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1.  Optical modeling-assisted characterization of dye-sensitized solar cells using TiO2 nanotube arrays as photoanodes 
Summary
Photovoltaic characteristics of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) using TiO2 nanotube (TNT) arrays as photoanodes were investigated. The TNT arrays were 3.3, 11.5, and 20.6 μm long with the pore diameters of 50, 78.6, and 98.7 nm, respectively. The longest TNT array of 20.6 μm in length showed enhanced photovoltaic performances of 3.87% with significantly increased photocurrent density of 8.26 mA·cm−2. This improvement is attributed to the increased amount of the adsorbed dyes and the improved electron transport property with an increase in TNT length. The initial charge generation rate was improved from 4 × 1021 s−1·cm−3 to 7 × 1021 s−1·cm−3 in DSSCs based on optical modelling analysis. The modelling analysis of optical processes inside TNT-based DSSCs using generalized transfer matrix method (GTMM) revealed that the amount of dye and TNT lengths were critical factors influencing the performance of DSSCs, which is consistent with the experimental results.
doi:10.3762/bjnano.5.102
PMCID: PMC4077540  PMID: 24991527
charge generation; dye-sensitized solar cells; generalized transfer matrix method; optical process; photocatalysis; TiO2 nanotubes
2.  DJ-1 contributes to adipogenesis and obesity-induced inflammation 
Scientific Reports  2014;4:4805.
Adipose tissue functions as an endocrine organ, and the development of systemic inflammation in adipose tissue is closely associated with metabolic diseases, such as obesity and insulin resistance. Accordingly, the fine regulation of the inflammatory response caused by obesity has therapeutic potential for the treatment of metabolic syndrome. In this study, we analyzed the role of DJ-1 (PARK7) in adipogenesis and inflammation related to obesity in vitro and in vivo. Many intracellular functions of DJ-1, including oxidative stress regulation, are known. However, the possibility of DJ-1 involvement in metabolic disease is largely unknown. Our results suggest that DJ-1 deficiency results in reduced adipogenesis and the down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines in vitro. Furthermore, DJ-1-deficient mice show a low-level inflammatory response in the high-fat diet-induced obesity model. These results indicate previously unknown functions of DJ-1 in metabolism and therefore suggest that precise regulation of DJ-1 in adipose tissue might have a therapeutic advantage for metabolic disease treatment.
doi:10.1038/srep04805
PMCID: PMC4055892  PMID: 24925581
3.  Proteomic analysis of domestic pig pancreas during development using two-dimensional electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry 
Laboratory Animal Research  2014;30(2):45-53.
Pig pancreas may be a therapeutic resource for human diabetic patients. However, this potential is hindered by a lack of knowledge of the molecular events of pig pancreas development. In this study, the embryonic day 60, neonate and 6-month protein profiles of pig pancreas were ascertained at using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Twenty four proteins were differentially expressed during pig pancreas development. Among them, 12 spots increased and 7 spots decreased according to development. The expression of 5 protein were highest at birth. Expression of digestive enzymes including trypsin, pancreatic triacylglycerol lipase and pancreatic alpha-amylase was elevated in adults, whereas chymotrypsins were highly expressed in neonates. Proteins that were abundantly expressed during gestation were alpha-1-antitrypsin, alpha-fetoprotein and transferrins. Taken together, we found out that several proteins were significantly up- or down- regulated from pig pancreas based on developmental stage. This study will provide basis for understanding development of pig pancreas.
doi:10.5625/lar.2014.30.2.45
PMCID: PMC4079831  PMID: 24999358
Domestic pig; pancreas; development; 2-DE proteomics; MALDI-TOF
4.  The Role of Uric Acid in Kidney Fibrosis: Experimental Evidences for the Causal Relationship 
BioMed Research International  2014;2014:638732.
Hyperuricemia is a common finding in chronic kidney disease due to decreased uric acid clearance. The role of uric acid as a risk factor for chronic kidney disease has been largely debated, and recent studies suggested a role of uric acid in the causation and progression of kidney fibrosis, a final common pathway in chronic kidney disease. Uric acid and xanthine oxidase may contribute to kidney fibrosis mainly by inducing inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and activation of the renin-angiotensin system. Besides, hyperuricemia induces alterations in renal hemodynamics via afferent arteriolopathy and contributes to the onset and progression of kidney fibrosis. Xanthine oxidase inhibitors may prevent kidney damage via lowering uric acid and/or inhibiting xanthine oxidase. However, there is still no sufficient evidence from interventional clinical researches supporting the causal relationship between uric acid and kidney fibrosis. The effect and role of xanthine oxidase inhibitors in preventing kidney fibrosis and chronic kidney disease progression must be further explored by performing future large scale clinical trials.
doi:10.1155/2014/638732
PMCID: PMC4026934  PMID: 24877124
5.  In Vitro Anti-Osteoporosis Properties of Diverse Korean Drynariae rhizoma Phenolic Extracts 
Nutrients  2014;6(4):1737-1751.
Drynariae rhizoma has been used to prevent bone loss that occurs with increasing age. However, the chemical compounds in extracts that act on bone metabolism in herbal medicine are poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate and compare the extraction efficacy of polyphenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, and in vitro anti-osteoporosis properties of water extract (DR-DW) and ethanol extract (DR-EtOH) from D. rhizoma. Total phenolics and flavonoids were better extracted with 70% EtOH, and this extraction method also resulted in higher antioxidant activity and in vitro anti-osteoporosis properties in these extracts. In particular, the contents of phloroglucinol, protocatechuic acid ethyl ester, 2-amino-3,4-dimethyl-benzoic acid, 3-(3,5-dimethyl-pyrazol-1-yl)-benzoic acid, chlorogenic acid, syringic acid, trans-ferulic acid, (−)-epigallocatechin, epigallocatechin gallate, quercetin dehydrate, luteolin and emodin in DR-EtOH were higher than those in DR-DW. These results indicated that DR-EtOH could be a good source of natural herbs with anti-osteoporosis properties.
doi:10.3390/nu6041737
PMCID: PMC4011064  PMID: 24763116
Drynariae rhizoma; extraction solvent; phenolic compounds; antioxidant; anti-osteoporosis
6.  Intralesional Methotrexate for the Treatment of Keratoacanthoma: Retrospective Study and Review of the Korean Literature 
Annals of Dermatology  2014;26(2):172-176.
Background
Although intralesional methotrexate (MTX) is an effective, nonsurgical treatment of keratoacanthoma (KA), there have not been many reports of on the MTX treatment for KA in Korea.
Objective
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of the intralesional MTX for the treatment of KA in Korean patients.
Methods
We retrospectively studied seven patients with KA who received intralesional injection of MTX in our department. The efficacy was evaluated based on the physician assessment. Our review also included the cases of KA treated with intralesional MTX in Korean patients from the previous reports. We then analyzed the therapeutic regimens in the Korean patients by comparing them with the Caucasian patients.
Results
We identified 11 cases of Korean KA patients treated with an intralesional MTX, including seven from our institution and four from the Korean literature. Ten of the 11 patients (91%) showed a complete resolution with an intralesional MTX. No adverse events were observed during the treatment and the follow-up periods. No recurrence was found during the follow-up. In therapeutic analysis, the Korean patients required 2 to 7 injections (mean 4.6 injections) to achieve a tumor resolution with the mean time to clearing at 7.6 weeks.
Conclusion
Intralesional MTX can be an effective and safe non-operative treatment modality for most Koreans with KA.
doi:10.5021/ad.2014.26.2.172
PMCID: PMC4037668  PMID: 24882970
Intralesional injection; Keratoacanthoma; Koreans; Methotrexate
7.  A Prospective, Long-Term Follow-Up Study of 1,444 nm Nd:YAG Laser: A New Modality for Treating Axillary Bromhidrosis 
Annals of Dermatology  2014;26(2):184-188.
Background
Surgery for bromhidrosis has a high risk of complications such as hematoma and necrosis. New nonsurgical methods may reduce the burden on surgery and the risks for the patient.
Objective
This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy and side-effects of the 1,444 nm Nd:YAG interstitial laser for treating axillary bromhidrosis.
Methods
Eighteen bromhidrosis patients were treated with a 1,444 nm Nd:YAG laser at Korea University Ansan Hospital. The post-treatment follow-up was 6 months. After the procedure, we confirmed apocrine gland destruction through histopathological examination. At each follow-up, we measured the severity of the remaining odor, postoperative pain, degree of mobility restriction, and overall satisfaction.
Results
After 180 days of follow-up, malodor elimination was good in 20 axillae, fair in 12 axillae, and poor in four axillae. At the end point of the study, 14 patients were totally satisfied with the laser treatment, three patients were partially satisfied, and one patient was disatisfied. Pain and limitation of mobility were significantly reduced within 1 week post-operatively, and were almost resolved within 4 weeks post-operatively. A histopathological examination revealed decreased density and significant alterations to the apocrine glands.
Conclusion
Subdermal coagulation treatment with a 1,444 nm Nd:YAG interstitial laser may be a less invasive and effective therapy for axillary bromhidrosis.
doi:10.5021/ad.2014.26.2.184
PMCID: PMC4037670  PMID: 24882972
Bromhidrosis; Interstitial laser; Solid-state lasers; 1,444 nm
8.  Saccharomyces cerevisiae KNU5377 Stress Response during High-Temperature Ethanol Fermentation 
Molecules and Cells  2013;35(3):210-218.
Fuel ethanol production is far more costly to produce than fossil fuels. There are a number of approaches to cost-effective fuel ethanol production from biomass. We characterized stress response of thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae KNU5377 during glucose-based batch fermentation at high temperature (40°C). S. cerevisiae KNU5377 (KNU5377) transcription factors (Hsf1, Msn2/4, and Yap1), metabolic enzymes (hexokinase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, and alcohol dehydrogenase), antioxidant enzymes (thioredoxin 3, thioredoxin reductase, and porin), and molecular chaperones and its cofactors (Hsp104, Hsp82, Hsp60, Hsp42, Hsp30, Hsp26, Cpr1, Sti1, and Zpr1) are upregulated during fermentation, in comparison to S. cerevisiae S288C (S288C). Expression of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase increased significantly in KNU5377 cells. In addition, cellular hydroperoxide and protein oxidation, particularly lipid peroxidation of triosephosphate isomerase, was lower in KNU5377 than in S288C. Thus, KNU5377 activates various cell rescue proteins through transcription activators, improving tolerance and increasing alcohol yield by rapidly responding to fermentation stress through redox homeostasis and proteostasis.
doi:10.1007/s10059-013-2258-0
PMCID: PMC3887908  PMID: 23512334
cell rescue protein; high-temperature fermentation; redox state; Saccharomyces cerevisiae KNU5377; stress response
9.  Proteomic analysis of pancreas in miniature pigs according to developmental stages using two-dimensional electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry 
Laboratory Animal Research  2014;30(1):1-7.
Organ transplantation is limited by the shortage of human organs. Many studies have sought to overcome this hurdle by using animal organs. Porcine organs, especially from miniature pigs, have been used for organ xenotransplantation rather than nonhuman primates. While the molecular profiling for transplantation is well known in humans and rodents, the situation for pigs is almost completely unknown. The present study examined protein regulation of the developing stages of the pancreatic proteome (4 day-old miniature neonate, 19 day-old miniature piglet, and 14 month-old miniature adult pigs) using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Thirteen different expressed spots were observed and nine were identified. The data presented within this study provides critical direction relating to the development of pancreas of miniature pigs, which will assist future proteome analysis of the pancreas, and advance our understanding of the hurdles facing xenotransplantation.
doi:10.5625/lar.2014.30.1.1
PMCID: PMC3973805  PMID: 24707298
Human organ; pancreas; miniature pig; proteome; 2-DE MALDI-TOF
10.  Comparative assessment of physicochemical properties of unripe peach (Prunus persica) and Japanese apricot (Prunus mume) 
Objective
To investigate the physicochemical properties of unripe peach-Prunus persica cv. Mibaekdo (Mibaekdo) and Prunus persica cv. Nagasawa Hakuho (Nagasawa Hakuho) as an alternative to food supplement while Japanese apricot (Prunus mume cv. Backaha) (Backaha) was used as a control sample.
Methods
The unripe fruits were analyzed for soluble solid ( ˚Brix), titratable acidity, pH, total polyphenol content, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, amygdalin content, free amino acid content, organic acid content, free sugar content, and α-amylase activities.
Results
Total polyphenol content of unripe peach ranged between 137.27-151.64 µg/g whereas that of apricot was 160.73 µg/g. DPPH radical scavenging activities of Backaha was the highest (89.16%) followed by Mibaekdo (85.05%) and Nagasawa Hakuho (41.50%). The highest amount of oxalic acid (612.8 mg/100 g) was observed in Mibaekdo while that of Nagasawa Hakuho and Backaha were (184.6±18.1) and (334.8±16.1) mg/100 g, respectively. Amygdalin contents of Mibaekdo, Nagasawa Hakuho and Backaha were 486.61, 548.60 and 174.28 µg/g, respectively.
Conclusions
The results suggest that the unripe fruit of peach has a significant biochemical potential of using as a food supplement with potential health benefit for human health.
doi:10.1016/S2221-1691(14)60216-1
PMCID: PMC3819476
Amygdalin; Japanese apricot (Backaha); Physicochemical properties; Unripe peach (Mibaekdo; Nagasawa Hakuho)
11.  Subdermal Coagulation Treatment of Axillary Bromhidrosis by 1,444 nm Nd:YAG Laser: A Comparison with Surgical Treatment 
Annals of Dermatology  2014;26(1):99-102.
Bromhidrosis is a disease presenting as malodor caused by interaction between the discharge of apocrine glands and bacteria. The main therapeutic modalities are applying topical agents, liposuction surgery, and elective surgery. Among these, elective surgery is reported to be most effective. However, the efficiency largely depends on surgical technique. Additionally, other side effects, such as hematoma and scarring, are occasionally reported. Currently, CO2 laser and 1,064 nm Nd:YAG laser therapy are used, but as the wavelength is not specific to apocrine glands, these laser therapies have certain limitations. Recently, a 1,444 nm wavelength Accusculpt™ laser (LutronicCorp., Seoul, Korea) has been developed which is now commonly used for facial fat plasty and laser liposuction therapy. The use of this laser for bromhidrosis therapy targeting apocrine sweat glands is currently being discussed. Still, no studies on practical clinical use and side effects of this 1,444 nm wavelength laser have been published. In this report, we treated one bromhidrosis patient with 1,444 nm wavelength Accusculpt™ laser therapy on one side while conventional surgery was performed on the other side using a modified Inaba's method. We compared the efficacy of this laser therapy to the surgical modality by measuring malodor severity and overall satisfaction by questionnaire. We also checked for other complications and recurrence for 12 months after the treatment. This patient was largely satisfied as it has a much shorter down time with the same therapeutic outcome. As subdermal coagulation treatment by 1,444 nm Nd:YAG laser may be less invasive but effective therapy, we would like to recommend this modality as a possible treatment option.
doi:10.5021/ad.2014.26.1.99
PMCID: PMC3956803  PMID: 24648694
Bromhidrosis; Nd:YAG; Subdermal coagulation; 1,444 nm
12.  Thioredoxin 1 as a serum marker for breast cancer and its use in combination with CEA or CA15-3 for improving the sensitivity of breast cancer diagnoses 
BMC Research Notes  2014;7:7.
Background
The human cytosolic thioredoxin (Trx) contains a redox-active dithiol moiety in its conserved active-site sequence. Activation by a wide variety of stimuli leads to secretion of this cytoplasmic protein. Function of Trx1 has been implicated in regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical significance of serum Trx1 level in patients with breast carcinoma.
Results
To clarify whether serum levels of Trx1 could be a serum marker for breast carcinoma, we measured the serum levels of Trx1 in patients with various carcinomas (breast, lung, colorectal, and kidney cancers) using an ELISA, and investigated its associations with the tumour grading from I to III. At the cut-off point 33.1725 ng/ml on the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) Trx1 could well discriminate breast carcinoma from normal controls with a sensitivity of 89.8%, specificity 78.0%, and area under the ROC (AUC) 0.901 ± 0.0252. The serum level was well correlated with the progress of the breast carcinoma. We also investigated the diagnostic capacity of CEA and CA15-3 for the early detection of metastatic breast cancer comparing that of Trx1. In contrast to the serum CEA and CA15-3 tumour markers, the serum Trx1 levels of the early cancer (grade I) patients were significantly higher than those of normal control subjects, showing a high diagnostic sensitivity and selectivity (89.4% sensitivity, and 72.0% specificity). The serum levels of Trx1 in various patients with lung, colorectal, and kidney carcinomas indicate that the level of Trx1 is significantly higher than those of other cancer patients. Combinational analysis of CEA or CA15-3 with Trx1 for the detection of breast cancer suggest that the diagnostic capacity of CEA or CA15-3 alone for the early detection of breast cancer, especially regarding sensitivity, is significantly improved by its combination with Trx1.
Conclusions
Taken together, we conclude that serum Trx1 is useful for the early diagnosis of breast cancer or the early prediction prognosis of breast cancer, and therefore has a valuable use as a diagnostic marker and companion marker to CEA and CA15-3 for breast cancer.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-7-7
PMCID: PMC3891982  PMID: 24393391
Breast cancer; Diagnosis; Thioredoxin 1; Companion marker; Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA); Cancer antigen 15–3 (CA15-3); Reactive oxygen species
14.  Pyeloduodenal Fistula Successfully Treated By Endoscopic Ligation without Surgical Nephrectomy: Case Report 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2013;29(1):141-144.
A 74-yr-old woman presented with fever and abdominal discomfort. She was in a septic condition caused by urinary tract infection. Her computed tomogram of the abdomen revealed features of hydronephrosis with ureteral stones in both kidneys. During percutaneous nephrostomies, right pyeloduodenal fistula (PDF) was diagnosed. Elective surgery was originally planned but the patient was in a poor condition to undergo surgery. Instead, 2 times endoscopic clipping and ligation by endoloop were applied with parenteral antibiotics for the fistula lesion. On admission day 30, she was discharged from the hospital after confirmation of no more contrast leakage on fistulography. We reviewed the literature and discuss the etiologies, clinical presentations, diagnosis, and treatment of PDF.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2014.29.1.141
PMCID: PMC3890466  PMID: 24431919
Duodenal Diseases; Intestinal Fistula; Kidney Diseases; Urinary Fistula; Endoscopy
16.  Regulation of Metastasis by microRNAs in Ovarian Cancer 
Frontiers in Oncology  2014;4:143.
Ovarian cancer (OC) is the second most common and the most fatal gynecologic cancer in the United States. Over the last decade, various targeted therapeutics have been introduced but there has been no corresponding improvement in patient survival mainly because of the lack of effective early detection methods. microRNAs (miRs) are small, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally. Accumulating data suggest central regulatory roles of miRs in modulating OC initiation, progression, and metastasis. More recently, aberrant miR expression has been also associated with cancer stem cell (CSC) phenotypes and development of CSC chemo-resistance. Here, we review recent advances on miRs and OC metastasis and discuss the concept that miRs are involved in both CSC transformation and subsequent OC metastasis. Finally, we describe the prevalence of circulating miRs and assess their potential utilities as biomarkers for OC diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutics.
doi:10.3389/fonc.2014.00143
PMCID: PMC4050529  PMID: 24959422
ovarian cancer; miRs; cancer stem cells; epithelial–mesenchymal transition; extracellular matrix; angiogenesis
17.  Recurrent Insulin Autoimmune Syndrome Caused by α-Lipoic Acid in Type 2 Diabetes 
Endocrinology and Metabolism  2013;28(4):326-330.
Insulin autoimmune syndrome (IAS) is characterized by spontaneous hypoglycemia caused by insulin autoantibodies in the absence of exogenous insulin administration. Some drugs containing sulfhydryl compounds are known to initiate the onset of IAS. A 67-year-old female who had diabetes for 5 years visited the outpatient clinic at our institution due to diabetic peripheral polyneuropathy. She was prescribed α-lipoic acid (ALA), which contains two sulfur atoms. Two weeks later, she complained of recurrent hypoglycemic symptoms. We detected a high level of insulin and high titers of insulin autoantibodies. Her human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotype included the DRB1*0406 allele, which indicates a high level of susceptibility to IAS. She was treated with prednisolone. After this episode, she experienced two more hypoglycemic events after taking ALA for diabetic neuropathy in other hospitals. As ALA can be used to treat diabetic peripheral polyneuropathy, physician discretion is advised based on the possibility of IAS due to ALA in diabetic patients.
doi:10.3803/EnM.2013.28.4.326
PMCID: PMC3871037  PMID: 24396698
Alpha-lipoic acid; HLA-DRB1*0406 antigen; Insulin antibodies; Insulin autoimmune syndrome
18.  Sequence-Dependent Radiosensitization of Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Trichostatin A and SK-7041 
Purpose
This preclinical study is to determine whether the capacity of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors to enhance radiation response depends on temporal sequences of HDAC inhibition and irradiation.
Materials and Methods
The effects of HDAC inhibitors trichostatin A (TSA) and SK-7041 on radiosensitivity in human lung cancer cells were examined using a clonogenic assay, exposing cells to HDAC inhibitors in various sequences of HDAC inhibition and radiation. We performed Western blot of acetylated histone H3 and flow cytometry to analyze cell cycle phase distribution.
Results
TSA and SK-7041 augmented radiation cell lethality in an exposure time-dependent manner when delivered before irradiation. The impact of TSA and SK-7041 on radiosensitivity rapidly diminished when HDAC inhibition was delayed after irradiation. Radiation induced the acetylation of histone H3 in cells exposed to TSA, while irradiation alone had no effect on the expression of acetylated histone H3 in TSA-naïve cells. Preirradiation exposure to TSA abrogated radiation-induced G2/M-phase arrest. When delivered after irradiation, TSA had no effect on the peak of radiation-induced G2/M-phase arrest.
Conclusion
TSA and SK-7041 enhances radiosensitivity only when delivered before irradiation. Unless proven otherwise, it seems prudent to apply scheduling including preirradiation HDAC inhibition so that maximal radiosensitization is obtained.
doi:10.4143/crt.2013.45.4.334
PMCID: PMC3893331  PMID: 24454006
Histone deacetylase inhibitors; Radiation-sensitizing agents; Preclinical drug evaluation
19.  HMGB1-Binding Heptamer Confers Anti-Inflammatory Effects in Primary Microglia Culture 
Experimental Neurobiology  2013;22(4):301-307.
High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is an endogenous danger signal molecule. In the postischemic brain, HMGB1 is massively released during NMDA-induced acute damage and triggers inflammatory processes. In a previous study, we demonstrated that intranasally delivered HMGB1 binding heptamer peptide (HBHP; HMSKPVQ) affords robust neuroprotective effects in the ischemic brain after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO, 60 minutes). In the present study, we investigated HBHP-induced anti-inflammatory effects on microglia activation. In LPS-treated primary microglia culture, HMGB1 was rapidly released and accumulated in culture media. Furthermore, LPS-conditioned media collected from primary microglia cultures (LCM) activated naïve microglia and markedly induced NO and proinflammatory cytokines. However, the suppression of HMGB1 by siRNA-HMGB1, HMGB1 A box, or anti-HMGB1 antibody significantly attenuated LCM-induced microglial activation, suggesting that HMGB1 plays a critical role in this process. A pull-down assay using biotin-labeled HBHP showed that HBHP binds directly to HMGB1 (more specifically to HMGB1 A box) in LCM. In addition, HBHP consistently inhibited LCM-induced microglial activation and suppressed the inductions of iNOS and proinflammatory cytokines. Together these results suggest that HBHP confers anti-inflammatory effects in activated microglia cultures by forming a complex with HMGB1.
doi:10.5607/en.2013.22.4.301
PMCID: PMC3897691  PMID: 24465145
HMGB1; HBHP; inflammation; microglia
20.  Iatrogenic catheter sheath shearing during radial artery cannulation 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2013;65(6 Suppl):S12-S13.
doi:10.4097/kjae.2013.65.6S.S12
PMCID: PMC3903827  PMID: 24478839
21.  Differences in the Survival of Gastric Cancer Patients after Gastrectomy according to the Medical Insurance Status 
Journal of Gastric Cancer  2013;13(4):247-254.
Purpose
In Korea, the entire population must enroll in the national health insurance system, and those who are classified as having a lower socioeconomic status are supported by the medical aid system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of the medical insurance status of gastric cancer patients with their survival after gastrectomy.
Materials and Methods
A total of 247 patients who underwent surgical treatment for gastric cancer between January 1999 and December 2010 at the Seoul Medical Center were evaluated. Based on their medical insurance status, the patients were classified into two groups: the national health insurance registered group (n=183), and the medical aid covered group (n=64). The survival rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method.
Results
The median postoperative duration of hospitalization was longer in the medical aid covered group and postoperative morbidity and mortality were higher in the medical aid group than in the national health insurance registered group (P<0.05). The overall 5-year survival rate was 43.9% in the medical aid covered group and 64.3% in the national health insurance registered group (P=0.001).
Conclusions
The medical insurance status reflects the socioeconomic status of a patient and can influence the overall survival of gastric cancer patients. A more sophisticated analysis of the difference in the survival time between gastric cancer patients based on their socioeconomic status is necessary.
doi:10.5230/jgc.2013.13.4.247
PMCID: PMC3915187  PMID: 24511421
Stomach neoplasms; Health insurance; Survival
22.  Assessment of the autogenous bone graft for sinus elevation 
Objectives
The posterior maxillary region often provides a limited bone volume for dental implants. Maxillary sinus elevation via inserting a bone graft through a window opened in the lateral sinus wall has become the most common surgical procedure for increasing the alveolar bone height in place of dental implants in the posterior maxillary region. The purpose of this article is to assess the change of bone volume and the clinical effects of dental implant placement in sites with maxillary sinus floor elevation and autogenous bone graft through the lateral window approach.
Materials and Methods
In this article, the analysis data were collected from 64 dental implants that were placed in 24 patients with 29 lacks of the bone volume posterior maxillary region from June 2004 to April 2011, at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Inha University Hospital. Panoramic views were taken before the surgery, after the surgery, 6 months after the surgery, and at the time of the final follow-up. The influence of the factors on the grafted bone material resorption rate was evaluated according to the patient characteristics (age and gender), graft material, implant installation stage, implant size, implant placement region, local infection, surgical complication, and residual alveolar bone height.
Results
The bone graft resorption rate of male patients at the final follow-up was significantly higher than the rate of female patients. The single autogenous bone-grafted site was significantly more resorbed than the autogenous bone combined with the Bio-Oss grafted site. The implant installation stage and residual alveolar height showed a significant correlation with the resorption rate of maxillary sinus bone graft material. The success rate and survival rate of the implant were 92.2% and 100%, respectively.
Conclusion
Maxillary sinus elevation procedure with autogenous bone graft or autogenous bone in combination with Bio-Oss is a predictable treatment method for implant rehabilitation.
doi:10.5125/jkaoms.2013.39.6.274
PMCID: PMC3912780  PMID: 24516817
Dental implants; Maxillary sinus floor augmentation; Maxillary sinus; Alveolar bone grafting; Bone resorption
23.  Tibial bone fractures occurring after medioproximal tibial bone grafts for oral and maxillofacial reconstruction 
Objectives
Oral and maxillofacial defects often require bone grafts to restore missing tissues. Well-recognized donor sites include the anterior and posterior iliac crest, rib, and intercalvarial diploic bone. The proximal tibia has also been explored as an alternative donor site. The use of the tibia for bone graft has many benefits, such as procedural ease, adequate volume of cancellous and cortical bone, and minimal complications. Although patients rarely complain of pain, swelling, discomfort, or dysfunction, such as gait disturbance, both patients and surgeons should pay close attention to such after effects due to the possibility of tibial fracture. The purpose of this study is to analyze tibial fractures that occurring after osteotomy for a medioproximal tibial graft.
Materials and Methods
An analysis was intended for patients who underwent medioproximal tibial graft between March 2004 and December 2011 in Inha University Hospital. A total of 105 subjects, 30 females and 75 males, ranged in age from 17 to 78 years. We investigated the age, weight, circumstance, and graft timing in relation to tibial fracture.
Results
Tibial fractures occurred in four of 105 patients. There were no significant differences in graft region, shape, or scale between the fractured and non-fractured patients.
Conclusion
Patients who undergo tibial grafts must be careful of excessive external force after the operation.
doi:10.5125/jkaoms.2013.39.6.257
PMCID: PMC3912782  PMID: 24516814
Tibial fracture; Tibia; Bone graft; Postoperative complication
24.  Decreased Renal Function Is an Independent Predictor of Severity of Coronary Artery Disease: An Application of Gensini Score 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2013;28(11):1615-1621.
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).Although many studies have shown a higher prevalence of CAD among these patients, the association between the spectrum of renal dysfunction and severity of CAD remains unclear. In this study, we investigate the association between renal function and the severity of CAD. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 1,192 patients who underwent elective coronary angiography (CAG). The severity of CAD was evaluated by Gensini score according to the degree of luminal narrowing and location(s) of obstruction in the involved main coronary artery. In all patients, the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was independently associated with Gensini score (β=-0.27, P < 0.001) in addition to diabetes mellitus (β=0.07, P = 0.02), hypertension (β=0.12, P < 0.001), low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (β=0.08, P = 0.003), and hemoglobin (β=-0.07, P = 0.03) after controlling for other confounding factors. The result of this study demonstrates that decreased renal function is associated not only with the prevalence, but also the severity, of CAD.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2013.28.11.1615
PMCID: PMC3835503  PMID: 24265524
Coronary Artery Disease; Kidney Failure, Chronic; Gensini Score; Glomerular Filtration Rate
25.  Amyloid-β oligomers regulate the properties of human neural stem cells through GSK-3β signaling 
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of age-related dementia. The neuropathological hallmarks of AD include extracellular deposition of amyloid-β peptides and neurofibrillary tangles that lead to intracellular hyperphosphorylated tau in the brain. Soluble amyloid-β oligomers are the primary pathogenic factor leading to cognitive impairment in AD. Neural stem cells (NSCs) are able to self-renew and give rise to multiple neural cell lineages in both developing and adult central nervous systems. To explore the relationship between AD-related pathology and the behaviors of NSCs that enable neuroregeneration, a number of studies have used animal and in vitro models to investigate the role of amyloid-β on NSCs derived from various brain regions at different developmental stages. However, the Aβ effects on NSCs remain poorly understood because of conflicting results. To investigate the effects of amyloid-β oligomers on human NSCs, we established amyloid precursor protein Swedish mutant-expressing cells and identified cell-derived amyloid-β oligomers in the culture media. Human NSCs were isolated from an aborted fetal telencephalon at 13 weeks of gestation and expanded in culture as neurospheres. Human NSCs exposure to cell-derived amyloid-β oligomers decreased dividing potential resulting from senescence through telomere attrition, impaired neurogenesis and promoted gliogenesis, and attenuated mobility. These amyloid-β oligomers modulated the proliferation, differentiation and migration patterns of human NSCs via a glycogen synthase kinase-3β-mediated signaling pathway. These findings contribute to the development of human NSC-based therapy for AD by elucidating the effects of Aβ oligomers on human NSCs.
doi:10.1038/emm.2013.125
PMCID: PMC3849574  PMID: 24232259
amyloid-β oligomers; differentiation; glycogen synthase kinase-3β; human neural stem cells; migration; proliferation

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