Background and Purpose
Treatment outcomes vary greatly in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of radiation and chemotherapy drug action pathway gene polymorphisms on the survival of patients with locoregionally advanced NPC treated with cisplatin- and fluorouracil-based chemoradiotherapy.
Material and Methods
Four hundred twenty-one consecutive patients with locoregionally advanced NPC were prospectively recruited. We utilized a pathway approach and examined 18 polymorphisms in 13 major genes. Polymorphisms were detected using the LDR-PCR technique. Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) analysis was performed to detect potential gene-gene interaction.
After adjustment for clinicopathological characteristics, overall survival was significantly decreased in patients with the MPO rs2243828 CT/CC genotype (HR=2.453, 95% CI, 1.687-3.566, P<0.001). The ERCC1 rs3212986 CC (HR=1.711, 95% CI, 1.135-2.579, P=0.010), MDM2 rs2279744 GT/GG (HR=1.743, 95% CI, 1.086-2.798, P=0.021), MPO rs2243828 CT/CC (HR=3.184, 95% CI, 2.261-4.483, P<0.001) and ABCB1 rs2032582 AT/AA (HR=1.997, 95% CI, 1.086-3.670, P=0.026) genotypes were associated with poor progression-free survival. Prognostic score models based on independent prognostic factors successfully classified patients into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups. Furthermore, MDR analysis showed no significant interaction between polymorphisms.
Four single nucleotide polymorphisms were associated with survival in patients with locoregionally advanced NPC treated with cisplatin- and fluorouracil-based chemoradiotherapy. Combining clinical prognostic factors with genetic information was valuable in identifying patients with different risk.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been considered as ideal cells for the treatment of a variety of diseases. However, aging and spontaneous differentiation of MSCs during culture expansion dampen their effectiveness. Previous studies suggest that ex
vivo aging of MSCs is largely caused by epigenetic changes particularly a decline of histone H3 acetylation levels in promoter regions of pluripotent genes due to inappropriate growth environment.
In this study, we examined whether histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) could suppress the histone H3 deacetylation thus maintaining the primitive property of MSCs. We found that in regular adherent culture, human MSCs became flatter and larger upon successive passaging, while the expression of pluripotent genes such as Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, Rex-1, CD133 and TERT decreased markedly. Administration of low concentrations of TSA in culture significantly suppressed the morphological changes in MSCs otherwise occurred during culture expansion, increased their proliferation while retaining their cell contact growth inhibition property and multipotent differentiation ability. Moreover, TSA stabilized the expression of the above pluripotent genes and histone H3 acetylation levels in K9 and K14 in promoter regions of Oct4, Sox2 and TERT.
Our results suggest that TSA may serve as an effective culture additive to maintain the primitive feature of MSCs during culture expansion.
Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) confer vasoactive and cardioprotective functions. Genetic analysis of the contributions of these short-lived mediators to pathophysiology has been confounded to date by the allelic expansion in rodents of the portion of the genome syntenic to human CYP2J2, a gene encoding one of the principle cytochrome P450 epoxygenases responsible for the formation of EETs in humans. Mice have eight potentially functional genes that could direct the synthesis of epoxygenases with properties similar to those of CYP2J2. As an initial step towards understanding the role of the murine Cyp2j locus, we have created mice bearing a 626-kb deletion spanning the entire region syntenic to CYP2J2, using a combination of homologous and site-directed recombination strategies. A mouse strain in which the locus deletion was complemented by transgenic delivery of BAC sequences encoding human CYP2J2 was also created. Systemic and pulmonary hemodynamic measurements did not differ in wild-type, null, and complemented mice at baseline. However, hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) during left mainstem bronchus occlusion was impaired and associated with reduced systemic oxygenation in null mice, but not in null mice bearing the human transgene. Administration of an epoxygenase inhibitor to wild-type mice also impaired HPV. These findings demonstrate that Cyp2j gene products regulate the pulmonary vascular response to hypoxia.
In mice and humans, the CYP2J class of cytochrome P450 epoxygenases metabolizes arachidonic acid (AA) to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), short-lived mediators with effects on both the pulmonary and systemic vasculature. Genetic dissection of CYP2J function to date has been complicated by allelic expansion in the rodent genome. In this study, the mouse chromosomal locus syntenic to human CYP2J2, containing eight presumed genes and two pseudogenes, was deleted via generation of a recombinant template created by homologous and site-specific recombination steps that joined two precursor bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). The Cyp2j null mice were subsequently complemented by transgenic delivery of BAC sequences encoding human CYP2J2. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) and systemic oxygenation during regional alveolar hypoxia were unexpectedly found to be impaired in null mice, but not in null mice bearing the transgenic human allele, suggesting that Cyp2j products contribute to the pulmonary vascular response to hypoxia.
Systemic chemotherapy is the basic palliative treatment for metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC); however, it is not known whether locoregional radiotherapy targeting the primary tumor and regional lymph nodes affects the survival of patients with metastatic NPC. Therefore, we aimed to retrospectively evaluate the benefits of locoregional radiotherapy. A total of 408 patients with metastatic NPC were included in this study. The mortality risks of the patients undergoing supportive treatment and those undergoing chemotherapy were compared with that of patients undergoing locoregional radiotherapy delivered alone or in combination with chemotherapy. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. The contributions of independent factors were assessed after adjustment for covariates with significant prognostic associations (P < 0.05). Both locoregional radiotherapy and systemic chemotherapy were identified as significant independent prognostic factors of overall survival (OS). The mortality risk was similar in the group undergoing locoregional radiotherapy alone and the group undergoing systemic chemotherapy alone [multi-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 0.9, P = 0.529]; this risk was 60% lower than that of the group undergoing supportive treatment (HR = 0.4, P = 0.004) and 130% higher than that of the group undergoing both systemic chemotherapy and locoregional radiotherapy (HR = 2.3, P < 0.001). In conclusion, locoregional radiotherapy, particularly when combined with systemic chemotherapy, is associated with improved survival of patients with metastatic NPC.
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma; distant metastases; overall survival; radiotherapy; systemic chemotherapy
To investigate the characteristics and criterion of graft rejection in mice model.
C57BL/6 or BALB/c mice corneal grafts were grafted onto BALB/c hosts. Each group was divided into two subgroups according to the corneal opacity scores 12d after transplantation. The characteristics of opacity and neovascularization were observed. Mice of the 12th, 50th day after transplantation, the grafts biopsy of mice in allogeneic group 1, which opacity score exceed 3, were prepared for histological observation and those restore transparent were endothelial stained.
There was no difference of corneal opacity score on the 7th and 12th day after operation; the histological results had no disparity between syngeneic group and allogeneic group. On the 12th day after surgery, the turbidity curve was apparent in grafts with opacity score < 2. Mononuclear cells were shown in grafts with opacity score reached 3 in allogeneic group 1. Different rejection performance was observed in tissue sections on the 50th day after surgery.
Grafts, opacity score exceeds 3 from the 7th to the 12th day after operation could not be judged as a rejection. We should pay more attention to the variation of grafts opacity since 12d after corneal transplantation.
corneal transplantation; graft survival; experimental study
Rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model is the most commonly used animal model in ischemic stroke studies. In the model, to increase the amount of stem cells or drugs to enter the brain after delivery into the internal carotid artery (ICA), the pterygopalatine artery (PPA) is occluded. However, PPA occlusion is a technically demanding procedure which often causes complications.
In this study, we developed an ICA injection needle to facilitate easy and efficient delivery of stem cells to the ischemic brain through the ICA without the need of PPA occlusion. We injected methylene blue and fluorescence dye DiI-labeled human mesenchymal stem cells (DiI-hMSCs) into the ICA in rats with the ICA injection needle (without PPA ligation) or the conventional micro-injection needle (with PPA ligation) and assessed their distributions.
When methylene blue was injected, evident blue stains were found in the brain of the injection side particularly the middle cerebral artery (MCA)-supplied areas but not in the PPA supplied areas. Similarly, when DiI-hMSCs were injected, the cells largely appeared in the MCA-supplied tissues, which were similar in quantity compared to conventional micro-injection needle injection with PPA occlusion. Moreover, hMSCs injected with the ICA needle or the micro-injection needle similarly improved the functional recovery of the infarcted brain.
Our results indicate that the ICA injection needle is easy to use and efficient in delivering cells to the ischemic brain tissue in rat MCAO model.
Stroke; Acute cerebral infarction
The aim of this study was to explore the correlation of erythropoietin (EPO) with N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) or CHF complicated with anemia, in addition to its correlation with the prognosis of the patient. A total of 217 CHF patients were enrolled in this study. The patients were graded according to the cardiac function criteria of the New York Heart Association (NYHA). The serum EPO, NT-proBNP and hs-CRP levels of the patients were determined. The patients were followed up for ≥24 months. The EPO expression level in patients with NYHA II–IV CHF was significantly higher compared with that in the control group (P<0.05). EPO expression increased with the aggravation of CHF, exhibiting significant differences amongst the various NYHA graded groups (P<0.05). The EPO expression level increased significantly with an increase in NHA grade in addition to the severity of the anemia in the patients with CHF complicated by anemia (P<0.05). In the patients who succumbed (mortality group), the expression level of EPO was significantly higher and the hemoglobin level was significantly lower compared with those of the survival group (P<0.05). The EPO expression levels were elevated in CHF patients and patients with CHF and anemia. The level of expression correlated positively with the severity of CHF as well as that of anemia. Serum EPO measurements were successful in predicting the mortality and re-hospitalization rates of CHF patients at the end point, within two years of follow-up.
heart failure; erythropoietin; N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide; high sensitivity C-reactive protein; prognosis
AIM: To examine transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) promoter methylation in gastric cancer and to determine if Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) or interleukin (IL)-1β could induce TGF-β1 hypermethylation in vitro.
METHODS: We examined the frequency and extent of TGF-β1 promoter methylation using methylation-specific PCR in the gastric tissues from 47 gastric cancer patients and 39 non-gastric cancer subjects. H. pylori infection was confirmed by a positive result from either a serological test, histological analysis or C13 urea breath test. GES-1 and MKN-45 cells co-cultured with H. pylori or treated with IL-1β for 12, 24 and 48 h in vitro tested the effects of H. pylori or IL-1β on TGF-β1.
RESULTS: Twenty-four/forty-seven (51%) cases of gastric cancer (GC) tissues showed TGF-β1 promoter methylation, 15/47 (31.9%) cases of matched non-cancerous gastric mucosa tissues from the GC patients, and 11/39 (28%) case of the normal gastric mucosa tissues from non-GC subjects showed TGF-β1 promoter methylation (51% vs 28%, P < 0.05). Significantly higher levels of methylation of TGF-β1 were found in the tumor tissues than in non-tumor tissues from GC patients (0.24 ± 0.06 vs 0.17 ± 0.04, P < 0.05) and normal gastric tissues from non-GC subjects (0.24 ± 0.06 vs 0.15 ± 0.03, P < 0.05). TGF-β1 methylation was found in 48.3% of H. pylori-positive gastric mucosal tissues whereas only 23.1% of H. pylori-negative gastric mucosal tissues showed TGF-β1 methylation (48.3% vs 23.1%, P < 0.05). IL-1β appeared to induce a dose-dependent methylation of TGF-β1 and the strongest methylation was observed in GES-1 cells treated with 2.5 ng/mL of IL-1β for 48 h. Further studies showed that pre-treatment of GES-1 cells with 20 ng/mL IL-1RA for 1 h could partially abolish the effect of IL-1β on TGF-β1 methylation. Infection of GES-1 cells by H. pylori was not found to induce significant TGF-β1 promoter methylation.
CONCLUSION: Our data revealed that TGF-β1 promoter is methylated in GC patients. IL-1β may be an important mediator for H. pylori induced gene methylation during GC development.
Transforming growth factor-β1; Interleukin-1β; Methylation; Helicobacter pylori; Gastric cancer
Neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus radiotherapy is the most common treatment regimen for advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Whether chronomodulated infusion of chemotherapy can reduce its toxicity is unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the toxic and therapeutic effects of sinusoidal chronomodulated infusion versus flat intermittent infusion of cisplatin (DDP) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) followed by radiotherapy in patients with locoregionally advanced NPC. Patients with biopsy-diagnosed untreated stages III and IV NPC (according to the 2002 UICC staging system) were randomized to undergo 2 cycles of sinusoidal chronomodulated infusion (Arm A) or flat intermittent constant rate infusion (Arm B) of DDP and 5-FU followed by radical radiotherapy. Using a “MELODIE” multi-channel programmed pump, the patients were given 12-hour continuous infusions of DDP (20 mg/m2) and 5-FU (750 mg/m2) for 5 days, repeated every 3 weeks for 2 cycles. DDP was administered from 10:00 am to 10:00 pm, and 5-FU was administered from 10:00 pm to 10:00 am each day. Chronomodulated infusion was performed in Arm A, with the peak deliveries of 5-FU at 4:00 am and DDP at 4:00 pm. The patients in Arm B underwent a constant rate of infusion. Radiotherapy was initiated in the fifth week, and both arms were treated with the same radiotherapy techniques and dose fractions. Between June 2004 and June 2006, 125 patients were registered, and 124 were eligible for analysis of response and toxicity. The major toxicity observed during neoadjuvant chemotherapy was neutropenia. The incidence of acute toxicity was similar in both arms. During radiotherapy, the incidence of stomatitis was significantly lower in Arm A than in Arm B (38.1% vs. 59.0%, P = 0.020). No significant differences were observed for other toxicities. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rates were 88.9%, 82.4%, and 74.8% for Arm A and 91.8%, 90.2%, and 82.1% for Arm B. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year progression-free survival rates were 91.7%, 88.1%, and 85.2% for Arm A and 100%, 94.5%, and 86.9% for Arm B. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year distant metastasis-free survival rates were 82.5%, 79.1%, and 79.1% for Arm A and 90.2%, 85.2%, and 81.7% for Arm B. Chronochemotherapy significantly reduced stomatitis but was not superior to standard chemotherapy in terms of hematologic toxicities and therapeutic response.
Chronochemotherapy; cisplatin; 5-fluorouracil; nasopharyngeal carcinoma; radiotherapy
Flotillin-2 (FLOT2) has been implicated in several signaling pathways in tumor cells. Our study aimed to investigate the expression pattern and clinicopathological significance of FLOT2 in patients with breast cancer.
The expression level of FLOT2 in normal breast epithelial cells, breast cancer cell lines, and four breast cancer biopsies paired with adjacent noncancerous tissues were quantified using real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting. FLOT2 protein expression was analyzed in 171 archived paraffin-embedded breast cancer samples using immunohistochemistry (IHC). Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the clinicopathological significance of FLOT2 expression.
FLOT2 was significantly upregulated in breast cancer cell lines and tissue samples compared with normal cells and adjacent noncancerous breast tissues, respectively. IHC analysis revealed high expression levels of FLOT2 in 82 of 171 (48.0%) breast cancer specimens. Statistical analysis revealed that FLOT2 expression was significantly correlated with clinical stage (P < 0.001), T classification (P < 0.001), M classification (P < 0.001), histological differentiation (P = 0.005) and ErbB2 expression (P = 0.003). Patients with higher levels of FLOT2 expression had a shorter overall survival duration than patients with lower FLOT2 expression levels. Multivariate analysis suggested that FLOT2 expression was an independent prognostic marker for survival in patients with breast cancer.
The current results demonstrated that high FLOT2 protein expression was associated with poor outcomes in patients with breast cancer. FLOT2 could be used as a prognostic biomarker for breast cancer progression.
FLOT2; Breast cancer; Prognosis; Biomarker
In order to obtain a better molecular understanding of recurrent urinary tract infection (RUTI), we collected 75 cases with repeatedly occurring uncomplicated UTI. The genetic relationships among uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) isolates were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. While 39 (52%) of the RUTI cases were defined as “persistence” of the same strain as the primary infecting strain, 36 (48%) were characterized by “reinfection” with a new strain that is different from the primary strain. We then examined the antimicrobial susceptibilities and phylogenetic backgrounds of 39 persistence and 86 reinfection UPEC isolates, and screened 44 virulence factor (VF) genes. We found that isolates had significant differences in the following: placement in phylogenetic group B2 (41% versus 21%; P = 0.0193) and the presence of adhesin genes iha (49% versus 28%; P = 0.0233) and papG allele I′ (51% versus 24%; P = 0.003), iron uptake genes fyuA (85% versus 58%; P = 0.0037), irp-2 (87% versus 65%; P = 0.0109), and iutA (87% versus 58%; P = 0.0014), and an aggregate VF score (median, 11 versus 9; P = 0.0030). In addition, 41% of persistence strains harbored three adhesin genes simultaneously, whereas 22% of reinfection isolates did (P = 0.0289). Moreover, 59% versus 29% (P = 0.0014) of persistence and reinfection isolates contained seven types of iron uptake genes. Taken together, the antimicrobial susceptibilities of UPEC isolates had little effect on the RUTI. Compared with reinfection strains, persistence UPEC isolates exhibited higher VF scores and carried more VF genes than may be involved in the development and progression of RUTI.
In this study, we sequenced and phylogenetic analyses of the VP2 genes from twelve canine parvovirus (CPV) strains obtained from eleven domestic dogs and a giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in China. A novel canine parvovirus (CPV) was detected from the giant panda in China.
Nucleotide and phylogenetic analysis of the capsid protein VP2 gene classified the CPV as a new CPV-2a type. Substitution of Gln for Arg at the conserved 370 residue in CPV presents an unusual variation in the new CPV-2a amino acid sequence of the giant panda and is further evidence for the continuing evolution of the virus.
These findings extend the knowledge on CPV molecular epidemiology of particular relevance to wild carnivores.
Canine parvovirus; VP2 gene; Point mutation; Phylogenetic analysis; Giant panda
Catalase (CAT) breaks down H2O2 into H2O and O2 to protects cells from oxidative damage. However, its translational potential is limited because exogenous CAT cannot enter living cells automatically. This study is aimed to investigate if PEP-1-CAT fusion protein can effectively protect cardiomyocytes from oxidative stress due to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced injury.
H9c2 cardomyocytes were pretreated with catalase (CAT) or PEP-1-CAT fusion protein followed by culturing in a hypoxia and re-oxygenation condition. Cell apoptosis were measured by Annexin V and PI double staining and Flow cytometry. Intracellular superoxide anion level was determined, and mitochondrial membrane potential was measured. Expression of apoptosis-related proteins including Bcl-2, Bax, Caspase-3, PARP, p38 and phospho-p38 was analyzed by western blotting.
PEP-1-CAT protected H9c2 from H/R-induced morphological alteration and reduced the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and malondialdehyde content. Superoxide anion production was also decreased. In addition, PEP-1-CAT inhibited H9c2 apoptosis and blocked the expression of apoptosis stimulator Bax while increased the expression of Bcl-2, leading to an increased mitochondrial membrane potential. Mechanistically, PEP-1-CAT inhibited p38 MAPK while activating PI3K/Akt and Erk1/2 signaling pathways, resulting in blockade of Bcl2/Bax/mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.
Our study has revealed a novel mechanism by which PEP-1-CAT protects cardiomyocyte from H/R-induced injury. PEP-1-CAT blocks Bcl2/Bax/mitochondrial apoptotic pathway by inhibiting p38 MAPK while activating PI3K/Akt and Erk1/2 signaling pathways.
Cell-penetrating peptide; PEP-1; Catalase; Cardiomyocyte; Apoptosis; MAPK
Caveolae are cholesterol and sphingolipids rich subcellular domains on plasma membrane. Caveolae contain a variety of signaling proteins which provide platforms for signaling transduction. In addition to enriched with cholesterol and sphingolipids, caveolae also contain a variety of fatty acids. It has been well-established that acylation of protein plays a pivotal role in subcellular location including targeting to caveolae. However, the fatty acid compositions of caveolae and the type of acylation of caveolar proteins remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the fatty acids in caveolae and caveolin-1 bound fatty acids.
Caveolae were isolated from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The caveolar fatty acids were extracted with Folch reagent, methyl esterificated with BF3, and analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC/MS). The caveolin-1bound fatty acids were immunoprecipitated by anti-caveolin-1 IgG and analyzed with GC/MS.
In contrast to the whole CHO cell lysate which contained a variety of fatty acids, caveolae mainly contained three types of fatty acids, 0.48 µg palmitic acid, 0.61 µg stearic acid and 0.83 µg oleic acid/caveolae preparation/5×107 cells. Unexpectedly, GC/MS analysis indicated that caveolin-1 was not acylated by myristic acid; instead, it was acylated by palmitic acid and stearic acid.
Caveolae contained a special set of fatty acids, highly enriched with saturated fatty acids, and caveolin-1 was acylated by palmitic acid and stearic acid. The unique fatty acid compositions of caveolae and acylation of caveolin-1 may be important for caveolae formation and for maintaining the function of caveolae.
Canine distemper virus (CDV) infects a variety of carnivores, including wild and domestic Canidae. In this study, we sequenced and phylogenetic analyses of the hemagglutinin (H) genes from eight canine distemper virus (CDV) isolates obtained from seven raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and a giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in China.
Phylogenetic analysis of the partial hemagglutinin gene sequences showed close clustering for geographic lineages, clearly distinct from vaccine strains and other wild-type foreign CDV strains, all the CDV strains were characterized as Asia-1 genotype and were highly similar to each other (91.5-99.8% nt and 94.4-99.8% aa). The giant panda and raccoon dogs all were 549Y on the HA protein in this study, irrespective of the host species.
These findings enhance our knowledge of the genetic characteristics of Chinese CDV isolates, and may facilitate the development of effective strategies for monitoring and controlling CDV for wild canids and non-cainds in China.
Canine distemper virus; Haemagglutinin (H) gene; Genotype; Phylogenetic analysis
Dietary and medicinal uses of Panax notoginseng have been associated with reduced risk of cancer. This study was designed to investigate the profiles of P. notoginseng saponin extract (PNSE), the major bioactive ingredients in P. notoginseng (Burk.) F.H. Chen, by high-performance liquid chromatography, and, for the first time, the anticancer effect of PNSE in the human colon cancer cell line LoVo was further evaluated. The major saponins present in PNSE were ginsenosides Rg1 (31.1%) and Rb1 (34.4%), and the total content of the eight saponins identified (notoginsenoside R1, ginsenosides Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rc, and Rd, and isomeric ginsenosides Rb2 and Rb3) was 81.7%, indicating that it was a highly purified standardized saponin extract. Furthermore, PNSE was found to have a markedly cytotoxic effect and antiproliferative activity against the LoVo cell line in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that PNSE caused cell cycle arrest at S phase. Moreover, PNSE was found to possess antioxidative capacities in the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging assay and hydroxyl radical scavenging assay in vitro. Taken together, the present results suggest that naturally occurring PNSE may provide significant natural defense against human colon cancer.
antioxidant activity; antitumor activity; ginsenoside; high-performance liquid chromatography; notoginsenoside; Panax notoginseng
More than 30 prostate cancer (PCa) risk-associated loci have been identified in populations of European descent by genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We hypothesized that a subset of these loci may be associated with PCa risk in Chinese men. To test this hypothesis, 33 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), one each from the 33 independent PCa risk-associated loci reported in populations of European descent, were investigated for their associations with PCa risk in a case-control study of Chinese men (1,108 cases and 1,525 controls). We found that 11 of the 33 SNPs were significantly associated with PCa risk in Chinese men (P < 0.05). The reported risk alleles were associated with increased risk for PCa, with allelic odds ratios ranging from 1.12 to 1.44. The most significant locus was located on 8q24 Region 2 (rs16901979, P = 5.14×10−9) with a genome-wide significance (P < 10−8), and three loci reached the Bonferroni correction significance level (P < 1.52×10−3), including 8q24 Region 1 (rs1447295, P = 7.04×10−6), 8q24 Region 5 (rs10086908, P = 9.24×10−4), and 8p21 (rs1512268, P = 9.39×10−4). Our results suggest that a subset of the PCa risk-associated SNPs discovered by GWAS among men of European descent is also associated with PCa risk in Chinese men. This finding provides evidence of ethnic differences and similarity in genetic susceptibility to PCa. GWAS in Chinese men are needed to identify Chinese-specific PCa risk-associated SNPs.
We report here the complete genomic sequence of the giant panda rotavirus strain CH-1. This work is the first to document the complete genomic sequence (segments 1 to 11) of the CH-1 strain, which offers an effective platform for providing authentic research experiences to novice scientists.
A recent genome-wide association study has identified five new genetic variants for prostate cancer susceptibility in a Japanese population, but it is unknown whether these newly identified variants are associated with prostate cancer risk in other populations, including Chinese men. We genotyped these five variants in a case–control study of 1524 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer and 2169 control subjects from the Chinese Consortium for Prostate Cancer Genetics (ChinaPCa). We found that three of the five genetic variants were associated with prostate cancer risk (P = 4.33 × 10−8 for rs12653946 at 5p15, 4.43 × 10−5 for rs339331 at 6q22 and 8.42 × 10−4 for rs9600079 at 13q22, respectively). A cumulative effect was observed in a dose-dependent manner with increasing numbers of risk variant alleles (Ptrend = 2.58 × 10−13), and men with 5–6 risk alleles had a 2-fold higher risk of prostate cancer than men with 0–2 risk alleles (odds ratio = 2.26, 95% confidence interval = 1.78–2.87). Furthermore, rs339331 T allele was significantly associated with RFX6 and GPRC6A higher messenger RNA expression, compared with the C allele. However, none of the variants was associated with clinical stage, Gleason score or family history. These results provide further evidence that the risk loci identified in Japanese men also contribute to prostate cancer susceptibility in Chinese men.
Poor survival of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) compromised the efficacy of stem cell therapy for ischemic diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of PEP-1-CAT transduction in MSC survival and its effect on ischemia-induced angiogenesis.
MSC apoptosis was evaluated by DAPI staining and quantified by Annexin V and PI double staining and Flow Cytometry. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activities were simultaneously measured. MSC mitochondrial membrane potential was analyzed with JC-1 staining. MSC survival in rat muscles with gender-mismatched transplantation of the MSC after lower limb ischemia was assessed by detecting SRY expression. MSC apoptosis in ischemic area was determined by TUNEL assay. The effect of PEP-1-CAT-transduced MSC on angiogenesis in vivo was determined in the lower limb ischemia model.
PEP-1-CAT transduction decreased MSC apoptosis rate while down-regulating MDA content and blocking LDH release as compared to the treatment with H2O2 or CAT. However, SOD activity was up-regulated in PEP-1-CAT-transduced cells. Consistent with its effect on MSC apoptosis, PEP-1-CAT restored H2O2-attenuated mitochondrial membrane potential. Mechanistically, PEP-1-CAT blocked H2O2-induced down-regulation of PI3K/Akt activity, an essential signaling pathway regulating MSC apoptosis. In vivo, the viability of MSC implanted into ischemic area in lower limb ischemia rat model was increased by four-fold when transduced with PEP-1-CAT. Importantly, PEP-1-CAT-transduced MSC significantly enhanced ischemia-induced angiogenesis by up-regulating VEGF expression.
PEP-1-CAT-transduction was able to increase MSC viability by regulating PI3K/Akt activity, which stimulated ischemia-induced angiogenesis.
AIM: To clarify the role of activated Notch2 in the invasiveness of gastric cancer.
METHODS: To investigate the invasiveness of silencing Notch2 gene expression, we established a Notch2 small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfected cell line using the MKN-45 gastric cancer cell line. After the successful transfection confirmed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting, migration and invasion assays were employed to evaluate the aggressiveness of the gastric cancer. RT-PCR and Western blottings were employed to confirm the down-regulation of Notch2 and to evaluate the expression of epithelial mesenchymal transition-related gene matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9), Akt, p-Akt. To confirm the relationship between PI3K-Akt and MMP9, the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 was used to treat MKN-45 cells.
RESULTS: Notch2 expression was dramatically decreased after Notch2 siRNA transfection (100.00% ± 9.74% vs 11.61% ± 3.85%, P < 0.01 by qRT-PCR). There was also a marked reduction of Notch target gene Hes1 (100.00% ± 4.74% vs 61.61% ± 3.58%, P < 0.05) at the mRNA, indicating an inhibition of Notch signaling. Inhibition of Notch signaling was also confirmed by the marked reduction of Notch2 intracellular domain at the protein levels (100.00% ± 9.74% vs 65.61% ± 7.58%, P < 0.05). Down-regulation of Notch2 by siRNA enhanced tumor cell invasion (100.00% ± 21.64% vs 162.22% ± 16.84%, P < 0.05) and expression of MMP9 (1.56 fold, P < 0.05), and activated the pro-MMP9 protein to its active form (1.48 fold, P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the protein levels of Akt between the two groups (100.00% ± 10.87% vs 96.61% ± 7.33%, P > 0.05), while down-regulation of Notch2 elevated p-Akt expression (100.00% ± 9.87% vs 154.61% ± 13.10%, P < 0.05). Furthermore, p-Akt and MMP9 was down-regulated in response to the inhibitor LY294002 (p-Akt 100.00% ± 8.87% vs 58.27% ± 5.01%, P < 0.05; MMP9 100.00% ± 9.17% vs 50.03% ± 4.88%, P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: Notch2 may negatively regulate cell invasion by inhibiting the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway in gastric cancer.
Notch2; Stomach; Cancer; Invasion; Epithelial mesenchymal transition; Matrix metallopeptidase 9; RNA interference
This study was to investigate the effect of nicotine on insulin sensitivity and explore the underlying mechanisms. Treatment of Sprague-Dawley rats with nicotine (3 mg/kg/day) for 6 weeks reduced 43% body weight gain and 65% blood insulin level, but had no effect on blood glucose level. Both insulin tolerance test and glucose tolerance test demonstrated that nicotine treatment enhanced insulin sensitivity. Pretreatment of rats with hexamethonium (20 mg/kg/day) to antagonize peripheral nicotinic receptors except for α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR) had no effect on the insulin sensitizing effect of nicotine. However, the insulin sensitizing effect but not the bodyweight reducing effect of nicotine was abrogated in α7-nAChR knockout mice. Further, chronic treatment with PNU-282987 (0.53 mg/kg/day), a selective α7-nAChR agonist, significantly enhanced insulin sensitivity without apparently modifying bodyweight not only in normal mice but also in AMP-activated kinase-α2 knockout mice, an animal model of insulin resistance with no sign of inflammation. Moreover, PNU-282987 treatment enhanced phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in skeletal muscle, adipose tissue and liver in normal mice. PNU-282987 treatment also increased glucose uptake by 25% in C2C12 myotubes and this effect was total abrogated by STAT3 inhibitor, S3I-201. All together, these findings demonstrated that nicotine enhanced insulin sensitivity in animals with or without insulin resistance, at least in part via stimulating α7-nAChR-STAT3 pathway independent of inflammation. Our results contribute not only to the understanding of the pharmacological effects of nicotine, but also to the identifying of new therapeutic targets against insulin resistance.
Scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) is an HDL receptor. Recent studies revealed that SR-BI protects against sepsis via modulating innate immunity. However, its role in adaptive immunity is unclear.
Methods and Results
SR-BI null mice exhibited impaired lymphocyte homeostasis as shown by splenomegaly and imbalanced expansion of T and B lymphocytes in the spleens. Importantly, the activated T and B lymphocytes were increased 3–4-fold, indicating a heightened active status of T and B lymphocytes. More importantly, in line with the accumulation of the activated T and B lymphocytes, SR-BI null mice developed systemic autoimmune disorders characterized by the presence of autoantibodies in circulation, the deposition of immune complexes in glomeruli, and the leukocyte infiltration in kidney. Further analyses revealed that SR-BI deficiency enhances lymphocyte proliferation, causes imbalanced IFN-g and IL-4 production in lymphocytes and elevated inflammatory cytokine production in macrophages. Furthermore, HDL from SR-BI null mice exhibited less capability of suppressing lymphocyte proliferation.
SR-BI regulates lymphocyte homeostasis likely through its roles in modulating the proliferation of lymphocytes, the cytokine production by lymphocytes and macrophages, and the function of HDL. Its deficiency leads to impaired lymphocyte homeostasis and autoimmune disorders. Our findings reveal a previously unrecognized role of SR-BI in adaptive immunity.
lymphocytes; adaptive immunity; scavenger receptor BI; Scarb1; HDL
Overexpression of GOLPH3 (Golgi phosphoprotein 3, 34 kDa) is associated with the progression of many solid tumor types leading to an unfavorable clinical outcome. We aimed to investigate the clinical significance of GOLPH3 expression in the development and progression of clinically N0 (cN0) oral tongue cancer.
Real-time PCR and Western blotting analyses were employed to examine GOLPH3 expression in four oral tongue cancer cell lines, primary cultured normal tongue epithelial cells (TEC), eight matched pairs of oral tongue cancer samples and adjacent noncancerous tissue samples from the same patient. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed to examine GOLPH3 protein expression in paraffin-embedded tissues from 179 cN0 oral tongue cancer patients. Statistical analyses were applied to evaluate the diagnostic value and the associations of GOLPH3 expression with clinical parameters.
GOLPH3 mRNA and protein was up-regulated in oral tongue cancer cell lines and cancerous tissues compared with that in primary cultured normal tongue epithelial cells (TEC) and adjacent noncancerous tissue samples. GOLPH3 protein level was positively correlated with clinical stage (P = 0.001), T classification (P = 0.001), N classification (P = 0.043) and recurrence (P = 0.009). Patients with higher GOLPH3 expression had shorter overall survival time, whereas those with lower GOLPH3 expression had longer survival time.
Our results suggest GOLPH3 overexpression is associated with poor prognosis for cN0 oral tongue cancer patients and may represent a novel and useful prognostic indicator for cN0 oral tongue cancer.
GOLPH3; Prognosis; cN0 oral tongue cancer
Microarray data analysis presents a significant challenge to researchers who are unable to use the powerful Bioconductor and its numerous tools due to their lack of knowledge of R language. Among the few existing software programs that offer a graphic user interface to Bioconductor packages, none have implemented a comprehensive strategy to address the accuracy and reliability issue of microarray data analysis due to the well known probe design problems associated with many widely used microarray chips. There is also a lack of tools that would expedite the functional analysis of microarray results.
We present Microarray Я US, an R-based graphical user interface that implements over a dozen popular Bioconductor packages to offer researchers a streamlined workflow for routine differential microarray expression data analysis without the need to learn R language. In order to enable a more accurate analysis and interpretation of microarray data, we incorporated the latest custom probe re-definition and re-annotation for Affymetrix and Illumina chips. A versatile microarray results output utility tool was also implemented for easy and fast generation of input files for over 20 of the most widely used functional analysis software programs.
Coupled with a well-designed user interface, Microarray Я US leverages cutting edge Bioconductor packages for researchers with no knowledge in R language. It also enables a more reliable and accurate microarray data analysis and expedites downstream functional analysis of microarray results.
Microarray data analysis; Gene expression; Probe reannotation