.  The 2010 American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism Classification Criteria for Rheumatoid Arthritis 
Arthritis and rheumatism  2010;62(9):2582-2591.
Objective
The American College of Rheumatology and the European League Against Rheumatism have developed new classification criteria for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of Phase 2 of the development process was to achieve expert consensus on the clinical and laboratory variables that should contribute to the final criteria set.
Methods
Twenty-four expert RA clinicians (12 from Europe and 12 from North America) participated in Phase 2. A consensus-based decision analysis approach was used to identify factors (and their relative weights) that influence the probability of “developing RA,” complemented by data from the Phase 1 study. Patient case scenarios were used to identify and reach consensus on factors important in determining the probability of RA development. Decision analytic software was used to derive the relative weights for each of the factors and their categories, using choice-based conjoint analysis.
Results
The expert panel agreed that the new classification criteria should be applied to individuals with undifferentiated inflammatory arthritis in whom at least 1 joint is deemed by an expert assessor to be swollen, indicating definite synovitis. In this clinical setting, they identified 4 additional criteria as being important: number of joints involved and site of involvement, serologic abnormality, acute-phase response, and duration of symptoms in the involved joints. These criteria were consistent with those identified in the Phase 1 data-driven approach.
Conclusion
The consensus-based, decision analysis approach used in Phase 2 complemented the Phase 1 efforts. The 4 criteria and their relative weights form the basis of the final criteria set.
doi:10.1002/art.27580
PMCID: PMC3077961  PMID: 20872596
9.  B-Cell Subsets in the Joint Compartments of Seropositive and Seronegative Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) and No-RA Arthritides Express Memory Markers and ZAP70 and Characterize the Aggregate Pattern Irrespectively of the Autoantibody Status 
Molecular Medicine  2011;17(9-10):901-909.
The aim of the present study was to determine whether different subsets of B cells characterize synovial fluid (SF) or synovial tissue (ST) of seropositive or seronegative rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with respect to the peripheral blood (PB). PB, SF and ST of 14 autoantibody (AB)-positive (rheumatoid factor [RF]-IgM, RF-IgA, anti–citrullinated peptide [CCP]), 13 negative RA and 13 no-RA chronic arthritides were examined for B-cell subsets (Bm1-Bm5 and IgD-CD27 classifications), zeta-associated protein kinase-70 (ZAP70) expression on B cells and cytokine levels (interleukin [IL]-1β, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, IL-6, IL-8 and monocyte chemotactic protein [MCP]-1). Synovial tissues were classified as aggregate and diffuse patterns. No differences were found in B-cell percentages or in subsets in PB and SF between AB+ and AB− RA and no-RA. In both AB+ and AB− RA (and no-RA), the percentage of CD19+/ZAP70+ was higher in SF than in PB (AB+: P = 0.03; AB−: P = 0.01; no-RA: P = 0.01). Moreover, SF of both AB+ and AB− RA (and no-RA) patients was characterized by a higher percentage of IgD-CD27+ and IgD-CD27− B cells and lower percentage of IgD+CD27− (P < 0.05) B cells compared to PB. In SF, ZAP70 positivity is more represented in B cell CD27+/IgD−/CD38−. The aggregate synovitis pattern was characterized by higher percentages of Bm5 cells in SF compared with the diffuse pattern (P = 0.05). These data suggest that no difference exists between AB+ and AB− in B-cell subset compartmentalization. CD27+/IgD−/ZAP70+ memory B cells accumulate preferentially in the joints of RA, suggesting a dynamic maturation of the B cells in this compartment.
doi:10.2119/molmed.2011.00034
PMCID: PMC3188870  PMID: 21607290
10.  Very early rheumatoid arthritis is the major predictor of major outcomes: clinical ACR remission and radiographic non-progression 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  2011;70(7):1292-1295.
Objectives
To identify predictors of clinical remission as well as of no x-ray progression in a cohort of early rheumatoid arthritis (ERA) treated with a tight-control protocol.
Methods
A total of 121 consecutive patients with ERA were treated to reach European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) and/or American College of Rheumatology (ACR) clinical remission with methotrexate (MTX) for 3 months, then with a combination with anti-tumour necrosis factor if the patient did not achieve a 44-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS44) ≤2.4. At baseline and after 12 months all the patients had hand and foot joint radiographs. Very early rheumatoid arthritis (VERA) was defined as a disease with symptoms of less than 12 weeks.
Results
In all, 46.3% of the patients reached DAS remission and 24.8% achieved ACR remission. More than 60% of patients reached remission with MTX. Male sex and an erythrocyte sedimentation rate <35 mm/h at onset arose as significant predictors of EULAR remission, while VERA disease was the only predictor of ACR remission. At baseline, 28.1% of the patients were erosive. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the only independent predictor of erosiveness was ‘not having VERA disease’. After 12 months, VERA was the only factor predicting a lack of new erosions.
Conclusions
VERA represents the best therapeutic opportunity in clinical practice to achieve a complete remission and to stop the erosive course of rheumatoid arthritis.
doi:10.1136/ard.2010.142729
PMCID: PMC3103665  PMID: 21515600
11.  Updated consensus statement on the use of rituximab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  2011;70(6):909-920.
Background
Since initial approval for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), rituximab has been evaluated in clinical trials involving various populations with RA. Information has also been gathered from registries. This report therefore updates the 2007 consensus document on the use of rituximab in the treatment of RA.
Methods
Preparation of this new document involved many international experts experienced in the treatment of RA. Following a meeting to agree upon the core agenda, a systematic literature review was undertaken to identify all relevant data. Data were then interrogated by a drafting committee, with subsequent review and discussion by a wider expert committee leading to the formulation of an updated consensus statement. These committees also included patients with RA.
Results
The new statement covers wide-ranging issues including the use of rituximab in earlier RA and impact on structural progression, and aspects particularly pertinent to rituximab such as co-medication, optimal dosage regimens, repeat treatment cycles and how to manage non-response. Biological therapy following rituximab usage is also addressed, and safety concerns including appropriate screening for hepatitis, immunoglobulin levels and infection risk. This consensus statement will support clinicians and inform patients when using B-cell depletion in the management of RA, providing up-to-date information and highlighting areas for further research.
Conclusion
New therapeutic strategies and treatment options for RA, a chronic destructive and disabling disease, have expanded over recent years. These have been summarised in general strategic suggestions and specific management recommendations, emphasising the importance of expedient disease-modifying antirheumatic drug implementation and tight disease control. This consensus statement is in line with these fundamental principles of management.
doi:10.1136/ard.2010.144998
PMCID: PMC3086093  PMID: 21378402
12.  β-thymosins and interstitial lung disease: study of a scleroderma cohort with a one-year follow-up 
Respiratory Research  2011;12(1):22.
Background
β-thymosins play roles in cytoskeleton rearrangement, angiogenesis, fibrosis and reparative process, thus suggesting a possible involvement in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis. The aim of the study was to investigate the presence of thymosins β4, β4 sulfoxide, and β10 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of scleroderma patients with interstitial lung disease and the relation of these factors with pulmonary functional and radiological parameters.
Methods
β-thymosins concentrations were determined by Reverse Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray-Mass Spectrometry in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of 46 scleroderma patients with lung involvement and of 15 controls.
Results
Thymosin β4, β4 sulfoxide, and β10 were detectable in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients and controls. Thymosin β4 levels were significantly higher in scleroderma patients than in controls. In addition, analyzing the progression of scleroderma lung disease at one-year follow-up, we have found that higher thymosin β4 levels seem to have a protective role against lung tissue damage. Thymosin β4 sulfoxide levels were higher in the smokers and in the scleroderma patients with alveolitis.
Conclusions
We describe for the first time β-thymosins in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and their possible involvement in the pathogenesis of scleroderma lung disease. Thymosin β4 seems to have a protective role against lung tissue damage, while its oxidation product mirrors an alveolar inflammatory status.
doi:10.1186/1465-9921-12-22
PMCID: PMC3045324  PMID: 21314931
13.  Interleukin-1β and Interleukin-6 in Arthritis Animal Models: Roles in the Early Phase of Transition from Acute to Chronic Inflammation and Relevance for Human Rheumatoid Arthritis 
Molecular Medicine  2010;16(11-12):552-557.
Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is the major target of the therapeutic approach in rheumatoid arthritis. A key issue in the approach to chronic arthritis is the understanding of the crucial molecules driving the transition from the acute phase to the chronic irreversible phase of the disease. In this review we analyzed five experimental arthritis animal models (antigen-induced arthritis, adjuvant-induced arthritis, streptococcal cell wall arthritis, collagen-induced arthritis and SKG) considered as possible scenarios to facilitate interpretation of the biology of human rheumatoid arthritis. The SKG model is strictly dependent on interleukin (IL)-6. In the other models, IL-1β and IL-6, more than TNF-α, appear to be relevant in driving the transition, which suggests that these should be the targets of an early intervention to stop the course toward the chronic form of the disease.
doi:10.2119/molmed.2010.00067
PMCID: PMC2972398  PMID: 20683549
14.  Modeling the Ternary Complex TCR-Vβ/CollagenII(261–273)/HLA-DR4 Associated with Rheumatoid Arthritis 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(7):e11550.
Background
It is known that genetic predisposition to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with the MHC class II allele HLA-DR4 and that residues 261–273 of type II collagen (huCollp261) represent an immunodominant T cell epitope restricted by the DR4 molecule. Despite recent advances in characterization of MHC and T cell receptor (TCR) contacts to this epitope, the atomic details of TCR/huCollp261/HLA-DR4 ternary complex are not known.
Methodology/Principal Findings
Here we have used computational modeling to get insight into this interaction. A three-dimensional model of the TCR Vβ domain from a DR4+ patient affected by RA has been derived by homology modeling techniques. Subsequently, the structure of the TCR Vβ domain in complex with huCollp261/HLA-DR4 was obtained from a docking approach in conjunction with a filtering procedure based on biochemical information. The best complex from the docking experiments was then refined by 20 ns of molecular dynamics simulation in explicit water. The predicted model is consistent with available experimental data. Our results indicate that residues 97–101 of CDR3β are critical for recognition of huCollp261/HLA-DR4 by TCR. We also show that TCR contacts on p/MHC surface affect the conformation of the shared epitope expressed by DR alleles associated with RA susceptibility.
Conclusions/Significance
This work presents a three-dimensional model for the ternary complex TCR-Vβ/collagenII(261–273)/HLA-DR4 associated with rheumatoid arthritis that can provide insights into the molecular mechanisms of self reactivity.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011550
PMCID: PMC2904365  PMID: 20644721
15.  B cell depletion in diffuse progressive systemic sclerosis: safety, skin score modification and IL-6 modulation in an up to thirty-six months follow-up open-label trial 
Introduction
An over-expression of CD19 has been shown in B cells of systemic sclerosis (SSc) and B cells are thought to contribute to the induction of skin fibrosis in the tight skin mouse model. The aim was to define the outcome on safety and the change in skin score after rituximab therapy in SSc patients and to correlate the clinical characteristics with the levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and with the immune cell infiltrate detected by immunohistochemistry.
Methods
Nine patients with SSc with mean age 40.9 ± 11.1 years were treated with anti-CD20, 1 g at time 0 and after 14 days. Skin biopsy was performed at baseline and during the follow-up. B-cell activating factor (BAFF) and IL-6 levels were also determined at the follow-up times.
Results
After 6 months patients presented a median decrease of the skin score of 43.3% (range 21.1-64.0%), and a decrease in disease activity index and disease severity index. IL-6 levels decreased permanently during the follow up. After treatment, a complete depletion of peripheral blood B cells was observed in all but 2 patients. Only 3 patients presented CD20 positive cells in the biopsy of the involved skin at baseline.
Conclusions
Anti-CD20 treatment has been well tolerated and SSc patients experienced an improvement of the skin score and of clinical symptoms. The clear fall in IL-6 levels could contribute to the skin fibrosis improvement, while the presence of B cells in the skin seems to be irrelevant with respect to the outcome after B cell depletion.
Trial registration
ISRCTN77554566.
doi:10.1186/ar2965
PMCID: PMC2888203  PMID: 20338043
16.  Work disability remains a major problem in rheumatoid arthritis in the 2000s: data from 32 countries in the QUEST-RA Study 
Introduction
Work disability is a major consequence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), associated not only with traditional disease activity variables, but also more significantly with demographic, functional, occupational, and societal variables. Recent reports suggest that the use of biologic agents offers potential for reduced work disability rates, but the conclusions are based on surrogate disease activity measures derived from studies primarily from Western countries.
Methods
The Quantitative Standard Monitoring of Patients with RA (QUEST-RA) multinational database of 8,039 patients in 86 sites in 32 countries, 16 with high gross domestic product (GDP) (>24K US dollars (USD) per capita) and 16 low-GDP countries (<11K USD), was analyzed for work and disability status at onset and over the course of RA and clinical status of patients who continued working or had stopped working in high-GDP versus low-GDP countries according to all RA Core Data Set measures. Associations of work disability status with RA Core Data Set variables and indices were analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression analyses.
Results
At the time of first symptoms, 86% of men (range 57%-100% among countries) and 64% (19%-87%) of women <65 years were working. More than one third (37%) of these patients reported subsequent work disability because of RA. Among 1,756 patients whose symptoms had begun during the 2000s, the probabilities of continuing to work were 80% (95% confidence interval (CI) 78%-82%) at 2 years and 68% (95% CI 65%-71%) at 5 years, with similar patterns in high-GDP and low-GDP countries. Patients who continued working versus stopped working had significantly better clinical status for all clinical status measures and patient self-report scores, with similar patterns in high-GDP and low-GDP countries. However, patients who had stopped working in high-GDP countries had better clinical status than patients who continued working in low-GDP countries. The most significant identifier of work disability in all subgroups was Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) functional disability score.
Conclusions
Work disability rates remain high among people with RA during this millennium. In low-GDP countries, people remain working with high levels of disability and disease activity. Cultural and economic differences between societies affect work disability as an outcome measure for RA.
doi:10.1186/ar2951
PMCID: PMC2888189  PMID: 20226018
18.  Etanercept maintains the clinical benefit achieved by infliximab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis who discontinued infliximab because of side effects 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  2006;66(2):249-252.
Objective
To evaluate the efficacy of switching to etanercept treatment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis who already responded to infliximab, but presented side effects.
Methods
Charts of 553 patients with rheumatoid arthritis were retrospectively reviewed to select patients who responded to the treatment with infliximab and switched to etanercept because of occurrence of adverse effects. Clinical data were gathered during 24 weeks of etanercept treatment and for the same period of infliximab treatment before infliximab was stopped. Disease Activity Score computed on 44 joints (DAS‐44), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) 1st hour, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) of pain, Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), and C reactive protein (CRP) were assessed every 8 weeks.
Results
37 patients were analysed. Adverse events to infliximab were mostly infusion reactions. No statistically significant difference between infliximab, before withdrawal, and etanercept, after 24 weeks, was detected in terms of DAS‐44 (2.7 and 1.9, respectively), HAQ (0.75 and 0.75, respectively), ESR (21 and 14, respectively) and CRP (0.5 and 0.3, respectively). VAS pain decreased significantly after switching to etanercept treatment (40 and 24, respectively; p<0.05).
Conclusions
Our study shows that etanercept maintains the clinical benefit achieved by infliximab, and suggests that a second tumour necrosis factor (TNF) α inhibitor can be the favourable treatment for rheumatoid arthritis when the first TNFα blocker has been withdrawn because of adverse events.
doi:10.1136/ard.2006.058776
PMCID: PMC1798487  PMID: 16837489
19.  ACR70-disease activity score remission achievement from switches between all the available biological agents in rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review of the literature 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2009;11(6):R163.
Introduction
The aim of our analysis was to compare the gaining of a major response (disease activity score [DAS] remission or American College of Rheumatology 70% improvement criteria [ACR70]) by switching between all the available biological therapies in rheumatoid arthritis.
Methods
A systematic review was performed including studies, published before December 2008, in which a second biological agent was used and clinical outcomes were evaluated after a first biological failure.
Results
Nine articles were included. Switching from etanercept and/or infliximab to adalimumab is effective with an ACR70 response ranging from 5% to 33%. Rituximab may be slightly more effective than switching to a second anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha (anti-TNFα), reaching an ACR70 or DAS remission response in 12% and 9%, respectively. Clinical trials confirmed the efficacy in switching to abatacept (gain of effect 10.2%). Tocilizumab allows DAS28 (DAS using 28 joint counts) remission in 30.1% but ACR70 only in 12.4% of patients refractory to anti-TNFα.
Conclusions
The efficacy of a second biological agent, irrespective of the mode of action, in reaching an ACR70 or DAS remission after a first biologic is observed from 5% to 15% and from 9% to 15.4%, respectively (except in two studies).
doi:10.1186/ar2848
PMCID: PMC3003527  PMID: 19886983
20.  Cardiovascular disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: results from the QUEST-RA study 
Introduction
We analyzed the prevalence of cardiovascular (CV) disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and its association with traditional CV risk factors, clinical features of RA, and the use of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) in a multinational cross-sectional cohort of nonselected consecutive outpatients with RA (The Questionnaires in Standard Monitoring of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Program, or QUEST-RA) who were receiving regular clinical care.
Methods
The study involved a clinical assessment by a rheumatologist and a self-report questionnaire by patients. The clinical assessment included a review of clinical features of RA and exposure to DMARDs over the course of RA. Comorbidities were recorded; CV morbidity included myocardial infarction, angina, coronary disease, coronary bypass surgery, and stroke. Traditional risk factors recorded were hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, smoking, physical inactivity, and body mass index. Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) (95% confidence interval [CI]) for CV morbidity were calculated using Cox proportional hazard regression models.
Results
Between January 2005 and October 2006, the QUEST-RA project included 4,363 patients from 48 sites in 15 countries; 78% were female, more than 90% were Caucasian, and the mean age was 57 years. The prevalence for lifetime CV events in the entire sample was 3.2% for myocardial infarction, 1.9% for stroke, and 9.3% for any CV event. The prevalence for CV risk factors was 32% for hypertension, 14% for hyperlipidemia, 8% for diabetes, 43% for ever-smoking, 73% for physical inactivity, and 18% for obesity. Traditional risk factors except obesity and physical inactivity were significantly associated with CV morbidity. There was an association between any CV event and age and male gender and between extra-articular disease and myocardial infarction. Prolonged exposure to methotrexate (HR 0.85; 95% CI 0.81 to 0.89), leflunomide (HR 0.59; 95% CI 0.43 to 0.79), sulfasalazine (HR 0.92; 95% CI 0.87 to 0.98), glucocorticoids (HR 0.95; 95% CI 0.92 to 0.98), and biologic agents (HR 0.42; 95% CI 0.21 to 0.81; P < 0.05) was associated with a reduction of the risk of CV morbidity; analyses were adjusted for traditional risk factors and countries.
Conclusion
In conclusion, prolonged use of treatments such as methotrexate, sulfasalazine, leflunomide, glucocorticoids, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha blockers appears to be associated with a reduced risk of CV disease. In addition to traditional risk factors, extra-articular disease was associated with the occurrence of myocardial infarction in patients with RA.
doi:10.1186/ar2383
PMCID: PMC2453774  PMID: 18325087
21.  Functional, radiological and biological markers of alveolitis and infections of the lower respiratory tract in patients with systemic sclerosis 
Respiratory Research  2005;6(1):96.
Background
A progressive lung disease and a worse survival have been observed in patients with systemic sclerosis and alveolitis. The objective of this study was to define the functional, radiological and biological markers of alveolitis in SSc patients.
Methods
100 SSc patients (76 with limited and 24 with diffuse disease) underwent a multistep assessment of cardiopulmonary system: pulmonary function tests (PFTs) every 6–12 months, echocardiography, high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), if clinically advisable. Alveolar and interstitial scores on HRCT and IL-6 plasma levels were also assessed as lung disease activity indices.
Results
90 SSc patients with abnormal PFTs and 3 with signs and/or symptoms of lung involvement and normal PFTs underwent HRCT and echocardiography. HRCT revealed evidence of fibrosis in 87 (93.5%) patients, with 55 (59.1%) showing both ground glass attenuation and fibrosis. In 42 patients who had exhibited ground glass on HRCT and consented to undergo BAL, 16 (38.1%) revealed alveolitis. 12 (75%) of these patients had restrictive lung disease (p < 0.0001) and presented diffuse skin involvement (p = 0.0009). IL-6 plasma levels were higher in patients with alveolitis than in patients without (p = 0.041). On logistic regression model the best independent predictors of alveolitis were diffuse skin involvement (OR(95%CIs):12.80(2.54–64.37)) and skin score > 14 (OR(95%CIs):7.03(1.40–34.33)). The alveolar score showed a significant correlation with IL-6 plasma levels (r = 0.36, p = 0.001) and with the skin score (r = 0.33, p = 0.001). Cultures of BAL fluid resulted positive in 10 (23.8%) of the 42 patients that underwent BAL and after one year a deterioration in PFTs occurred in 8 (80%) of these patients (p = 0.01). Pulmonary artery systolic pressure ≥ 40 mmHg was found in 6 (37.5%) patients with alveolitis.
Conclusion
We found alveolitis only in 38.1% of the patients who had exhibited ground glass on HRCT and then underwent BAL, probably because the concomitant fibrosis influenced results. A diffuse skin involvement and a restrictive pattern on PFTs together with ground glass on HRCT were judged possible markers of alveolitis, a BAL examination being indicated as the next step. Nevertheless BAL would be necessary to detect any infections of the lower respiratory tract that may cause further deterioration in lung function.
doi:10.1186/1465-9921-6-96
PMCID: PMC1208954  PMID: 16107215
22.  Consensus statement on blocking the effects of interleukin-6 and in particular by interleukin-6 receptor inhibition in rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory conditions 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  2012;72(4):482-492.
Background
Since approval of tocilizumab (TCZ) for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), interleukin 6 (IL-6) pathway inhibition was evaluated in trials of TCZ and other agents targeting the IL-6 receptor and ligand in various RA populations and other inflammatory diseases. This consensus document informs on interference with the IL-6 pathway based on evidence and expert opinion.
Methods
Preparation of this document involved international experts in RA treatment and RA patients. A systematic literature search was performed that focused on TCZ and other IL6-pathway inhibitors in RA and other diseases. Subsequently, incorporating available published evidence and expert opinion, the steering committee and a broader expert committee (both including RA patients) formulated the current consensus statement.
Results
The consensus statement covers use of TCZ as combination- or monotherapy in various RA populations and includes clinical, functional and structural aspects. The statement also addresses the second approved indication in Europe JIA and non-approved indications. Also early phase trials involving additional agents that target the IL-6 receptor or IL-6 were evaluated. Safety concerns, including haematological, hepatic and metabolic issues as well as infections, are addressed likewise.
Conclusions
The consensus statement identifies points to consider when using TCZ, regarding indications, contraindications, screening, dose, comedication, response evaluation and safety. The document is aimed at supporting clinicians and informing patients, administrators and payers on opportunities and limitations of IL-6 pathway inhibition.
doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2012-202469
PMCID: PMC3595138  PMID: 23172750
Rheumatoid Arthritis; DMARDs (biologic); Treatment
23.  Blocking the effects of interleukin-6 in rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory rheumatic diseases: systematic literature review and meta-analysis informing a consensus statement 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  2012;72(4):583-589.
Background
Suppression of the immunoinflammatory cascade by targeting interleukin 6 (IL-6) mediated effects constitutes a therapeutic option for chronic inflammatory diseases. Tocilizumab is the only IL-6 inhibitor (IL-6i) licensed for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), but also other agents targeting either IL-6 or its receptor are investigated in various indications.
Objective
To review published evidence on safety and efficacy of IL-6i in inflammatory diseases.
Methods
We performed systematic literature searches in Medline and Cochrane, screened EULAR and American College of Rheumatology meeting-abstracts, and accessed http://www.clinicaltrials.gov.
Results
Comprehensive evidence supports the efficacy of tocilizumab in RA in DMARD-naïve patients, and after DMARD- and TNFi-failure. Randomised comparisons demonstrate superiority of tocilizumab in JIA, but not ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Other indications are currently investigated. Additional IL-6i show similar efficacy; safety generally appears acceptable.
Conclusions
IL-6i is effective and safe in RA and JIA, but not in AS. Preliminary results in other indications need substantiation.
doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2012-202470
PMCID: PMC3595140  PMID: 23144446
Rheumatoid Arthritis; Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis; Treatment; DMARDs (biologic)
24.  Very early rheumatoid arthritis as a predictor of remission: a multicentre real life prospective study 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  2012;72(6):858-862.
Background
To assess whether, in the real world of three early arthritis clinics, early referral could allow the best outcome, ie, remission, to be reached, and whether reaching the outcome was more dependent on therapy than on disease duration or vice versa.
Methods
1795 patients with early arthritis (symptom duration ≤12 months) were entered into a prospective follow-up study. 711 patients (39.6%) were diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Each RA patient was treated according to the local algorithm, in three tertiary referral centres (representing a small province, a medium sized province and a metropolitan area, respectively). Remission, defined using the disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28 <2.6) and American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria, was the major outcome evaluated at the 12-month follow-up.
Results
DAS28 remission was achieved in 34.3% (range 19.5–49%) of RA patients and ACR remission in 15.2% (range 8.5–20.6%). At the multivariate logistic regression analysis only two variables emerged as predictors of the major outcome: being in very early rheumatoid arthritis (VERA; less than 12 weeks symptom duration at the time of first treatment) and being on disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD) within 3 months from disease onset. Among RA patients in remission, only 10% of VERA subjects received an anti-TNF blocker compared with 32.2% of non-VERA patients (p=0.002, OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.64).
Conclusions
In a real-world setting, the 12 weeks disease duration and an early intervention with DMARD represent the most significant opportunities to reach the major outcome, ie, remission of RA. Moreover, VERA represents a window of opportunity in terms of cost saving.
doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2012-201456
PMCID: PMC3664395  PMID: 22798566

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