PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-25 (42)
 

Clipboard (0)
None

Select a Filter Below

Journals
more »
Year of Publication
1.  A Behavioral Economic Reward Index Predicts Drinking Resolutions: Moderation Re-visited and Compared with Other Outcomes 
Data were pooled from three studies of recently resolved community-dwelling problem drinkers to determine whether a behavioral economic index of the value of rewards available over different time horizons distinguished among moderation (n = 30), abstinent (n = 95), and unresolved (n = 77) outcomes. Moderation over 1-2 year prospective follow-up intervals was hypothesized to involve longer term behavior regulation processes compared to abstinence or relapse and to be predicted by more balanced pre-resolution monetary allocations between short- and longer-term objectives (i.e., drinking and saving for the future). Standardized odds ratios (OR) based on changes in standard deviation units from a multinomial logistic regression indicated that increases on this “Alcohol-Savings Discretionary Expenditure” index predicted higher rates of both abstinence (OR = 1.93, p = .004) and relapse (OR = 2.89, p < .0001) compared to moderation outcomes. The index had incremental utility in predicting moderation in complex models that included other established predictors. The study adds to evidence supporting a behavioral economic analysis of drinking resolutions and shows that a systematic analysis of pre-resolution spending patterns aids in predicting moderation.
doi:10.1037/a0014968
PMCID: PMC3992468  PMID: 19309182
problem drinking; natural resolution; moderation; behavioral economics
2.  Pain is Independently Associated with Impaired Physical Function in HIV-infected Patients 
Pain medicine (Malden, Mass.)  2013;14(12):10.1111/pme.12255.
Introduction
HIV-infected patients in the current treatment era can achieve normal life expectancies, but experience a high degree of medical and psychiatric comorbidity. Impaired physical function and pain, often in the context of mood disorders and substance abuse, are common in HIV-infected patients. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship of pain, a modifiable condition, to functional impairment in HIV-infected patients, independent of mood disorders and substance abuse.
Methods
Participants in a prospective cohort of HIV-infected patients at the University of Alabama at Birmingham were included. Patient-reported outcome measures were used to cross-sectionally assess pain and physical function (EuroQOL), mood disorders (PHQ), and substance abuse (ASSIST). Univariate and multivariable models were built with pain as the principal independent variable of interest and 3 domains of physical function (mobility, self-care, and usual activities) as outcomes. Covariates included mood, substance abuse, age, race, sex, insurance status, HIV transmission risk factor, and CD4+ T-cell count.
Results
Among 1903 participants, 693 (37%) reported pain; 509 (27%) had a mood disorder; and 157 (8.4%) reported current substance abuse. In multivariable models, pain was independently associated with increased odds of impairment in all three domains of physical function investigated – mobility (aOR 10.5, 95% CI 7.6–14.6), self-care (aOR 4.1, 95% CI 2.2–7.4), and usual activities (aOR 5.4, 95% CI 4.0–7.4).
Discussion
Pain was associated with substantially increased odds of impairment in physical function. Pain should be an important consideration in HIV primary care. Interventions to address pain and impaired physical function should be investigated.
doi:10.1111/pme.12255
PMCID: PMC3886835  PMID: 24119077
HIV; pain; physical function; mental health; substance abuse
3.  Implementation of cervical cancer prevention services for HIV-infected women in Zambia: measuring program effectiveness 
HIV therapy  2010;4(6):703-722.
Background
Cervical cancer kills more women in low-income nations than any other malignancy. A variety of research and demonstration efforts have proven the efficacy and effectiveness of low-cost cervical cancer prevention methods but none in routine program implementation settings of the developing world, particularly in HIV-infected women.
Methods
In our public sector cervical cancer prevention program in Zambia, nurses conduct screening using visual inspection with acetic acid aided by digital cervicography. Women with visible lesions are offered same-visit cryotherapy or referred for histologic evaluation and clinical management. We analyzed clinical outcomes and modeled program effectiveness among HIV-infected women by estimating the total number of cervical cancer deaths prevented through screening and treatment.
Results
Between 2006 and 2008, 6572 HIV-infected women were screened, 53.6% (3523) had visible lesions, 58.5% (2062) were eligible for cryotherapy and 41.5% (1461) were referred for histologic evaluation. A total of 75% (1095 out of 1462) of patients who were referred for evaluation complied. Pathology results from 65% (715 out of 1095) of women revealed benign abnormalities in 21% (151), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) I in 30% (214), CIN 2/3 in 33% (235) and invasive cervical cancer in 16.1% (115, of which 69% were early stage). Using a conditional probability model, we estimated that our program prevented 142 cervical cancer deaths (high/low range: 238–96) among the 6572 HIV-infected women screened, or one cervical cancer death prevented per 46 (corresponding range: 28–68) HIV-infected women screened.
Conclusion
Our prevention efforts using setting-appropriate human resources and technology have reduced morbidity and mortality from cervical cancer among HIV-infected women in Zambia. Financial support for implementing cervical cancer prevention programs integrated within HIV/AIDS care programs is warranted. Our prevention model can serve as the implementation platform for future low-cost HPV-based screening methods, and our results may provide the basis for comparison of programmatic effectiveness of future prevention efforts.
doi:10.2217/hiv.10.52
PMCID: PMC4237284  PMID: 25419240
cervical cancer; HIV/AIDS; program effectiveness; screening; Zambia
4.  The HLA–DRB1 Shared Epitope Is Associated With Susceptibility to Rheumatoid Arthritis in African Americans Through European Genetic Admixture 
Arthritis and rheumatism  2008;58(2):349-358.
Objective
To determine whether shared epitope (SE)–containing HLA–DRB1 alleles are associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in African Americans and whether their presence is associated with higher degrees of global (genome-wide) genetic admixture from the European population.
Methods
In this multicenter cohort study, African Americans with early RA and matched control subjects were analyzed. In addition to measurement of serum anti–cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies and HLA–DRB1 genotyping, a panel of >1,200 ancestry-informative markers was analyzed in patients with RA and control subjects, to estimate the proportion of European ancestry.
Results
The frequency of SE-containing HLA–DRB1 alleles was 25.2% in African American patients with RA versus 13.6% in control subjects (P = 0.00005). Of 321 patients with RA, 42.1% had at least 1 SE-containing allele, compared with 25.3% of 166 control subjects (P = 0.0004). The mean estimated percent European ancestry was associated with SE-containing HLA–DRB1 alleles in African Americans, regardless of disease status (RA or control). As reported in RA patients of European ancestry, there was a significant association of the SE with the presence of the anti-CCP antibody: 86 (48.9%) of 176 patients with anti-CCP antibody–positive RA had at least 1 SE allele, compared with 36 (32.7%) of 110 patients with anti-CCP antibody–negative RA (P = 0.01, by chi-square test).
Conclusion
HLA–DRB1 alleles containing the SE are strongly associated with susceptibility to RA in African Americans. The absolute contribution is less than that reported in RA among populations of European ancestry, in which ~50–70% of patients have at least 1 SE allele. As in Europeans with RA, the SE association was strongest in the subset of African American patients with anti-CCP antibodies. The finding of a higher degree of European ancestry among African Americans with SE alleles suggests that a genetic risk factor for RA was introduced into the African American population through admixture, thus making these individuals more susceptible to subsequent environmental or unknown factors that trigger the disease.
doi:10.1002/art.23166
PMCID: PMC3726059  PMID: 18240241
5.  The Association of Clinical Follow-Up Intervals in HIV-Infected Persons with Viral Suppression on Subsequent Viral Suppression 
AIDS Patient Care and STDs  2013;27(8):459-466.
Abstract
The recommendation for the frequency for routine clinical monitoring of persons with well-controlled HIV infection is based on evidence that relies on observed rather than intended follow-up intervals. We sought to determine if the scheduled follow-up interval is associated with subsequent virologic failure. Participants in this 6-clinic retrospective cohort study had an index clinic visit in 2008 and HIV viral load (VL) ≤400 c/mL. Univariate and multivariate tests evaluated if scheduling the next follow-up appointment at 3, 4, or 6 months predicted VL >400 c/mL at 12 months (VF). Among 2171 participants, 66%, 26%, and 8% were scheduled next follow-up visits at 3, 4, and 6 months, respectively. With missing 12-month VL considered VF, 25%, 25%, and 24% of persons scheduled at 3, 4, and 6 months had VF, respectively (p=0.95). Excluding persons with missing 12-month VL, 7.1%, 5.7%, and 4.5% had VF, respectively (p=0.35). Multivariable models yielded nonsignificant odds of VF by scheduled follow-up interval both when missing 12-month VL were considered VF and when persons with missing 12-month VL were excluded. We conclude that clinicians are able to make safe decisions extending follow-up intervals in persons with viral suppression, at least in the short-term.
doi:10.1089/apc.2013.0105
PMCID: PMC3739946  PMID: 23886048
6.  Characteristics of an Ambulatory Palliative Care Clinic for HIV-Infected Patients 
Journal of Palliative Medicine  2013;16(8):934-937.
Abstract
Background
Many HIV-infected patients in the current treatment era have substantial symptom burden, but few HIV palliative care clinics have been described. Our objective was to describe the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) HIV palliative care clinic (HPCC) and compare it to the overall HIV clinic.
Methods
We conducted a chart review of patients referred to the HPCC between April 2008 and June 2011. We evaluated the reason for referral and other issues addressed during palliative care visits. Patient Reported Outcome (PRO) data was used to assess depression (PHQ-9), anxiety (PHQ-A), and substance abuse (ASSIST).
Results
Among 124 patients, mean age was 44 (range 27–64), and median CD4 count was 352 cells/mm3 (IQR 209–639). Depression (43, 35%), anxiety (40, 32%), and current 8 (7%) or prior 68 (56%) substance abuse occurred at higher rates than in the overall HIV clinic (p<0.05). Pain was the most common reason for referral (118, 95%); most was chronic (113, 90%) and included back pain (26, 21%) and neuropathic pain (15, 12%). Other problems commonly addressed by the palliative team included nonpain symptoms such as depression (39, 48%) and anxiety (17, 21%), insomnia (25, 30%), and constipation (26, 32%).
Conclusions
This is the first description of a palliative care clinic embedded within an HIV primary care clinic in a developed country that sees patients at all stages of illness. Chronic pain and nonpain symptom management in patients with psychiatric and substance abuse comorbidities are important components of ambulatory palliative care for HIV-infected patients.
doi:10.1089/jpm.2012.0451
PMCID: PMC3727562  PMID: 23477304
7.  Comparison of the Disease Activity Score using Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate and C-reactive Protein in African-Americans with Rheumatoid Arthritis 
The Journal of rheumatology  2013;40(11):1812-1822.
INTRODUCTION
The Disease Activity Score based on 28 joints (DAS28) has been increasingly used in clinical practice and research studies of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Studies have reported discordance between DAS28 based on erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) versus C-reactive protein (CRP) in RA patients. However such comparison is lacking in African-Americans with RA.
METHODS
This analysis included participants from the Consortium for the Longitudinal Evaluation of African Americans with Early Rheumatoid Arthritis (CLEAR) Registry which enrolls self-declared African-Americans with RA. Using tender and swollen joint counts separate ESR-based and CRP-based DAS28 scores (DAS28-ESR3 and DAS28-CRP3) were calculated, as were DAS28-ESR4 and DAS28-CRP4, which included the patient’s assessment of disease activity. The scores were compared using paired t-test, simple agreement and kappa, correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman plots.
RESULTS
Of the 233 included participants, 85% were women, mean age at enrollment was 52.6 years, and median disease duration at enrollment was 21 months. Mean DAS28-ESR3 was significantly higher than DAS28-CRP3 (4.8 vs. 3.9; p<0.001). Similarly, mean DAS28-ESR4 was significantly higher than DAS28-CRP4 (4.7 vs. 3.9; p<0.001). ESR-based DAS28 remained higher than CRP-based DAS28 even when stratified by age, sex, and disease duration. Overall agreement was not high between DAS28-ESR3 and DAS28-CRP3 (50%) or between DAS28-ESR4 and DAS28-CRP4 (59%). DAS28-CRP3 underestimated disease activity in 47% of the participants relative to DAS28-ESR3 and DAS28-CRP4 in 40% of the participants relative to DAS28-ESR4.
CONCLUSION
There was significant discordance between the ESR-based and CRP-based DAS28 which could impact clinical treatment decisions in African-Americans with RA.
doi:10.3899/jrheum.121225
PMCID: PMC3987124  PMID: 23950187
DAS28; Rheumatoid Arthritis; African-Americans
8.  Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use in African Americans With Rheumatoid Arthritis 
Arthritis care & research  2014;66(2):180-189.
Objective.
Racial/ethnic differences with regard to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use have been reported in the US. However, specific details of CAM use by African Americans with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are lacking.
Methods.
Data were collected from African Americans with RA enrolled in a multicenter registry regarding the use of CAM, including food supplements, topical applications, activities, and alternative care providers. Factors associated with CAM use by sex and disease duration were assessed using t-test, Wilcoxon’s rank sum test, chi-square test, and logistic regression analyses.
Results.
Of the 855 participants, 85% were women and mean age at enrollment was 54 years. Overall, ever using any of the CAM treatments, activities, and providers was 95%, 98%, and 51%, respectively (median of 3 for number of treatments, median of 5 for activities, and median of 1 for providers). Those with longer disease duration (>2 years) were significantly more likely (odds ratio >2.0, P < 0.05) to use raisins soaked in vodka/gin, to take fish oils, or to drink alcoholic beverages for RA treatment than those with early disease. As compared to men, women were significantly (P < 0.05) more likely to pray/attend church, write in a journal, and use biofeedback, but were less likely to smoke tobacco or topically apply household oils for treatment of RA.
Conclusion.
CAM use was highly prevalent in this cohort, even in individuals with early disease. Health care providers need to be aware of CAM use as some treatments may potentially have interactions with conventional medicines. This could be important within this cohort of African Americans, where racial disparities are known to affect access to conventional care.
doi:10.1002/acr.22148
PMCID: PMC3977347  PMID: 23983105
9.  Effect of Persistency of First-Line HIV Antiretroviral Therapy on Clinical Outcomes 
Abstract
Persistency is the time from initiation to discontinuation of therapy. Previous research has described factors that affect the persistency of initial antiretroviral therapy (ART); however, the impact of persistency on clinical outcomes is unknown. A retrospective study was conducted of treatment-naive HIV patients initiating ART between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2010 at an academic medical center. Descriptive statistics and Cox proportional hazards regression models with persistency as a time‐varying covariate were fit for (1) immunologic failure (subsequent CD4 lower than initial CD4); (2) development of an opportunistic infection (OI) or malignancy; and (3) mortality. Analyses were repeated with an interaction term of persistency (per 180 days) and time (before and after 1 year of ART). Among 879 patients who started ART, the mean age was 38 years (±10) and most patients were racial/ethnic minority (59%), males (80%), and with baseline CD4 <200 cells/mm3 (52%). There were 100 deaths, 94 OIs/malignancy, and 183 immunologic failures; the mean persistency=723 days. In multivariable modeling, increased persistency decreased the overall and long-term hazard for immunologic failure (0.84 per 180 additional days; 0.70–1.00; 0.045). Increased persistency exhibited a potential trend toward decreased hazard for the occurrence of OI/malignancy (0.91; 0.80–1.03; 0.124) overall and after 1 year. Persistency exhibited a trend toward less risk of mortality in the first year of ART (0.42; 0.17–1.06; 0.067). In this study of the relationship between initial ART persistency and clinical outcomes, increased persistency was associated with a decreased hazard for the development of immunologic failure, a trend toward a decreased hazard for OI/malignancy, and a trend toward a decreased risk of first year mortality. Given these findings, the relationship between persistency and clinical outcomes merits further study.
doi:10.1089/aid.2012.0241
PMCID: PMC3607971  PMID: 23151191
10.  HIV Care Visits and Time to Viral Suppression, 19 U.S. Jurisdictions, and Implications for Treatment, Prevention and the National HIV/AIDS Strategy 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(12):e84318.
Objective
Early and regular care and treatment for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are associated with viral suppression, reductions in transmission risk and improved health outcomes for persons with HIV. We determined, on a population level, the association of care visits with time from HIV diagnosis to viral suppression.
Methods
Using data from 19 areas reporting HIV-related tests to national HIV surveillance, we determined time from diagnosis to viral suppression among 17,028 persons diagnosed with HIV during 2009, followed through December 2011, using data reported through December 2012. Using Cox proportional hazards models, we assessed factors associated with viral suppression, including linkage to care within 3 months of diagnosis, a goal set forth by the National HIV/AIDS Strategy, and number of HIV care visits as determined by CD4 and viral load test results, while controlling for demographic, clinical, and risk characteristics.
Results
Of 17,028 persons diagnosed with HIV during 2009 in the 19 areas, 76.6% were linked to care within 3 months of diagnosis and 57.0% had a suppressed viral load during the observation period. Median time from diagnosis to viral suppression was 19 months overall, and 8 months among persons with an initial CD4 count ≤350 cells/µL. During the first 12 months after diagnosis, persons linked to care within 3 months experienced shorter times to viral suppression (higher rate of viral suppression per unit time, hazard ratio [HR] = 4.84 versus not linked within 3 months; 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.27, 5.48). Persons with a higher number of time-updated care visits also experienced a shorter time to viral suppression (HR = 1.51 per additional visit, 95% CI 1.49, 1.52).
Conclusions
Timely linkage to care and greater frequency of care visits were associated with faster time to viral suppression with implications for individual health outcomes and for secondary prevention.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0084318
PMCID: PMC3877252  PMID: 24391937
11.  Measuring Retention in HIV Care: The Elusive Gold Standard 
Background
Measuring retention in HIV primary care is complex as care includes multiple visits scheduled at varying intervals over time. We evaluated six commonly used retention measures in predicting viral load (VL) suppression and the correlation among measures.
Methods
Clinic-wide patient-level data from six academic HIV clinics were used for 12-months preceding implementation of the CDC/HRSA Retention in Care intervention. Six retention measures were calculated for each patient based upon scheduled primary HIV provider visits: count and dichotomous missed visits, visit adherence, 6-month gap, 4-month visit constancy, and the HRSA HAB retention measure. Spearman correlation coefficients and separate unadjusted logistic regression models compared retention measures to one another and with 12-month VL suppression, respectively. The discriminatory capacity of each measure was assessed with the c-statistic.
Results
Among 10,053 patients, 8,235 (82%) had 12-month VL measures, with 6,304 (77%) achieving suppression (VL<400 c/mL). All six retention measures were significantly associated (P<0.0001) with VL suppression (OR;95%CI, c-statistic): missed visit count (0.73;0.71–0.75,0.67), missed visit dichotomous (3.2;2.8–3.6,0.62), visit adherence (3.9;3.5–4.3,0.69), gap (3.0;2.6–3.3,0.61), visit constancy (2.8;2.5–3.0,0.63), HRSA HAB (3.8;3.3–4.4,0.59). Measures incorporating “no show” visits were highly correlated (Spearman coefficient=0.83–0.85), as were measures based solely upon kept visits (Spearman coefficient=0.72–0.77). Correlation coefficients were lower across these two groups of measures (Range=0.16–0.57).
Conclusions
Six retention measures displayed a wide range of correlation with one another, yet each measure had significant association and modest discrimination for VL suppression. These data suggest there is no clear gold standard, and that selection of a retention measure may be tailored to context.
doi:10.1097/QAI.0b013e318273762f
PMCID: PMC3508092  PMID: 23011397
Retention in care; Adherence; Engagement in care; Viral load
12.  Multimorbidity Patterns in HIV-Infected Patients: The Role of Obesity in Chronic Disease Clustering 
Background
Increases in multimorbidity and obesity have been noted in HIV infected populations in the current treatment era. Patterns of multimorbid disease clustering as well as the impact of obesity on multimorbidity are understudied in this population.
Methods
We examined obesity and multimorbidity patterns among 1844 HIV-infected patients in the UAB 1917 Clinic. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used to identify the underlying factor structure responsible for clustering. Patterns among the resulting morbidity factors by body mass index (BMI) category were explored. Multivariable logistic regression models were fit to identify predictors of multimorbidity cluster patterns.
Results
The prevalence of multimorbidity was 65% (1205/1844). Prevalence increased with progressive BMI categories from underweight (64%) to obese (79%). Three multimorbidity clusters were identified: “Metabolic” including hypertension (HTN), gout, diabetes mellitus, and chronic kidney disease (CKD) (range: 0.41 to 0.84; P<0.001); “Behavioral“ including mood disorders, dyslipidemia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic ulcer disease, osteoarthritis, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and cardiac disorders (range: 0.32 to 0.57; P<0.001); “Substance Use” including alcohol abuse, substance abuse, tobacco abuse, and hepatitis C (range: 0.53 to 0.89; P<0.001). Obesity was associated with increased odds of multimorbidity (Obese vs. Normal BMI category: OR=1.52, 95%CI=1.15-2.00).
Conclusions
Three patterns of disease clustering were identified. Obesity was associated with a higher likelihood of multimorbidity. The management of multimorbidity and obesity will need to be addressed in future clinical practice guidelines to enhance long term outcomes of HIV-infected patients in the current treatment era.
doi:10.1097/QAI.0b013e31827303d5
PMCID: PMC3508375  PMID: 23023101
Multimorbidity; Obesity; HIV; Factor Analysis; Tetrachoric
13.  Underutilization of Aspirin for Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease Among HIV-Infected Patients 
Aspirin for primary prevention of cardiovascular events is underutilized in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected patients. As these patients are at increased risk for events compared with HIV-negative persons, interventions are needed to increase HIV provider awareness of and adherence to existing guidelines.
Background. Individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) events compared with uninfected persons. However, little is known about HIV provider practices regarding aspirin (ASA) for primary prevention of CVD.
Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among patients attending the University of Alabama at Birmingham 1917 HIV Clinic during 2010 to determine the proportion receiving ASA for primary prevention of CVD and identify factors associated with ASA prescription. Ten-year risk for CVD events was calculated for men aged 45–79 and women aged 55–79. The 2009 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) guidelines were used to determine those qualifying for primary CVD prevention.
Results. Among 397 patients who qualified to receive ASA (mean age, 52.2 years, 94% male, 36% African American), only 66 (17%) were prescribed ASA. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, diabetes mellitus (odds ratio [OR], 2.60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28–5.27), hyperlipidemia (OR, 3.42; 95% CI, 1.55–7.56), and current smoking (OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.03–3.41) were significantly associated with ASA prescription. Odds of ASA prescription more than doubled for each additional CVD-related comorbidity present among hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and smoking (OR, 2.13, 95% CI, 1.51–2.99).
Conclusions. In this HIV-infected cohort, fewer than 1 in 5 patients in need received ASA for primary CVD prevention. Escalating likelihood of ASA prescription with increasing CVD-related comorbidity count suggests that providers may be influenced more by co-occurrence of these diagnoses than by USPSTF guidelines. In the absence of HIV-specific guidelines, interventions to improve HIV provider awareness of and adherence to existing general population guidelines on CVD risk reduction are needed.
doi:10.1093/cid/cis752
PMCID: PMC3491860  PMID: 22942209
14.  Pain, Mood, and Substance Abuse in HIV: Implications for Clinic Visit Utilization, ART Adherence, and Virologic Failure 
Introduction
Co-occurring pain, mood disorders, and substance abuse are common in HIV-infected patients. Our objective was to investigate the relationship between pain, alone and in the context of mood disorders and substance abuse, on clinic utilization, antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, and virologic suppression.
Methods
Pain, mood disorders, and substance abuse were assessed at the first visit. No-show and urgent visits were measured over a one-year period. Models were adjusted for age, race, sex, insurance status, CD4+ T-lymphocyte count, and HIV risk factor.
Results
Among 1521 participants, 509 (34%) reported pain, 239 (16%) had pain alone, 189 (13%) had pain and a mood disorder, and 30 (2%) had pain and substance abuse. In univariate models, participants with pain, mood disorders, and substance abuse had higher odds of a no-show visit than participants without these conditions [OR 1.4 (95% CI 1.1–1.8); OR 1.5 (95% CI 1.2–1.9); OR 2.0 (95% CI 1.4–2.8), respectively]. In the multivariable model, pain increased the odds of a no-show visit only in participants without substance abuse [OR 1.5 (95% CI 1.1–1.9)], and pain reduced the odds of a no-show visit in participants with substance abuse [OR 0.5 (95% CI 0.2–0.9), p for interaction=0.0022].
Conclusions
In this study, pain increased the odds of no-show visits, but only for participants without substance abuse. Because pain, mood disorders, and substance abuse are highly prevalent in HIV-infected patients, our findings have implications for HIV treatment success. Interventions that incorporate pain management may be important for improving health outcomes in patients living with HIV infection.
doi:10.1097/QAI.0b013e3182662215
PMCID: PMC3459261  PMID: 22766967
HIV; Pain; Psychiatric Illness; Substance Abuse; ART Adherence; Health Care Utilization
15.  Medication Possession Ratio Predicts Antiretroviral Regimens Persistence in Peru 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(10):e76323.
Objectives
In developing nations, the use of operational parameters (OPs) in the prediction of clinical care represents a missed opportunity to enhance the care process. We modeled the impact of multiple measurements of antiretroviral treatment (ART) adherence on antiretroviral treatment outcomes in Peru.
Design And Methods
Retrospective cohort study including ART naïve, non-pregnant, adults initiating therapy at Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia, Lima-Peru (2006-2010). Three OPs were defined: 1) Medication possession ratio (MPR): days with antiretrovirals dispensed/days on first-line therapy; 2) Laboratory monitory constancy (LMC): proportion of 6 months intervals with ≥1 viral load or CD4 reported; 3) Clinic visit constancy (CVC): proportion of 6 months intervals with ≥1 clinic visit.
Three multi-variable Cox proportional hazard (PH) models (one per OP) were fit for (1) time of first-line ART persistence and (2) time to second-line virologic failure. All models were adjusted for socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory variables.
Results
856 patients were included in first-line persistence analyses, median age was 35.6 years [29.4-42.9] and most were male (624; 73%). In multivariable PH models, MPR (per 10% increase HR=0.66; 95%CI=0.61-0.71) and LMC (per 10% increase 0.83; 0.71-0.96) were associated with prolonged time on first-line therapies.
Among 79 individuals included in time to second-line virologic failure analyses, MPR was the only OP independently associated with prolonged time to second-line virologic failure (per 10% increase 0.88; 0.77-0.99).
Conclusions
The capture and utilization of program level parameters such as MPR can provide valuable insight into patient-level treatment outcomes.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0076323
PMCID: PMC3788135  PMID: 24098475
16.  Early Retention in HIV Care and Viral Load Suppression: Implications for a Test and Treat Approach to HIV Prevention 
Background
Following HIV diagnosis and linkage to care, achieving and sustaining viral load (VL) suppression has implications for patient outcomes and secondary HIV prevention. We evaluated factors associated with expeditious VL suppression and cumulative VL burden among patients establishing outpatient HIV care.
Methods
Patients initiating HIV medical care from January 2007-October 2010 at the University of Alabama at Birmingham and University of Washington were included. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards and linear regression models were used to evaluate factors associated with time to VL suppression (<50 copies/mL) and cumulative VL burden, respectively. Viremia copy-years (VCY), a novel area under the longitudinal VL curve measure, was used to estimate 2-year cumulative VL burden from clinic enrollment.
Results
Among 676 patients, 63% achieved VL<50 copies/mL in a median 308 days. In multivariable analysis, patients with more time-updated “no show” visits experienced delayed VL suppression (HR=0.83 per “no show” visit, 95%CI=0.76,0.91). In multivariable linear regression, visit non-adherence was independently associated with greater cumulative VL burden (log10VCY) during the first two years in care (Beta coefficient=0.11 per 10% visit non-adherence, 95%CI=0.04-0.17). Across increasing visit adherence categories, lower cumulative VL burden was observed (mean ± standard deviation log10 copy × years/mL); 0-79% adherence: 4.6 ± 0.8; 80-99% adherence: 4.3 ± 0.7; and 100% adherence: 4.1 ± 0.8 log10 copy × years/mL, respectively (P<0.01).
Conclusions
Higher rates of early retention in HIV care are associated with achieving VL suppression and lower cumulative VL burden. These findings are germane for a test and treat approach to HIV prevention.
doi:10.1097/QAI.0b013e318236f7d2
PMCID: PMC3237801  PMID: 21937921
HIV; Viral load; Retention in care; Adherence; Engagement in care
17.  Impact of organizational factors on adherence to laboratory testing protocols in adult HIV care in Lusaka, Zambia 
Background
Previous operational research studies have demonstrated the feasibility of large-scale public sector ART programs in resource-limited settings. However, organizational and structural determinants of quality of care have not been studied.
Methods
We estimate multivariate regression models using data from 13 urban HIV treatment facilities in Zambia to assess the impact of structural determinants on health workers’ adherence to national guidelines for conducting laboratory tests such as CD4, hemoglobin and liver function and WHO staging during initial and follow-up visits as part of Zambian HIV care and treatment program.
Results
CD4 tests were more routinely ordered during initial history and physical (IHP) than follow-up (FUP) visits (93.0 % vs. 85.5 %; p < 0.01). More physical space, higher staff turnover and greater facility experience with ART was associated with greater odds of conducting tests. Higher staff experience decreased the odds of conducting CD4 tests in FUP (OR 0.93; p < 0.05) and WHO staging in IHP visit (OR 0.90; p < 0.05) but increased the odds of conducting hemoglobin test in IHP visit (OR 1.05; p < 0.05). Higher staff burnout increased the odds of conducting CD4 test during FUP (OR 1.14; p < 0.05) but decreased the odds of conducting hemoglobin test in IHP visit (0.77; p < 0.05) and CD4 test in IHP visit (OR 0.78; p < 0.05).
Conclusion
Physical space plays an important role in ensuring high quality care in resource-limited setting. In the context of protocolized care, new staff members are likely to be more diligent in following the protocol verbatim rather than relying on memory and experience thereby improving adherence. Future studies should use prospective data to confirm the findings reported here.
doi:10.1186/1472-6963-12-106
PMCID: PMC3478975  PMID: 22551413
18.  Most Common SNPs Associated with Rheumatoid Arthritis in Subjects of European Ancestry Confer Risk of Rheumatoid Arthritis in African-Americans 
Arthritis and Rheumatism  2010;62(12):3547-3553.
Objective
Large-scale genetic association studies have identified over 20 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) risk alleles among individuals of European ancestry. The influence of these risk alleles has not been comprehensively studied in African-Americans. We therefore sought to examine whether these validated RA risk alleles are associated with RA in an African-American population.
Methods
27 candidate SNPs were genotyped in 556 autoantibody-positive African-Americans with RA and 791 healthy African-American controls. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for each SNP were compared to previously published ORs of RA patients of European ancestry. We then calculated a composite Genetic Risk Score (GRS) for each individual based on the sum of all risk alleles.
Results
There was overlap in the OR and 95% CI between the European and African-American populations in 24 of the 27 candidate SNPs. Conversely, 3 of the 27 SNPs (CCR6 rs3093023, TAGAP rs394581, TNFAIP3 rs6920220) demonstrated an OR in the opposite direction from those reported in RA patients of European ancestry. The GRS analysis indicated a small but highly significant probability that African-American cases were enriched for the European RA risk alleles relative to controls (p=0.00005).
Conclusion
The majority of RA risk alleles previously validated among European ancestry RA patients showed similar ORs in our population of African-Americans with RA. Furthermore, the aggregate GRS supports the hypothesis that these SNPs are risk alleles for RA in the African-American population. Future large-scale genetic studies are needed to validate these risk alleles and identify novel risk alleles for RA in African-Americans.
doi:10.1002/art.27732
PMCID: PMC3030622  PMID: 21120996
19.  Health Facility Characteristics and Their Relationship to Coverage of PMTCT of HIV Services across Four African Countries: The PEARL Study 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(1):e29823.
Background
Health facility characteristics associated with effective prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) coverage in sub-Saharan are poorly understood.
Methodology/Principal Findings
We conducted surveys in health facilities with active PMTCT services in Cameroon, Cote d'Ivoire, South Africa, and Zambia. Data was compiled via direct observation and exit interviews. We constructed composite scores to describe provision of PMTCT services across seven topical areas: antenatal quality, PMTCT quality, supplies available, patient satisfaction, patient understanding of medication, and infrastructure quality. Pearson correlations and Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) to account for clustering of facilities within countries were used to evaluate the relationship between the composite scores, total time of visit and select individual variables with PMTCT coverage among women delivering.
Between July 2008 and May 2009, we collected data from 32 facilities; 78% were managed by the government health system. An opt-out approach for HIV testing was used in 100% of facilities in Zambia, 63% in Cameroon, and none in Côte d'Ivoire or South Africa. Using Pearson correlations, PMTCT coverage (median of 55%, (IQR: 33–68) was correlated with PMTCT quality score (rho = 0.51; p = 0.003); infrastructure quality score (rho = 0.43; p = 0.017); time spent at clinic (rho = 0.47; p = 0.013); patient understanding of medications score (rho = 0.51; p = 0.006); and patient satisfaction quality score (rho = 0.38; p = 0.031). PMTCT coverage was marginally correlated with the antenatal quality score (rho = 0.304; p = 0.091). Using GEE adjustment for clustering, the, antenatal quality score became more strongly associated with PMTCT coverage (p<0.001) and the PMTCT quality score and patient understanding of medications remained marginally significant.
Conclusions/Results
We observed a positive relationship between an antenatal quality score and PMTCT coverage but did not identify a consistent set of variables that predicted PMTCT coverage.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0029823
PMCID: PMC3262794  PMID: 22276130
20.  Estimating Loss to Follow-Up in HIV-Infected Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy: The Effect of the Competing Risk of Death in Zambia and Switzerland 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(12):e27919.
Background
Loss to follow-up (LTFU) is common in antiretroviral therapy (ART) programmes. Mortality is a competing risk (CR) for LTFU; however, it is often overlooked in cohort analyses. We examined how the CR of death affected LTFU estimates in Zambia and Switzerland.
Methods and Findings
HIV-infected patients aged ≥18 years who started ART 2004–2008 in observational cohorts in Zambia and Switzerland were included. We compared standard Kaplan-Meier curves with CR cumulative incidence. We calculated hazard ratios for LTFU across CD4 cell count strata using cause-specific Cox models, or Fine and Gray subdistribution models, adjusting for age, gender, body mass index and clinical stage. 89,339 patients from Zambia and 1,860 patients from Switzerland were included. 12,237 patients (13.7%) in Zambia and 129 patients (6.9%) in Switzerland were LTFU and 8,498 (9.5%) and 29 patients (1.6%), respectively, died. In Zambia, the probability of LTFU was overestimated in Kaplan-Meier curves: estimates at 3.5 years were 29.3% for patients starting ART with CD4 cells <100 cells/µl and 15.4% among patients starting with ≥350 cells/µL. The estimates from CR cumulative incidence were 22.9% and 13.6%, respectively. Little difference was found between naïve and CR analyses in Switzerland since only few patients died. The results from Cox and Fine and Gray models were similar: in Zambia the risk of loss to follow-up and death increased with decreasing CD4 counts at the start of ART, whereas in Switzerland there was a trend in the opposite direction, with patients with higher CD4 cell counts more likely to be lost to follow-up.
Conclusions
In ART programmes in low-income settings the competing risk of death can substantially bias standard analyses of LTFU. The CD4 cell count and other prognostic factors may be differentially associated with LTFU in low-income and high-income settings.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0027919
PMCID: PMC3242760  PMID: 22205933
21.  Universal Definition of Loss to Follow-Up in HIV Treatment Programs: A Statistical Analysis of 111 Facilities in Africa, Asia, and Latin America 
PLoS Medicine  2011;8(10):e1001111.
Based on a statistical analysis of 111 facilities in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, Benjamin Chi and colleagues develop a standard loss-to-follow-up (LTFU) definition that can be used by HIV antiretroviral programs worldwide.
Background
Although patient attrition is recognized as a threat to the long-term success of antiretroviral therapy programs worldwide, there is no universal definition for classifying patients as lost to follow-up (LTFU). We analyzed data from health facilities across Africa, Asia, and Latin America to empirically determine a standard LTFU definition.
Methods and Findings
At a set “status classification” date, patients were categorized as either “active” or “LTFU” according to different intervals from time of last clinic encounter. For each threshold, we looked forward 365 d to assess the performance and accuracy of this initial classification. The best-performing definition for LTFU had the lowest proportion of patients misclassified as active or LTFU. Observational data from 111 health facilities—representing 180,718 patients from 19 countries—were included in this study. In the primary analysis, for which data from all facilities were pooled, an interval of 180 d (95% confidence interval [CI]: 173–181 d) since last patient encounter resulted in the fewest misclassifications (7.7%, 95% CI: 7.6%–7.8%). A secondary analysis that gave equal weight to cohorts and to regions generated a similar result (175 d); however, an alternate approach that used inverse weighting for cohorts based on variance and equal weighting for regions produced a slightly lower summary measure (150 d). When examined at the facility level, the best-performing definition varied from 58 to 383 d (mean = 150 d), but when a standard definition of 180 d was applied to each facility, only slight increases in misclassification (mean = 1.2%, 95% CI: 1.0%–1.5%) were observed. Using this definition, the proportion of patients classified as LTFU by facility ranged from 3.1% to 45.1% (mean = 19.9%, 95% CI: 19.1%–21.7%).
Conclusions
Based on this evaluation, we recommend the adoption of ≥180 d since the last clinic visit as a standard LTFU definition. Such standardization is an important step to understanding the reasons that underlie patient attrition and establishing more reliable and comparable program evaluation worldwide.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
Background
Since 1981, AIDS has killed more than 25 million people, and about 33 million people (mostly in low- and middle-income countries) are now infected with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. Because HIV destroys immune system cells, HIV-positive individuals are very susceptible to other infections, and, early in the AIDS epidemic, most HIV-infected people died within ten years of contracting the virus. Then, in 1996, antiretroviral therapy (ART)—a cocktail of drugs that keeps HIV in check—became available. For people living in developed countries, HIV infection became a chronic condition. However, for people living in developing countries, ART was prohibitively expensive, and HIV/AIDS remained a fatal illness. In 2003, this situation was declared a global emergency, and governments, international agencies, and funding bodies began to implement plans to increase ART coverage in resource-limited countries. By the end of 2009, more than a third of people living in these countries who needed ART were receiving it.
Why Was This Study Done?
Because ART does not cure HIV infection, patients have to take antiretroviral drugs regularly for the rest of their lives. But in some ART programs, more than a third of patients are lost to follow-up (LTFU), that is, they stop coming for treatment, within three years of starting treatment. Patient attrition threatens the success of ART programs, but to understand why it occurs, a standardized method for classifying patients as LTFU is essential. Classification of patients as LTFU relies on an interval-based definition of LTFU. That is, a patient who fails to attend a clinic within a specified interval after a previous visit is classified as LTFU. If this interval is too short, although many patients will be accurately identified as LTFU, there will be a high false-positive rate—some patients classified as LTFU will actually return to the clinic later. Conversely, if the interval is too long, some patients who are truly LTFU will be misclassified as active (a false-negative classification). In this study, the researchers analyzed data from health facilities across Africa, Asia, and Latin America to determine a standard definition for LTFU that minimizes patient misclassification.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
Using data collected from 111 health facilities by the International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) Collaboration, the researchers categorized patients receiving ART at each facility at a “status classification” date (12 months before the facility's last data export to IeDEA) as active or LTFU using a range of intervals (thresholds) since their last clinic visit. For example, for a test interval of 200 days, patients who had not revisited the clinic within 200 days of their previous visit at the status classification date were classified as LTFU; patients who had revisited the clinic were classified as active. The researchers then looked forward 365 days from the status classification date to assess the performance and accuracy of these classifications. So, a “LTFU” patient who visited the clinic anytime during the year after the status classification date represented a false-positive classification, and an “active” patient who did not return within the ensuing year represented a false-negative classification. When data from all the facilities were pooled, a threshold of 180 days produced the fewest misclassifications. At the facility level, the best-performing threshold for patient classification ranged from 58 to 383 days (with an average of 150 days), but application of a 180-day threshold to individual facilities only slightly increased misclassifications. Finally, using the 180-day threshold, average LTFU at individual facilities was 19.9%.
What Do These Findings Mean?
Based on these findings, the researchers recommend that the standard definition for LTFU should be when it has been 180 days or more since the patient's last clinic visit. Given the wide range of best-performing definitions among facilities, however, they recognize that local, national, or regional definitions of LTFU may be more appropriate in certain contexts. Adoption of a standard definition for LTFU, the researchers note, should facilitate harmonization of monitoring and evaluation of ART programs across the world and should help to identify “best practices” associated with low LTFU rates. Importantly, it should also provide the necessary framework for research designed to improve patient retention in ART programs, thereby helping to maximize and sustain the health gains from HIV treatment programs.
Additional Information
Please access these websites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001111.
Information is available from the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases on HIV infection and AIDS
NAM/aidsmap provides basic information about HIV/AIDS and summaries of recent research findings on HIV care and treatment
Information is available from Avert, an international AIDS charity on many aspects of HIV/AIDS, including information on HIV/AIDS treatment and care and on universal access to AIDS treatment (in English and Spanish)
The World Health Organization provides information about universal access to AIDS treatment (in several languages)
Information about the IeDEA Collaboration available
Patient stories about living with HIV/AIDS are available through Avert and through the charity website Healthtalkonline
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001111
PMCID: PMC3201937  PMID: 22039357
22.  Radiographic Severity of Rheumatoid Arthritis in African-Americans: Results from the CLEAR Registry 
Arthritis care & research  2010;62(5):624-631.
Objective
To describe radiographic changes in African-Americans with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) from the CLEAR (Consortium for the Longitudinal Evaluation of African-Americans with Early Rheumatoid Arthritis) Registry, a multicenter observational study.
Methods
Self-declared African-American patients, were enrolled in CLEAR I, a longitudinal cohort of early RA (disease duration <2 years) from 2000 to 2005; or in CLEAR II, a cross-sectional cohort (any disease duration), from 2006 to the present. Demographic and clinical data were obtained, and sets of hand/wrist and foot radiographs were scored using the modified Sharp/van der Heijde scoring system.
Results
A total of 357 and 418 patients, respectively, have been enrolled into CLEAR I and CLEAR II. We report here an interim analysis of radiographic severity in these patients. For the CLEAR I cohort, 294 patients had a mean radiographic score of 2.89 at the baseline visit; 32.0% showed either erosions (25.9%) or joint space narrowing (JSN) (19.4%). At the 36-month visit the mean score was 5.65; 44.2% had erosions, 41.5% JSN and 55.4% had either. Among those patients without radiographic damage at baseline, 18.9% had progressed at the 36-month visit, compared to 57.1% of those with baseline damage (p<0.0001). For the CLEAR II cohort, 167 patients with RA of any duration, 65.3% exhibited joint erosions, 65.3% JSN and 74.8% exhibited either. The mean radiographic score was 33.42.
Conclusion
This is the largest radiographic study of African American RA patients. Damage occurs early in the disease and is associated with radiographic progression at 3 years of disease duration. The CLEAR Registry will provide a valuable resource for future analyses of genetic, clinical, and environmental factors associated with radiographic severity of RA in African-Americans.
doi:10.1002/acr.20040
PMCID: PMC3052790  PMID: 20461784
23.  Comparative efficacy versus effectiveness of initial antiretroviral therapy in clinical trials versus routine care 
Summary
The generalizability of clinical trial findings (efficacy) to routine care (effectiveness) may be limited. The present study found similar first year virologic and CD4 outcomes among antiretroviral-naïve patients treated through routine care vs. those participating in clinical trials.
Background
The generalizability of clinical trial findings (efficacy) to routine care (effectiveness) may be limited due to study eligibility criteria and volunteer bias. While well chronicled in many conditions, the efficacy vs. effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains understudied.
Methods
A retrospective study of the UAB 1917 Clinic Cohort evaluated naïve patients starting ART between 1/1/00–12/31/06. Patients received ART through clinical trials or routine care. Multivariable logistic and linear regression models were fit to evaluate factors associated with virologic failure (VF=VL>50 copies/mL) and change from baseline CD4 count 6 and 12 months after ART initiation. Sensitivity analyses evaluated the impact of missing data on outcomes.
Results
Among 570 patients starting ART during the study period, 121 (21%) enrolled in clinical trials vs. 449 (79%) receiving ART via routine care. ART receipt through routine care was not associated with VF at either 6 (OR=1.00;95%CI=0.54–1.86) or 12 (OR=1.56;95%CI=0.80–3.05) months in primary analyses. No significant differences in CD4 count responses at 6 and 12 months were observed.
Conclusions
Though marked differences in efficacy vs. effectiveness have been observed in the therapeutic outcomes of other conditions, our analyses found no evidence of such divergence among our patients initiating antiretroviral therapy for HIV.
doi:10.1086/650004
PMCID: PMC2848720  PMID: 20067423
Efficacy; effectiveness; ART; HIV
24.  Antiretroviral Prescribing Patterns in Treatment-Naïve Patients in the United States 
AIDS Patient Care and STDs  2010;24(2):79-85.
Abstract
Numerous antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens are recommended for first-line and subsequent HIV care, but regimen selection for clinical use may not represent the full range of options. We hypothesized that despite an increase in available antiretrovirals, clinical trial data on regimen efficacy and fixed-dose combination options have lead to uniformity in initial ART. We evaluated regimen selection for ART-naïve patients at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) 1917 Clinic between January 2000 and December 2007. The annual number of unique initial regimens was quantified. Initial regimen variability was expressed as regimens per 100 patients. Subsequent ART regimens were characterized for complexity via regimen sequence trees detailing the first three generations of regimens for patients starting the two most common initial combinations. Four hundred eighty-two ART-naïve patients were treated with 39 unique initial regimens (8.0 regimens per 100 patients). Variability in initial regimen selection was highest in the first 6 years (14.9–24.4 regimens per 100 patients). A sharp decline was observed in 2006 (16.1 regimens per 100 patients) and 2007 (6.5 regimens per 100 patients). The most dramatic shift in drug selection involved an increase in emtricitabine plus tenofovir plus efavirenz, from 0% in 2003 to 85% in 2007. During the study period, 205 of 482 (43%) patients required a change in initial therapy. Of these, 156 of 205 (76%) had a unique sequence of regimens. A shift toward homogeneity of initial ART was observed (85% of patients received the same first-line regimen in 2007). In contrast, regimen sequencing beyond the first regimen remained complex. These shifts in ART prescribing patterns may have implications for collaborative HIV care.
doi:10.1089/apc.2009.0220
PMCID: PMC3826470  PMID: 20059309
25.  Do Physicians Within The Same Practice Setting Manage Osteoporosis Patients Similarly? Implications for Implementation Research 
Introduction
Patients' receipt of prescription therapies are significantly influenced by their physician's prescribing patterns. If physicians in the same practice setting influence one another's prescribing, evidence implementation interventions must consider targeting the practice as well as individual physicians to achieve maximal success.
Methods
We examined receipt of osteoporosis treatment (OP Rx) from two prior evidence implementation studies: long term glucocorticoid (GC) users and 2) nursing home (NH) residents with prior fracture or osteoporosis. Common practice setting was defined as doctors practicing at the same address or in the same nursing home. Alternating logistic regression evaluated the relationship between OP Rx, common practice setting and individual physician treatment patterns.
Results
Among 6281 GC users in 1296 practices, the proportion receiving OP Rx in each practice was 6–100%. Among 779 NH residents in 66 nursing homes, the proportion in each NH receiving OP Rx was 0–100%. In both, there was no significant relationship between receipt of OP Rx and common practice setting after accounting for treatment pattern of individual physicians.
Conclusion
Physicians practicing together were not more alike in prescribing osteoporosis medications than those in different practices. Osteoporosis quality improvement may be able to ignore common practice settings and maximize statistical power by targeting individual physicians.
doi:10.1007/s00198-009-0900-7
PMCID: PMC2766011  PMID: 19319619
osteoporosis; glucocorticoid; fracture; nursing home; group randomized trial; alternating logistic regression

Results 1-25 (42)