The burden of disease in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) can be considerable. However, no agreement has been reached among expert members of Assessment of SpondyloArthritis International Society (ASAS) to define severity of AS. Based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), a core set of items for AS has been selected to represent the entire spectrum of possible problems in functioning. Based on this, the objective of this study was to develop a tool to quantify health in AS, the ASAS Health Index.
First, based on a literature search, experts’ and patients’ opinion, a large item pool covering the categories of the ICF core set was generated. In several steps this item pool was reduced based on reliability, Rasch analysis and consensus building after two cross-sectional surveys to come up with the best fitting items representing most categories of the ICF core set for AS.
After the first survey with 1754 patients, the item pool of 251 items was reduced to 82. After selection by an expert committee, 50 items remained which were tested in a second cross-sectional survey. The results were used to reduce the number of items to a final set of 17 items. This selection showed the best reliability and fit to the Rasch model, no residual correlation, and absence of consistent differential item function and a Person Separation Index of 0.82.
In this long sequential study, 17 items which cover most of the ICF core set were identified that showed the best representation of the health status of patients with AS. The ASAS Health Index is a linear composite measure which differs from other measures in the public domain.
Previous reports of the RAPID-axSpA trial (NCT01087762) described the efficacy and safety of certolizumab pegol (CZP) over 24 weeks in patients with axial spondyloarthritis (SpA), including ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and nonradiographic axial SpA. We report efficacy and safety data up to week 96 of the study.
The RAPID-axSpA trial is double-blind and placebo-controlled to week 24, dose-blind to week 48, and open-label to week 204. Outcome variables included Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society criteria for 20% and 40% improvement in disease activity (ASAS20/40), ASAS partial remission responses (analyzed by nonresponder imputation), AS Disease Activity Score (ASDAS), ASDAS inactive disease, ASDAS major improvement, Bath AS Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Bath AS Functional Index (BASFI), and Bath AS Metrology Index (BASMI) linear score (analyzed by the last observation carried forward method). Safety data were collected for patients treated with ≥1 dose of CZP.
Of the 325 patients who were randomized, 218 received CZP from week 0. Of these, 93% completed week 24, 88% completed week 48, and 80% completed week 96. Improvements in ASAS responses were maintained to week 96 (for ASAS20, 67.4%, 72.0%, and 62.8% at weeks 24, 48, and 96, respectively), as well as improvements in ASDAS, BASDAI (mean score 3.3, 3.1, and 3.0 at weeks 24, 48, and 96, respectively), BASFI, and BASMI linear score. Comparable improvements were observed with both dosing regimens (200 mg every 2 weeks or 400 mg every 4 weeks) and in patients with AS and those with nonradiographic axial SpA. In the safety set, adverse events occurred in 279 patients (88.6%) and serious adverse events in 41 (13.0%). No deaths or malignancies were reported.
Clinical improvements to week 24 in both CZP dosing regimens were sustained to week 96. Similar sustained improvements were observed in AS and nonradiographic axial SpA subpopulations. The safety profile was consistent with previous reports from RAPID-axSpA, with no new safety signals observed with longer exposure.
In a prospective randomized clinical trial in elderly patients with metastatic breast cancer, pegylated liposomal doxorubicin and capecitabine demonstrated comparable efficacy and acceptable tolerance as first-line single-agent chemotherapy.
Many included patients were aged = 75 years (54%) and had ≥ 1 geriatric conditions (71%).
Patients aged ≥ 80 years were less likely to complete chemotherapy.
Prospective data on chemotherapy for elderly patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) remain scarce. We compared the efficacy and safety of first-line chemotherapy with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) versus capecitabine in MBC patients aged ≥65 years in a multicentre, phase III trial.
Patients and methods
Patients were randomized to six cycles of PLD (45 mg/m2 every 4 weeks) or eight cycles of capecitabine (1000 mg/m2 twice daily, day 1–14 every 3 weeks).
The study enrolled 78 of the planned 154 patients and was closed prematurely due to slow accrual and supply problems of PLD. Many included patients were aged ≥75 years (54%) and vulnerable (≥1 geriatric condition: 71%). The median dose intensity was 85% for PLD and 84% for capecitabine, respectively. In both arms, the majority of patients completed at least 12 weeks of treatment (PLD 73%; capecitabine 74%). After a median follow-up of 39 months, 77 patients had progressed and 62 patients had died of MBC. Median progression-free survival was 5.6 versus 7.7 months (P = 0.11) for PLD and capecitabine, respectively. Median overall survival was 13.8 months for PLD and 16.8 months for capecitabine (P = 0.59). Both treatments were feasible, grade 3 toxicities consisting of fatigue (both arms: 13%), hand–foot syndrome (PLD: 10%; capecitabine: 16%), stomatitis (PLD: 10%; capecitabine: 3%), exanthema (PLD: 5%) and diarrhoea (PLD: 3%; capecitabine: 5%). Only 1 of 10 patients aged ≥80 years completed chemotherapy, while 3 and 6 patients discontinued treatment due to toxicity or progressive disease, respectively.
Both PLD and capecitabine demonstrated comparable efficacy and acceptable tolerance as first-line single-agent chemotherapy in elderly patients with MBC, even in vulnerable patients or patients aged ≥75 years. However, patients aged ≥80 years were unlikely to complete chemotherapy successfully.
Clinical Trial numbers
EudraCT 2006-002046-10; ISRCTN 11114726; CKTO 2006-09; BOOG 2006-02.
metastatic breast cancer; capecitabine; pegylated liposomal doxorubicin; phase III; elderly; geriatric
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of certolizumab pegol (CZP) after 24 weeks in RAPID-axSpA (NCT01087762), an ongoing Phase 3 trial in patients with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA), including patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and non-radiographic axSpA (nr-axSpA).
Patients with active axSpA were randomised 1:1:1 to placebo, CZP 200 mg every 2 weeks (Q2W) or CZP 400 mg every 4 weeks (Q4W). In total 325 patients were randomised. Primary endpoint was ASAS20 (Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society 20) response at week 12. Secondary outcomes included change from baseline in Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI) linear.
Baseline disease activity was similar between AS and nr-axSpA. At week 12, ASAS20 response rates were significantly higher in CZP 200 mg Q2W and CZP 400 mg Q4W arms versus placebo (57.7 and 63.6 vs 38.3, p≤0.004). At week 24, combined CZP arms showed significant (p<0.001) differences in change from baseline versus placebo in BASFI (−2.28 vs −0.40), BASDAI (−3.05 vs −1.05), and BASMI (−0.52 vs −0.07). Improvements were observed as early as week 1. Similar improvements were reported with CZP versus placebo in both AS and nr-axSpA subpopulations. Adverse events were reported in 70.4% vs 62.6%, and serious adverse events in 4.7% vs 4.7% of All CZP versus placebo groups. No deaths or malignancies were reported.
CZP rapidly reduced the signs and symptoms of axSpA, with no new safety signals observed compared to the safety profile of CZP in RA. Similar improvements were observed across CZP dosing regimens, and in AS and nr-axSpA patients.
Background. Proliferation and differentiation of the endometrium are regulated by estrogen and progesterone. The enormous regenerative capacity of the endometrium is thought to be based on the activity of adult stem cells. However, information on endocrine regulatory mechanisms in human endometrial stem cells is scarce. In the present study, we investigated the expression of ERα, ERβ, and PR in clonal cultures of human endometrial stem cells derived from transcervical biopsies. Methods. Endometrial tissue of 11 patients was obtained by transcervical biopsy. Stromal cell suspensions were plated at clonal density and incubated for 15 days. Expression of ERα, ERβ and PR was determined by qPCR prior to and after one cloning round, and normalized to 18 S rRNA expression. Results. Expression of ERα and ERβ was downregulated by 64% and 89%, respectively (P = 0.002 and P < 0.001). In contrast, PR was not significantly downregulated, due to a more heterogenous expression pattern. Conclusions. Culture of human endometrial stroma cells results in a downregulation of ERα and ERβ, while expression of PR remained unchanged in our patient collective. These results support the hypothesis that stem cells may not be subject to direct stimulation by sex steroids, but rather by paracrine mechanisms within the stem cell niche.
stem cells; endometrium; estrogen receptor; progesterone receptor; and endometriosis.
This first update of the ASAS/EULAR recommendations on the management of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is based on the original paper, a systematic review of existing recommendations and the literature since 2005 and the discussion and agreement among 21 international experts, 2 patients and 2 physiotherapists in a meeting in February 2010. Each original bullet point was discussed in detail and reworded if necessary. Decisions on new recommendations were made — if necessary after voting. The strength of the recommendations (SOR) was scored on an 11-point numerical rating scale after the meeting by email. These recommendations apply to patients of all ages that fulfill the modified NY criteria for AS, independent of extra-articular manifestations, and they take into account all drug and non-drug interventions related to AS. Four overarching principles were introduced, implying that one bullet has been moved to this section. There are now 11 bullet points including 2 new ones, one related to extra-articular manifestations and one to changes in the disease course. With a mean score of 9.1 (range 8-10) the SOR was generally very good.
Patients with advanced ankylosing spondylitis (AS) experience disability because of reduced spinal mobility and pulmonary function impairment. This placebo-controlled study evaluated the effect of etanercept (ETN) in patients with advanced AS.
A multicentre randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial of 12 weeks' duration was performed. Patients had definite (modified New York criteria), active (Bath AS Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) ≥40), severe (radiological intervertebral bridges) AS refractory to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and were antitumour necrosis factor naive. They were treated with ETN 50 mg once weekly or identical placebo (PBO).
Of the 95 patients screened, 82 were randomised to receive ETN (n=39) or PBO (n=43). At baseline the disease was active (mean BASDAI 61.0±13.4, C reactive protein (CRP) 20.7±25.5 mg/l) and severe (mean Bath AS Metrology Index (BASMI) 5.7±1.3, mSASSS 36.5±20.5); forced pulmonary vital capacity (FVC) was 3.3±0.7 l. Improvement in BASDAI (normalised net incremental area under the curve between baseline and week 12, primary end point) was significantly greater in the ETN group than in the PBO group (−19.8±16.5 vs −11.0±16.4, p=0.019). Moreover, at week 12, ETN gave better results than PBO for the BASDAI (−26.4±19.7 vs −14.4±19.7; p=0.008), total back pain (−29.2±24.0 vs −14.9±24.0; p=0.010), BASFI (−21.7±17.6 vs −10.1±17.6; p=0.004), BASMI (−0.6±0.6 vs −0.2±0.6; p=0.011), CRP level (−15.7±14.2 vs −1.3±14.2; p<0.001) and FVC (+160±280 ml vs −20±280 ml; p=0.006).
ETN has short-term efficacy for patients with advanced AS, as was previously reported for less advanced disease. The efficacy is observed for the main symptoms (pain) and on markers of inflammation (CRP), as well as disease severity in terms of spinal mobility and pulmonary function.
To confirm the effectiveness and safety of the interleukin 6-receptor antagonist tocilizumab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in a setting close to real-life medical care in Germany.
A multicentre open-label phase IIIb study was undertaken. Patients with active RA with a 28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28) >3.2 despite previous disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) were treated with tocilizumab 8 mg/kg every 4 weeks. The primary end point was the proportion of patients achieving LDAS ≤3.2 at week 24; secondary end points included American College of Rheumatology (ACR), European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) or Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI) responses and decrease in acute phase. Analyses in subgroups such as rheumatoid factor (RF)-positive versus RF-negative patients and patients with an inadequate response to treatment with DMARDs (DMARD-IR) versus those with an inadequate response to tumour necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists (TNF antagonist-IR) were performed. Safety was assessed by adverse event documentation.
286 patients were treated and 83.6% completed the study. 41.6% had previously been treated with TNF antagonists. 57% of the intention-to-treat patients achieved the primary end point of LDAS, 47.6% achieved DAS remission <2.6 and a EULAR ‘good response’ was achieved by 54.9%; ACR50/70 response rates at week 24 were 50.7% and 33.9%, respectively. The mean±SD decrease in CDAI from baseline to week 24 was 71±29%. C reactive protein levels normalised rapidly within 1 week. Major improvements in fatigue, pain and morning stiffness were observed in the first 4 weeks and further improved until week 24. DAS28, EULAR and ACR responses at week 24 did not differ between RF-positive and RF-negative patients. TNF antagonist-naive patients responded better than patients who had previously failed on TNF antagonists. The safety profile of tocilizumab was comparable to that previously observed in the phase III trial programme. Serious infections were observed in 3.1% of patients.
Tocilizumab is highly effective in a setting close to real-life medical care with a rapid and sustained improvement in signs and symptoms of RA. A manageable safety profile was seen over the 24-week study period.
Structural changes such as erosions, syndesmophytes and ankylosis are characteristic of ankylosing spondylitis (AS). These can be quantified by the modified Stokes Anklylosing Spondylitis Spinal Score (mSASSS). It is unknown which radiographic feature is most relevant for the assessment of change and the prediction of future damage in AS.
To analyse radiographic progression in AS by using different assessments to define the most important changes.
Spinal radiographs of 116 patients with AS were scored by the mSASSS at baseline (BL) and after 2 years. Radiographic progression was assessed by differentiating (1) any change; (2) progression to syndesmophytes/ankylosis (definite change); and (3) changes exceeding the smallest detectable change (SDC) as predefined. A growth angle of 45° was used to differentiate syndesmophytes from spondylophytes.
Some radiographic progression after 2 years was detected in 42% of patients, novel syndesmophytes in 31% of patients, and, using the SDC (calculated at 2 mSASSS units) as cut‐off, progression was seen in 28% of patients. Thus, in 74% of the patients changes were because of syndesmophytes and/or ankylosis. Using the predefined cut‐off, only 12% of all syndesmophytes were spondylophytes. Patients with such changes were of older age. Definite radiographic progression was found in 44% of the patients with syndesmophytes/ankylosis at BL (n = 57) versus 19% (p = 0.03) of the patients without such changes (n = 59).
Syndesmophytes and ankylosis are the most relevant structural changes in AS, and also in the mSASSS. Development of just one syndesmophyte within 2 years indicates progression of structural changes in AS; this is relevant for clinical practice. Syndesmophytes are the best predictors of radiographic progression.
Hemodynamic monitoring and adequate volume-therapy, as well as the treatment with positive inotropic drugs and vasopressors are the basic principles of the postoperative intensive care treatment of patient after cardiothoracic surgery. The goal of these S3 guidelines is to evaluate the recommendations in regard to evidence based medicine and to define therapy goals for monitoring and therapy. In context with the clinical situation the evaluation of the different hemodynamic parameters allows the development of a therapeutic concept and the definition of goal criteria to evaluate the effect of treatment.
Up to now there are only guidelines for subareas of postoperative treatment of cardiothoracic surgical patients, like the use of a pulmonary artery catheter or the transesophageal echocardiography.
The German Society for Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Thorax-, Herz- und Gefäßchirurgie, DGTHG) and the German Society for Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Anästhesiologie und lntensivmedizin, DGAI) made an approach to ensure and improve the quality of the postoperative intensive care medicine after cardiothoracic surgery by the development of S3 consensus-based treatment guidelines.
Goal of this guideline is to assess the available monitoring methods with regard to indication, procedures, predication, limits, contraindications and risks for use. The differentiated therapy of volume-replacement, positive inotropic support and vasoactive drugs, the therapy with vasodilatators, inodilatators and calcium sensitizers and the use of intra-aortic balloon pumps will also be addressed.
The guideline has been developed following the recommendations for the development of guidelines by the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (AWMF). The presented key messages of the guidelines were approved after two consensus meetings under the moderation of the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (AWMF).
intensive care medicine; cardiothoracic surgery; monitoring; volume therapy; positive inotropic and vasoactive drugs
To determine the type and proportion of patients with ankylosing spondylitis who rheumatologists consider to be candidates for treatment with tumour necrosis factor (TNF)‐blocking agents, and to what extent this is in agreement with the ASsessment in Ankylosing Spondylitis (ASAS) international working group recommendations on initiation of treatment with anti‐TNF agents.
Participants were rheumatologists from 10 different countries, who were considered to be experts in treating patients with ankylosing spondylitis and in the use of anti‐TNF treatment, but were unaware of the ASAS recommendations (unpublished at the time of study in 2003). The first 10 consecutive patients with ankylosing spondylitis seen by the rheumatologist were evaluated as to whether the patient was a candidate for anti‐TNF treatment. Thereafter, a metrologist assessed the patient for disease activity and severity, and collected data on demographics and treatment.
Complete data were available for 1207 of the 1284 patients and were used for analysis. Overall, the rheumatologists indicated that they would initiate TNF‐blocking agents in 49.3% of patients, ranging from 37.2% patients in Canada to 78.3% in Australia. These candidates had higher disease activity, higher levels of acute‐phase reactants, worse spinal mobility, worse function, more often hip involvement and a higher prevalence of sick leave. Of all patients considered to be candidates, 40% did not fulfil ASAS recommendations with respect to previous use of non‐steroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs; at least two NSAIDs) or Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (⩾4). Conversely, 36% of patients who did not fulfil the NSAID or BASDAI recommendations were still considered to be candidates for TNF‐blocking treatment. Objective variables, such as C reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate or magnetic resonance activity, were considered less important than disease activity in the decision on starting TNF‐blocking drugs. The only important objective criterion was rapid radiographic progression.
Rheumatologists wanted to initiate TNF‐blocking drugs in roughly half of the patients with ankylosing spondylitis. However, there was a wide variation across countries and doctors. Rheumatologists considered both disease activity and severity to be determinants of starting TNF blockers, but their decision was often in disagreement with ASAS recommendations.
The concept and definition of disease duration in patients with ankylosing spondylitis is ambiguous, and often many years pass between the onset of symptoms and diagnosis. Members of the Assessment in Ankylosing Spondylitis (ASAS) International Working Group by consensus recently recommended identifying specific components of the medical history to better define and document the concept of disease duration. These include (1) the time of onset of the first symptoms of axial manifestations (including inflammatory back pain); (2) the time of onset of the first symptoms of each individual manifestation, which may be an extra‐axial sign or symptom of ankylosing spondylitis, such as peripheral arthritis and enthesitis; (3) the time of onset of associated diseases belonging to the spondyloarthritides, in particular acute anterior uveitis, inflammatory bowel disease and psoriasis; and (4) the time since actual diagnosis by a healthcare provider. Such uniformity in data collection will ensure comparability across studies and facilitate future research.
To assess the effect of sulfasalazine (SSZ) on inflammatory back pain (IBP) due to active undifferentiated spondyloarthritis (uSpA) or ankylosing spondylitis in patients with symptom duration <5 years.
Patients with IBP and a Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) >3 from 12 centres were randomly assigned to 24 weeks' treatment with SSZ 2 g/day or placebo. The primary outcome variable was the change in BASDAI over 6 months. Secondary outcomes included measures of spinal pain, physical function and inflammation.
230 patients (50% men, age range 18–64 years, 67% human leucocyte antigen B27 positive) were treated with either SSZ 2×1 g/day or placebo for 6 months. Enthesitis was found in 50%, and peripheral arthritis in 47% of the patients. The mean (SD) BASDAI dropped markedly in both groups: by 3.7 (2.7) and 3.8 (2.4), respectively, as did most secondary outcome measures. No noticeable difference in treatment was observed between groups. Patients with IBP and no peripheral arthritis had significantly (p = 0.03) more benefit with SSZ (BASDAI 5.1 (1.3) to 2.8 (2.3)) than with placebo (5.2 (1.6) to 3.8 (2.4)). Spinal pain (p = 0.03) and morning stiffness (p = 0.05) improved with SSZ in these patients, but other secondary outcomes were not markedly different.
SSZ was no better than placebo for the treatment of the signs and symptoms of uSpA; however, SSZ was more effective than placebo in the subgroup of patients with IBP and no peripheral arthritis.
ankylosing spondylitis; evidence; recommendations
To characterise the immunohistological features of sacroiliitis in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) at different disease stages.
Biopsy samples from sacroiliac joints (SIJs) of five patients with AS, two with early, three with advanced changes and samples from age matched controls from one necropsy SIJ and two iliac bone marrow (BM) biopsies were studied. Paraffin sections were immunostained in triplicate for T cells (CD3, CD8), macrophages (CD68), and the cytokines tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα), interferon γ, interleukin (IL) 1β, IL6, IL10, and transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1). Stained cells were counted over one entire high power field (×400) per section in BM, cartilage, and other connective tissue (CT). Results are the mean of three sections.
CD3+ T cells were numerous in the BM of early AS, and in the CT of one patient with early and one with late AS, with variable proportions of CD8+ T cells. All patients with AS had more CD68+ macrophages than controls in BM and CT; in cartilage, one patient with early and one with late AS had increased CD68+ cells, some being osteoclasts. The patient with very early AS had large numbers of TNFα cells in the three tissular areas; for the other patient with early disease they were found only in CT and cartilage. IL6 was seen in 4/4 patients with AS in most areas. Patients with early disease had more T cells, TNFα, and IL6, and patients with advanced AS more TGFβ1.
The immunohistological findings of a limited sample suggest a role for BM in sacroiliitis, for TNFα and IL6 in early, active lesions, and for TGFβ1 at the time of secondary cartilage and bone proliferation.
ankylosing spondylitis; sacroiliitis; immunohistology; tumour necrosis factor α; transforming growth factor β
To develop evidence based recommendations for the management of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) as a combined effort of the ‘ASsessment in AS' international working group and the European League Against Rheumatism.
Each of the 22 participants was asked to contribute up to 15 propositions describing key clinical aspects of AS management. A Delphi process was used to select 10 final propositions. A systematic literature search was then performed to obtain scientific evidence for each proposition. Outcome data for efficacy, adverse effects, and cost effectiveness were abstracted. The effect size, relative risk, number needed to treat, and incremental cost effectiveness ratio were calculated. On the basis of the search results, 10 major recommendations for the management of AS were constructed. The strength of recommendation was assessed based on the strength of the literature evidence, risk‐benefit trade‐off, and clinical expertise.
The final recommendations considered the use of non‐steroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (conventional NSAIDs, coxibs, and co‐prescription of gastroprotective agents), disease modifying antirheumatic drugs, treatments with biological agents, simple analgesics, local and systemic steroids, non‐pharmacological treatment (including education, exercise, and physiotherapy), and surgical interventions. Three general recommendations were also included. Research evidence (categories I–IV) supported 11 interventions in the treatment of AS. Strength of recommendation varied, depending on the category of evidence and expert opinion.
Ten key recommendations for the treatment of AS were developed and assessed using a combination of research based evidence and expert consensus. Regular updating will be carried out to keep abreast of new developments in the management of AS.
ankylosing spondylitis; management; recommendations; evidence based medicine; spondyloarthropathies; ASAS; EULAR
To assess available management strategies in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) using a systematic approach, as a part of the development of evidence based recommendations for the management of AS.
A systematic search of Medline, Embase, CINAHL, PEDro, and the Cochrane Library was performed to identify relevant interventions for the management of AS. Evidence for each intervention was categorised by study type, and outcome data for efficacy, adverse effects, and cost effectiveness were abstracted. The effect size, rate ratio, number needed to treat, and incremental cost effectiveness ratio were calculated for each intervention where possible. Results from randomised controlled trials were pooled where appropriate.
Both pharmacological and non‐pharmacological interventions considered to be of interest to clinicians involved in the management of AS were identified. Good evidence (level Ib) exists supporting the use of non‐steroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and coxibs for symptomatic treatment. Non‐pharmacological treatments are also supported for maintaining function in AS. The use of conventional antirheumatoid arthritis drugs is not well supported by high level research evidence. Tumour necrosis factor inhibitors (infliximab and etanercept) have level Ib evidence supporting large treatment effects for spinal pain and function in AS over at least 6 months. Level IV evidence supports surgical interventions in specific patients.
This extensive literature review forms the evidence base considered in the development of the new ASAS/EULAR recommendations for the management of AS.
ankylosing spondylitis; evidence based medicine; systematic review
To update the international recommendations for use of anti‐tumour necrosis factor (TNF) agents in the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis.
The published recommendations on anti‐TNF treatment in ankylosing spondylitis formed the basis of the update. A questionnaire was sent to the ASAS (assessment in ankylosing spondylitis) members before the final decisions were agreed upon at an international meeting of the ASAS working group.
Only minor changes to the original consensus statement were required. For the initiation of anti‐TNF treatment, there should be: a diagnosis of definitive ankylosing spondylitis (normally based on modified New York criteria); active disease for at least four weeks, as defined by a sustained Bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index (BASDAI) of ⩾4 on a 0–10 scale and expert opinion based on clinical findings; refractory disease, defined by failure of at least two non‐steroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs during a three month period, failure of intra‐articular steroids (if indicated), and failure of sulfasalazine in patients with predominantly peripheral arthritis; and application of the usual precautions and contraindications for biological treatment. For monitoring anti‐TNF treatment: both the ASAS core set for clinical practice and the BASDAI should be followed after the initiation of treatment. Discontinuation of anti‐TNF treatment in non‐responders should be considered after 6–12 weeks. Response is defined by improvement of at least 50% or 2 units (on a 0–10 scale) of the BASDAI.
This updated consensus statement is recommended in guiding clinical practice and as a basis for developing national guidelines. Evaluation and regular update of this consensus statement is subject to further research by the ASAS group.
ankylosing spondylitis; tumour necrosis factor α; infliximab; etanercept; adalimumab
To estimate the incremental cost‐utility of etanercept and infliximab compared with usual care in active ankylosing spondylitis.
A Markov model over five years with cycle times of three months was computed. Patients included all had active disease, defined as Bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index (BASDAI) ⩾4 and could reach low disease activity, defined as BASDAI <4. Non‐response to tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) inhibitors was always followed by cessation of treatment. Response to TNFα inhibitors could be followed at any time by either relapse to BASDAI ⩾4, leading to cessation of treatment, or toxicity, leading to cessation of treatment if major. Probabilities for efficacy, relapse, and toxicity were derived from two European randomised controlled trials. Utilities and costs assigned to the BASDAI disease states were derived from a two year observational Dutch cohort. In sensitivity analyses probabilities of effectiveness, toxicity, costs, and utilities were varied.
Over five years the total quality adjusted life years varied from 2.57 to 2.89 for usual care, compared with 3.13 to 3.42 and 3.07 to 3.35 for etanercept or infliximab. Cumulative costs were between €49 555 to 69 982 for usual care compared with €59 574 to 91 183 or €28 3330 to 106 775 for etanercept and infliximab. This resulted in incremental cost‐utility ratios varying between €42 914 and 123 761 per QALY for etanercept compared with usual care and €67 207 to 237 010 for infliximab. The model was sensitive to drug prices.
Etanercept and infliximab have large clinical effects in ankylosing spondylitis. The present model suggests the high drug costs restricts efficient use in all patients who have a BASDAI >4. The validity of the model is limited by insufficient insight in the natural course of the disease and long term effectiveness and toxicity of TNFα inhibitors.
ankylosing spondylitis; etanercept; infliximab; TNFα inhibitors; cost‐effectiveness
Ten ASAS/EULAR recommendations for the management of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) were published in 2006.
(a) To disseminate and (b) to evaluate conceptual agreement with, and (c) application of, these recommendations as well as (d) potential barriers to the application.
A questionnaire was sent to rheumatologists in 10 countries. It included (a) the text of the recommendations; (b) rheumatologists’ demographic variables; (c) two numerical rating scales from 1 to 10 for each recommendation: conceptual agreement with, and application of, the recommendation (10 indicates maximal agreement and maximal application); and (d) a list of potential barriers to the application of the recommendation. Statistical analysis included descriptive and multivariate analyses.
7206 questionnaires were sent out; 1507 (21%) were returned. Of the 1507 answering rheumatologists, 62% were men, mean (SD) age 49 (9) years, and 34% had an academic position. Conceptual agreement with the recommendations was high (mean (SD) for all recommendations 8.9 (0.9)). Self-reported application was also high (8.2 (1.0)). The difference between agreement and application varied across recommendations and countries. The most pronounced discrepancies were reported for use of anti-tumour necrosis factor drugs in a few countries, with funding as the most commonly reported barrier for application of this recommendation.
This large project has helped the dissemination of the ASAS/EULAR recommendations for the management of AS and shows that conceptual agreement with the recommendations is very high. The project also highlights inequalities in access to healthcare for European citizens with AS.
Objective: To evaluate the continued safety and durability of clinical response in patients with ankylosing spondylitis receiving etanercept.
Methods: 277 patients who had participated in a previous randomised, double blind, placebo controlled 24 week trial were eligible to continue in this open label extension study. All patients who enrolled in the open label extension (n = 257) received subcutaneous etanercept 25 mg twice weekly for up to 72 weeks, for a combined 96 weeks of cumulative trial and open label experience. For the patients who had received etanercept for 24 weeks in the double blind trial, this represented almost 2 years of continuous etanercept treatment.
Results: Patients continuing etanercept treatment had a sustained response for almost 2 years, with 74% achieving an ASsessments in Ankylosing Spondylitis 20% (ASAS 20) response after 96 weeks of etanercept treatment. Patients who had received placebo in the preceding double blind trial had similar responses, with 70% of patients attaining an ASAS 20 response after 24 weeks of etanercept treatment and 78% achieving an ASAS 20 response after 72 weeks. Improved spinal mobility was seen in both groups. Etanercept was well tolerated in patients treated for up to 96 weeks.
Conclusion: The subcutaneous administration of twice weekly doses of etanercept provided sustained durability of response in the improvement of signs and symptoms of ankylosing spondylitis for nearly 2 years.
Background: Anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) treatment is clinically efficacious in patients with active ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and leads to improvement of spinal inflammation, as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. It is unclear whether anti-TNF treatment affects chronic spinal changes in AS.
Objectives: To analyse the effect of infliximab on the radiographic course of AS over 2 years.
Methods: Complete sets of lateral radiographs of the cervical spine and lumbar spine were available from 82 patients from two sources: 41 patients (group 1) had been treated with infliximab (5 mg/kg/6 weeks) as part of a recent randomised controlled trial and 41 patients (group 2) were part of the early German AS cohort (GESPIC), without controlled interventions. Radiographs were obtained at baseline and after 2 years and scored by the modified Stokes AS Spinal Score (mSASSS).
Results: Patients in the infliximab group were older, had a longer disease duration, and more radiographic damage at baseline. The mean (SD) mSASSS change was 0.4 (2.7) and 0.7 (2.8) for groups 1 and 2, respectively (p = NS). Radiographic damage at baseline was a predictor for more radiographic progression. Patients with baseline damage who were treated with infliximab showed a trend for less radiographic progression. No correlations between clinical parameters and radiographic progression were found.
Conclusions: Patients with AS treated with infliximab had less radiographic progression after 2 years. Patients with prevalent radiographic damage are prone to develop more damage over time. Infliximab may decelerate radiographic progression in such patients. Larger studies are needed to prove that anti-TNF treatment inhibits structural damage.