Scavenger receptors constitute a large family of proteins that are structurally diverse and participate in a wide range of biological functions. These receptors are expressed predominantly by myeloid cells and recognize a variety of ligands, including endogenous and modified host-derived molecules and microbial pathogens. There are currently eight classes of scavenger receptors, many of which have multiple names, leading to inconsistencies and confusion in the literature. To address this problem, a workshop was organized by the U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health to help develop a clear definition of scavenger receptors and a standardized nomenclature based on that definition. Fifteen experts in the scavenger receptor field attended the workshop and, after extensive discussion, reached a consensus regarding the definition of scavenger receptors and a proposed scavenger receptor nomenclature. Scavenger receptors were defined as cell surface receptors that typically bind multiple ligands and promote the removal of non-self or altered-self targets. They often function by mechanisms that include endocytosis, phagocytosis, adhesion, and signaling that ultimately lead to the elimination of degraded or harmful substances. Based on this definition, nomenclature and classification of these receptors into 10 classes were proposed. The discussion and nomenclature recommendations described in this report only refer to mammalian scavenger receptors. The purpose of this article is to describe the proposed mammalian nomenclature and classification developed at the workshop and to solicit additional feedback from the broader research community.
Microglia, the principal neuroimmune sentinels of the brain, continuously sense changes in their environment and respond to invading pathogens, toxins and cellular debris. Microglia exhibit plasticity and can assume neurotoxic or neuroprotective priming states that determine their responses to danger. We used direct RNA sequencing, without amplification or cDNA synthesis, to determine the quantitative transcriptomes of microglia of healthy adult and aged mice. We validated our findings by fluorescent dual in-situ hybridization, unbiased proteomic analysis and quantitative PCR. We report here that microglia have a distinct transcriptomic signature and express a unique cluster of transcripts encoding proteins for sensing endogenous ligands and microbes that we term the “sensome”. With aging, sensome transcripts for endogenous ligand recognition are downregulated, whereas those involved in microbe recognition and host defense are upregulated. In addition, aging is associated with an overall increase in expression of microglial genes involved in neuroprotection.
Microglia; Sensome; Direct RNA Sequencing; Aging; Macrophages; classical activation; Microbes; Alternative activation; quantitative transcriptome
Clearance of apoptotic cells is critical for control of tissue homeostasis however the full range of receptor(s) on phagocytes responsible for recognition of apoptotic cells remains to be identified. Here we show that dendritic cells (DCs), macrophages and endothelial cells use scavenger receptor type F family member 1 (SCARF1) to recognize and engulf apoptotic cells via C1q. Loss of SCARF1 impairs uptake of apoptotic cells. Consequently, in SCARF1-deficient mice, dying cells accumulate in tissues leading to a lupus-like disease with the spontaneous generation of autoantibodies to DNA-containing antigens, immune cell activation, dermatitis and nephritis. The discovery of SCARF1 interactions with C1q and apoptotic cells provides insights into molecular mechanisms involved in maintenance of tolerance and prevention of autoimmune disease.
In Alzheimer’s disease soluble amyloid beta (sAβ) causes synaptic dysfunction and neuronal loss. Receptors involved in clearance of sAβ are not known. Here we use shRNA screening and identify the scavenger receptor Scara1 as a receptor for sAβ expressed on myeloid cells. To determine the role of Scara1 in clearance of sAβ in vivo, we cross Scara1 null mice with PS1-APP mice, a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease and generate PS1-APP- Scara1-deficient mice. Scara1 deficiency markedly accelerates Aβ accumulation leading to increased mortality. In contrast, pharmacological upregulation of Scara1 expression on mononuclear phagocytes increases Aβ clearance. This approach is a potential treatment strategy for Alzheimer’s disease.
Microglia; monocytes; Alzheimer’s disease; Transgenic mice; Amyloid; Phagocytosis; Degradation; Protollin; Scavenger receptor
Dendritic cells (DCs) are the bridge between the innate and adaptive immune system. DCs are responsible for sensing and patrolling the environment, initiating a host response and instructing the proper adaptive immune response against pathogens. Recent advances in medical treatments have led to increased use of immunosuppressive drugs, leading to the emergence of fungal species that cause life-threatening infections in humans. Three of these opportunistic fungal pathogens: Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans pose the biggest concern for the immune-compromised host. Here we will review the interactions between DCs and these fungal pathogens, the receptors expressed on DCs that mediate these responses and the signaling mechanisms that shape the adaptive host response.
plasmacytoid dendritic cells; conventional dendritic cells; fungi; Toll-like receptors; scavenger receptors
Chemokines and other chemoattractants direct leukocyte migration and are essential for the development and delivery of immune and inflammatory responses. To probe the molecular mechanisms that underlie chemoattractant-guided migration, we did an RNA-mediated interference screen that identified several members of the synaptotagmin family of calcium-sensing vesicle-fusion proteins as mediators of cell migration: SYT7 and SYTL5 were positive regulators of chemotaxis, whereas SYT2 was a negative regulator of chemotaxis. SYT7-deficient leukocytes showed less migration in vitro and in a gout model in vivo. Chemoattractant-induced calcium-dependent lysosomal fusion was impaired in SYT7-deficient neutrophils. In a chemokine gradient, SYT7-deficient lymphocytes accumulated lysosomes in their uropods and had impaired uropod release. Our data identify a molecular pathway required for chemotaxis that links chemoattractant-induced calcium flux to exocytosis and uropod release.
Donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI), whereby donor mononuclear cells are infused into patients, is one of the few effective immunotherapeutic strategies that generate long-lasting tumor remissions. We previously demonstrated that chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) patients treated with DLI develop high-titer plasma antibodies specific for CML-associated antigens, the majority of which have been reported to bind nucleic acids These observations led us to predict that circulating antibody-antigen complexes in DLI-responsive patients carry nucleic acids that can engage innate immune sensors. Consistent with this, we report here that post-DLI plasma from 5 CML patients that responded to DLI treatment induced massive upregulation of MIP-1α, IP-10, and IFN-α in normal blood mononuclear cells. Importantly, this was not observed with plasma obtained before DLI and from DLI nonresponders and imatinib-treated patients. This endogenous immunostimulatory activity required nucleic acid and protein for its adjuvant effect and activated antigen-presenting cells through the RNA and DNA sensors TLR8 and TLR9. Presence of the immunoglobulin Fc receptor CD32 enhanced cellular responses, suggesting that immunoglobulins associate with this activity. Finally, a TLR-induced expression signature was detectable in post-DLI but not pre-DLI blood, consistent with an active circulating TLR8/9-stimulating factor. We have therefore demonstrated that effective tumor immunity correlates with the presence of endogenous nucleic acid–immunoglobulin complexes in patient plasma, thus providing a putative mechanism for the induction of potent antigen-specific immunity against malignant cells.
Macrophages are important cells in the host resistance to fungal infections, and fungal recognition by macrophages triggers phagocytosis, intracellular killing, induction of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and initiation of the adaptive immune response. All of the receptors that mediate binding and engulfment of fungal pathogens and the signaling pathways triggered by fungal pathogens that regulate anti-fungal immunity are not fully understood. Using an RNAi screen we recently demonstrated that the C. elegans receptors CED-1 and C03F11.3, and their mammalian orthologues, the scavenger receptors SCARF1 and CD36 mediate host defense against the fungal pathogen, Cryptococcus neoformans. Finally, SCARF1 and CD36 function as co-receptors by binding and engulfing fungal pathogens to facilitate Toll-like receptor 2 signaling. Here we will summarize and expand upon our previous findings.
fungi; toll-like receptors; scavenger receptors; macrophages; Caenorhabditis elegans
Receptors involved in innate immunity to fungal pathogens have not been fully elucidated. We show that the Caenorhabditis elegans receptors CED-1 and C03F11.3, and their mammalian orthologues, the scavenger receptors SCARF1 and CD36, mediate host defense against two prototypic fungal pathogens, Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida albicans. CED-1 and C03F11.1 mediated antimicrobial peptide production and were necessary for nematode survival after C. neoformans infection. SCARF1 and CD36 mediated cytokine production and were required for macrophage binding to C. neoformans, and control of the infection in mice. Binding of these pathogens to SCARF1 and CD36 was β-glucan dependent. Thus, CED-1/SCARF1 and C03F11.3/CD36 are β-glucan binding receptors and define an evolutionarily conserved pathway for the innate sensing of fungal pathogens.
The organization of cellular niches has been shown to play a key role in regulating normal stem cell differentiation and regeneration, yet relatively little is known about the architecture of microenvironments that support malignant metastasis.1,2 Using dynamic in vivo confocal imaging, we show that the murine bone marrow (BM) contains unique anatomic regions defined by specialized endothelium. This vasculature expresses the adhesion molecule E-selectin and the chemoattractant SDF-1 in discrete, discontinuous areas that localize the homing of a variety of tumor cell lines. Disruption of SDF-1/CXCR4 interactions inhibits Nalm-6 cell (acute lymphoblastic leukaemia) homing to these vessels. Further studies revealed that circulating leukemic cells engraft surrounding these vessels, suggesting that this molecularly distinct vasculature denotes a microenvironment for early metastatic tumor spread in BM. Finally, purified hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells and lymphocytes also localize to the same microdomains, indicating that this vasculature may function in benign states to demarcate specific portals for entry of cells into the marrow space. Specialized vascular structures therefore appear to delineate a microenvironment with unique physiology that is exploited by circulating malignant cells.
We have evaluated T cell reconstitution and reactivity in patients receiving non-myeloablative haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) protocols involving an anti-CD2 monoclonal antibody (MEDI 507) to treat chemorefractory hematopoietic malignancies.
Three cohorts of 4 patients each and 1 cohort of 6 patients received one of four Medi-507-based regimens, all of which included cyclophosphamide, thymic irradiation and a short post-transplant course of cyclosporine.
Following marked T cell depletion, initially recovering CD4 and CD8 T cells were mainly memory-type cells. A high percentage of CD4 T cells expressed high levels of CD25 in recipients of all protocols except the only protocol to include fludarabine, early post-HCT. CD25 expression varied inversely with T cell concentrations in blood. CD25high CD4 T cells expressed Foxp3 and CTLA4, indicating that they were regulatory T cells (Treg).
Fludarabine treatment prevents Treg enrichment after haploidentical non myeloablative stem cell transplantation, presumably by depleting recipient Tregs. In vitro analyses of allorecognition were consistent with a cytokine-mediated rejection process in one case and in another provided proof of principle that mixed chimerism achieved without GVHD induces donor- and recipient-specific tolerance. More reliable achievement of this outcome could provide a promising strategy for organ allograft tolerance induction.
The three skin disorders of Lyme borreliosis in Europe include erythema migrans, an acute, self-limited lesion; borrelial lymphocytoma, a subacute lesion; and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans, a chronic lesion. Using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, we determined mRNA expression of selected chemokines, cytokines, and leukocyte markers in skin samples from 100 patients with erythema migrans, borrelial lymphocytoma, or acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans and from 25 control subjects. Chemokine patterns in lesional skin in each of the three skin disorders included low but significant mRNA levels of the neutrophil chemoattractant CXCL1 and the dendritic cell chemoattractant CCL20 and intermediate levels of the macrophage chemoattractant CCL2. Erythema migrans and particularly acrodermatitis lesions had high mRNA expression of the T-cell-active chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10 and low levels of the B-cell-active chemokine CXCL13, whereas lymphocytoma lesions had high levels of CXCL13 and lower levels of CXCL9 and CXCL10. This pattern of chemokine expression was consistent with leukocyte marker mRNA in lesional skin. Moreover, using immunohistologic methods, CD3+ T cells and CXCL9 were visualized in erythema migrans and acrodermatitis lesions, and CD20+ B cells and CXCL13 were seen in lymphocytoma lesions. Thus, erythema migrans and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans have high levels of the T-cell-active chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10, whereas borrelial lymphocytoma has high levels of the B-cell-active chemokine CXCL13.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an idiopathic inflammatory disease of the intestine. CD4+ T lymphocytes play an important role in both initiating and regulating intestinal inflammatory immune responses. CD4+CD25+CD45RBlow regulatory T (T reg) cells are capable of preventing the development of colitis in a mouse model of IBD. The precise mechanism of T reg cell–mediated prevention of colitis in this model is unclear, and the role of chemokine receptors in the trafficking and function of T reg cells in this model has not been determined. We examined the role of the chemokine receptor CCR4 in in vivo trafficking and suppressive function of T reg cells in a mouse adoptive transfer model of IBD. CCR4-deficient T reg cells failed to accumulate in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) at early time points (2–5 d) after adoptive transfer, resulting in a failure to suppress the generation of pathogenic T cells and the development of colitis. Moreover, although CCR4-deficent T cells had equivalent in vitro suppressive activity and accumulated in MLNs at later time points (42–56 d), they were unable to suppress colitis. Our study demonstrates that CCR4 plays an important role in T reg cell trafficking in LNs and that this is critical for T reg cell suppressive function in vivo.
Transfer of T cells to freshly irradiated allogeneic recipients leads to their rapid recruitment to nonlymphoid tissues, where they induce graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). In contrast, when donor T cells are transferred to established mixed chimeras (MCs), GVHD is not induced despite a robust graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction that eliminates normal and malignant host hematopoietic cells. We demonstrate here that donor GVH-reactive T cells transferred to MCs or freshly irradiated mice undergo similar expansion and activation, with similar up-regulation of homing molecules required for entry to nonlymphoid tissues. Using dynamic two-photon in vivo microscopy, we show that these activated T cells do not enter GVHD target tissues in established MCs, contrary to the dogma that activated T cells inevitably traffic to nonlymphoid tissues. Instead, we show that the presence of inflammation within a nonlymphoid tissue is a prerequisite for the trafficking of activated T cells to that site. Our studies help to explain the paradox whereby GVH-reactive T cells can mediate graft-versus-leukemia responses without inducing GVHD in established MCs.
Leukotriene B4 is a lipid mediator that recently has been shown to have potent chemotactic activity for effector T lymphocytes mediated through its receptor, BLT1. Here, we developed a novel murine model of acute lung rejection to demonstrate that BLT1 controls effector CD8+ T cell trafficking into the lung and that disruption of BLT1 signaling in CD8+ T cells reduces lung inflammation and mortality in the model. In addition, we used BLT1-deficient mice and a BLT1 antagonist in two tracheal transplant models of lung transplantation to demonstrate the importance of BLT1 for the recruitment of T cells into tracheal allografts. We also show that BLT1-mediated CD8+ T cell recruitment plays an important role in the development of airway fibroproliferation and obliteration. Finally, in human studies of lung transplant recipients, we found that BLT1 is up-regulated on T lymphocytes isolated from the airways of patients with obliterative bronchiolitis. These data demonstrate that BLT1 contributes to the development of lung rejection and obliterative bronchiolitis by mediating effector T lymphocyte trafficking into the lung. This is the first report that describes a pathologic role for BLT1-mediated T lymphocyte recruitment in disease and identifies BLT1 as a potential therapeutic target after lung transplantation.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by pathogenic autoantibodies against nucleoproteins and DNA. Here we show that DNA-containing immune complexes (ICs) within lupus serum (SLE-ICs), but not protein-containing ICs from other autoimmune rheumatic diseases, stimulates plasmacytoid DCs (PDCs) to produce cytokines and chemokines via a cooperative interaction between Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) and FcγRIIa (CD32). SLE-ICs transiently colocalized to a subcellular compartment containing CD32 and TLR9, and CD32+, but not CD32–, PDCs internalized and responded to SLE-ICs. Our findings demonstrate a novel functional interaction between Fc receptors and TLRs, defining a pathway in which CD32 delivers SLE-ICs to intracellular lysosomes containing TLR9, inducing a signaling cascade leading to PDC activation. These data demonstrate that endogenous DNA-containing autoantibody complexes found in the serum of patients with SLE activate the innate immune system and suggest a novel mechanism whereby these ICs contribute to the pathogenesis of this autoimmune disease.
Accumulation of inflammatory microglia in Alzheimer's senile plaques is a hallmark of the innate response to β-amyloid fibrils and can initiate and propagate neurodegeneration characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The molecular mechanism whereby fibrillar β-amyloid activates the inflammatory response has not been elucidated. CD36, a class B scavenger receptor, is expressed on microglia in normal and AD brains and binds to β-amyloid fibrils in vitro. We report here that microglia and macrophages, isolated from CD36 null mice, had marked reductions in fibrillar β-amyloid–induced secretion of cytokines, chemokines, and reactive oxygen species. Intraperitoneal and stereotaxic intracerebral injection of fibrillar β-amyloid in CD36 null mice induced significantly less macrophage and microglial recruitment into the peritoneum and brain, respectively, than in wild-type mice. Our data reveal that CD36, a major pattern recognition receptor, mediates microglial and macrophage response to β-amyloid, and imply that CD36 plays a key role in the proinflammatory events associated with AD.
microglia; scavenger receptor; Alzheimer's disease; chemokine; reactive oxygen species
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the main inducer of shock and death in Gram-negative sepsis. Recent evidence suggests that LPS-induced signal transduction begins with CD14-mediated activation of 1 or more Toll-like receptors (TLRs). The lipid A analogues lipid IVa and Rhodobacter sphaeroides lipid A (RSLA) exhibit an uncommon species-specific pharmacology. Both compounds inhibit the effects of LPS in human cells but display LPS-mimetic activity in hamster cells. We transfected human TLR4 or human TLR2 into hamster fibroblasts to determine if either of these LPS signal transducers is responsible for the species-specific pharmacology. RSLA and lipid IVa strongly induced NF-κB activity and IL-6 release in Chinese hamster ovary fibroblasts expressing CD14 (CHO/CD14), but these compounds antagonized LPS antagonists in CHO/CD14 fibroblasts that overexpressed human TLR4. No such antagonism occurred in cells overexpressing human TLR2. We cloned TLR4 from hamster macrophages and found that human THP-1 cells expressing the hamster TLR4 responded to lipid IVa as an LPS mimetic, as if they were hamster in origin. Hence, cells heterologously overexpressing TLR4 from different species acquired a pharmacological phenotype with respect to recognition of lipid A substructures that corresponded to the species from which the TLR4 transgene originated. These data suggest that TLR4 is the central lipid A–recognition protein in the LPS receptor complex.