Issues of surfaces, e.g., inspired from beetle's back, spider silk, cactus stem, etc., become the active area of research on designing novel materials in need of human beings to acquire fresh water resource from air. However, the design of materials on surface structure is little achieved on controlling of micro-scale drop transport in a long distance. Here, we report the ability of micro-drop transport in a long distance on a bioinspired Fibers with Gradient Spindle-knots (BFGS), which are fabricated by tilt angle dip-coating method. The micro-drop of ~0.25 μL transports in distance of ~5.00 mm, with velocity of 0.10–0.22 m s−1 on BFGS. It is attributed to the multi-level cooperation of the release energy of drop coalescence along the gradient spindle-knots, in addition to capillary adhesion force and continuous difference of Laplace pressure, accordingly, water drops are driven to move fast directionally in a long distance on BFGS.
The aim of this study was to determine whether baseline C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and CRP kinetics predict the overall survival in metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (mNPC) patients.
A total of 116 mNPC patients from January 2006 to July 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Serum CRP level was measured at baseline and thereafter at the start of each palliative chemotherapy cycle for all patients.
Patients with higher values of baseline CRP (≥ 3.4 mg/L) had significantly worse survival than those with lower baseline CRP values (< 3.4 mg/L). Patients were divided into four groups according to baseline CRP and CRP kinetics: (1) patients whose CRP < 3.4 mg/L and never elevated during treatment; (2) patients whose CRP < 3.4 mg/L and elevated at least one time during treatment; (3) patients whose CRP ≥ 3.4 mg/L and normalized at least one time during treatment; and (4) patients whose CRP ≥ 3.4 mg/L and never normalized during treatment. The patients were further assigned to non-elevated, elevated, normalized, and non-normalized CRP groups. Overall survival rates were significantly different among the four groups, with three-year survival rates of 68%, 41%, 33%, and 0.03% for non-elevated, elevated, normalized, and non-normalized CRP groups respectively. When compared with the non-elevated group, hazard ratios of death were 1.69, 2.57, and 10.34 in the normalized, elevated, and non-normalized groups (P < 0.001).
Baseline CRP and CRP kinetics may be useful to predict the prognosis of metastatic NPC patients treated with palliative chemotherapy and facilitate individualized treatment. A prospective study to validate this prognostic model is still needed however.
The combination of classical Hodgkin’s lymphoma (cHL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma coexisting in the same patient is not common, especially in one extranodal location. Here we present a rare case of composite diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and cHL occurring simultaneously in the stomach of a 53-year-old female who presented with upper abdominal discomfort and gas pain. Surgery was performed and the disease was diagnosed pathologically as composite lymphoma of DLBCL and cHL using hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemical staining. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection was not detected by in situ hybridization for EBV-encoded RNA or immunohistochemistry for EBV latent membrane protein-1. Polymerase chain reaction analysis from the two distinct components of the tumor demonstrated clonal immunoglobulin κ light chain gene rearrangements. The patient died approximately 11 mo after diagnosis in spite of receiving eight courses of the CHOP and two courses of the rituximab-CHOP (RCHOP) chemotherapy regimen. This case report showed that the two distinct components, DLBCL and cHL, appeared to originate from the same clonal progenitor cell, and that EBV infection was not essential for transformation during the course of tumorigenesis.
Composite lymphoma; Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; Hodgkin’s lymphoma; Stomach
Biomarkers capable of discriminating the patients who are likely to respond to certain chemotherapeutic agents could improve the clinical efficiency. The sulfatases(SULFs) play a critical role in the pathogenesis of a variety of human cancers. Here, we focused our investigation on the prognostic and predictive impact of SULF2 methylation in gastric cancer.
Promoter CpG island methylation of SULF2 was analyzed in 100 gastric cancer samples. The in vitro sensitivity to cisplatin, docetaxel, gemcitabine, irinotecan and pemetrexed were determined by histoculture drug response assay(HDRA). Additionally, 56 gastric cancer patients treated with a modified FOLFOX regimen(biweekly oxaliplatin plus 5-FU and folinic acid) were retrospectively analyzed to further evaluate the prognostic and predictive impact of SULF2 methylation in gastric cancer.
Methylated SULF2(SULF2M) was detected in 28 patients, while the remaining 72 patients showed unmethylated SULF2(SULF2U, methylation rate: 28%). Samples with SULF2U were more sensitive to cisplatin than those with SULF2M(inhibition rate: 48.80% vs. 38.15%, P = 0.02), while samples with SULF2M were more sensitive to irinotecan than SULF2U(inhibition rate: 53.61% vs. 40.92%, P = 0.01). There were no association between SULF2 methylation and in vitro sensitivity to docetaxel, gemcitabine and pemetrexed. SULF2 methylation was found to have a significant association with cisplatin efficacy(SULF2M: 57.14%, SULF2U: 80.56%, P = 0.02) and irinotecan efficacy(SULF2M: 89.29%, SULF2U: 62.50%, P = 0.01). Among the 56 patients receiving the modified FOLFOX regimen, a significant association was observed between survival and SULF2 methylation status(SULF2M: 309 days, 95% CI = 236 to 382 days; SULF2U: 481 days, 95% CI = 418 to 490 days; P = 0.02). Multivariate analysis revealed that SULF2 methylation was an independent prognostic factor of overall survival in gastric cancer patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy.
SULF2 methylation is negatively associated with cisplatin sensitivity in vitro. SULF2 methylation may be a novel prognostic biomarker for gastric cancer patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy.
The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of intraocular pressure (IOP) mean, maximum and variability on the rate of structural change in experimental glaucoma. Data were taken retrospectively from 59 non-human primates involved in ongoing studies of experimental glaucoma. IOP was measured by tonometry every 1–3 weeks, and these readings split into non-overlapping fixed-length windows. First, different characterizations of IOP variability were tested to find the one that was least correlated with the mean IOP within the same window. Next, the rates of change of the Mean Position of the Disc (MPD) from confocal scanning laser tomography, and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness (RNFLT) from spectral domain ocular coherence tomography, were calculated over each window. Mixed effects models were formed to predict these rates based on the characterizations of IOP. Normalized root mean squared residual (RMSR) from the trend of IOP during windows of five IOP measurements provided a characterization of variability showing lowest correlation with mean IOP (r<0.001). In univariate analyses, rate of change of MPD and RNFLT were predicted by mean IOP (p<0.001 for both) and maximum IOP (p<0.001 for both). IOP variability did not significantly predict change in MPD (p=0.129) or RNFLT (p=0.438). In bivariate models, maximum IOP was the most significant predictor of change. We conclude that normalized RMSR allows the effects of IOP variability to be assessed independently of mean IOP. Maximum IOP provided the best predictability of structural change, either causally or because it captures the contributions of both mean and variability.
Glaucoma; Intraocular Pressure; Progression; Non-human Primate; Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer
The successful use of transplanted cells and/or growth factors for tissue repair is limited by a significant cell loss and/or rapid growth factor diffusion soon after implantation. Highly porous alginate scaffolds formed with covalent crosslinking have been used to improve cell survival and growth factor release kinetics, but require open-wound surgical procedures for insertion and have not previously been designed to readily degrade in vivo. In this study, a biodegradable, partially crosslinked alginate scaffold with shape-memory properties was fabricated for minimally invasive surgical applications. A mixture of high and low molecular weight partially oxidized alginate modified with RGD peptides was covalently crosslinked using carbodiimide chemistry. The scaffold was compressible 11-fold and returned to its original shape when rehydrated. Scaffold degradation properties in vitro indicated ∼85% mass loss by 28 days. The greater than 90% porous scaffolds released the recombinant growth factor insulin-like growth factor-1 over several days in vitro and allowed skeletal muscle cell survival, proliferation, and migration from the scaffold over a 28-day period. The compressible scaffold thus has the potential to be delivered by a minimally invasive technique, and when rehydrated in vivo with cells and/or growth factors, could serve as a temporary delivery vehicle for tissue repair.
The aim of this study was to examine the association between the −149C>T polymorphism of DNA methyltransferase 3B (DNMT3B) and colorectal cancer (CRC) susceptibility. A comprehensive search was conducted to identify all case-control studies of the −149C>T polymorphism of DNMT3B and CRC risk. Statistical analysis was performed with the software program Stata (version 12.0) and Review Manager (version 5.0). A total of seven eligible studies, including 2,666 cases and 4,022 controls, associating the DNMT3B polymorphism of −149C>T with the risk of CRC were identified. These studies suggested no significant associations between the −149C>T polymorphism of the DNMT3B gene and the risk of developing CRC in the recessive, dominant and co-dominant models [for CC vs. TT: odds ratio (OR), 0.90; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.90–1.25; P=0.37; for the recessive model: OR, 0.54, 95% CI, 0.28–1.04; P<0.00001; for the dominant model: OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.93–1.23; P=0.83 and C allele vs. T allele: OR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.43–1.13; P<0.00001]. In the subgroup analysis, no significant associations were found in the European populations (for CC vs. TT: OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.92–1.30; P=0.88; for the recessive model: OR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.88–1.13; P=0.14; for the dominant model: OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 0.89–2.54; P<0.00001 and C allele vs. T allele: OR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.38–1.28; P<0.00001). No significant association was found between the −149C>T polymorphism in DNMT3B and CRC susceptibility.
−149C>T polymorphism; DNA methyltransferase 3B; colorectal cancer risk; meta-analysis
Hendra virus is a highly pathogenic zoonotic paramyxovirus in the genus Henipavirus. Thirty-nine outbreaks of Hendra virus have been reported since its initial identification in Queensland, Australia, resulting in seven human infections and four fatalities. Little is known about cellular host factors impacting Hendra virus replication. In this work, we demonstrate that Hendra virus makes use of a microRNA (miRNA) designated miR-146a, an NF-κB-responsive miRNA upregulated by several innate immune ligands, to favor its replication. miR-146a is elevated in the blood of ferrets and horses infected with Hendra virus and is upregulated by Hendra virus in human cells in vitro. Blocking miR-146a reduces Hendra virus replication in vitro, suggesting a role for this miRNA in Hendra virus replication. In silico analysis of miR-146a targets identified ring finger protein (RNF)11, a member of the A20 ubiquitin editing complex that negatively regulates NF-κB activity, as a novel component of Hendra virus replication. RNA interference-mediated silencing of RNF11 promotes Hendra virus replication in vitro, suggesting that increased NF-κB activity aids Hendra virus replication. Furthermore, overexpression of the IκB superrepressor inhibits Hendra virus replication. These studies are the first to demonstrate a host miRNA response to Hendra virus infection and suggest an important role for host miRNAs in Hendra virus disease.
Dental caries is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases in the United States, affecting approximately 80% of children and the majority of adults. Dental caries may lead to endodontic disease, where the bacterial infection progresses to the root canal system of the tooth, leading to periapical inflammation, bone erosion, severe pain, and tooth loss. Periapical inflammation may also exacerbate inflammation in other parts of the body. Although conventional clinical therapies for this disease are successful in approximately 80% of cases, there is still an urgent need for increased efficacy of treatment. In this study, we applied a novel gene-therapeutic approach using recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated Atp6i RNA interference (RNAi) knockdown of Atp6i/TIRC7 gene expression to simultaneously target periapical bone resorption and periapical inflammation. We found that Atp6i inhibition impaired osteoclast function in vitro and in vivo and decreased the number of T cells in the periapical lesion. Notably, AAV-mediated Atp6i/TIRC7 knockdown gene therapy reduced bacterial infection-stimulated bone resorption by 80% in the mouse model of endodontic disease. Importantly, Atp6i+/− mice with haploinsufficiency of Atp6i exhibited protection similar to that in mice with bacterial infection-stimulated bone erosion and periapical inflammation, which confirms the potential therapeutic effect of AAV-small hairpin RNA (shRNA)-Atp6i/TIRC7. Our results demonstrate that AAV-mediated Atp6i/TIRC7 knockdown in periapical tissues can inhibit endodontic disease development, bone resorption, and inflammation, indicating for the first time that this potential gene therapy may significantly improve the health of those who suffer from endodontic disease.
To establish an ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) fingerprinting method for quality control of Phragmitis rhizoma from Baiyangdian.
Materials and Methods:
Ultrasonic extraction with 70% methanol was performed on 10 samples of P. rhizoma collected from 10 different villages in Baiyangdian. The sample solutions were analyzed by Waters UPLC equipped with the ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 column and photodiode array (PDA) detector, and gradient eluted with acetonitrile/water as the mobile phase. The flow rate was set to 0.1 mL/min; the column temperature was set to 25°C; and the detection wavelength was set to 285 nm.
The chromatograms of the 10 samples showed 27 common peaks, of which one was identified as the ferulic acid standard. The similarity indexes were all above 0.82. Hierarchical cluster analysis showed that the constituents and their quantities differed according to the diameter of the original plant, which is related to its age.
The UPLC fingerprinting method had the advantages of being fast, accurate, and highly efficient; this indicated that it can be used for quality control of P. rhizoma produced in Baiyangdian. Also, the relation between the quality and diameter/age of the plant needs to be further investigated.
Baiyangdian; fingerprint; Phragmitis rhizoma; ultra-performance liquid chromatography
Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells include thymic-derived natural Treg and conventional T-derived adaptive Treg cells. Both are proposed to play important roles in downregulating inflammatory immune responses. However, the mechanisms of Treg expansion in inflammatory environments remain unclear. In this study, we report that, in an autoimmune-like graft-versus-host disease model of DBA/2 (H-2d) donor to BALB/c (H-2d) recipients, donor Treg cells in the recipients predominantly originated from expansion of natural Treg cells and few originated from adaptive Treg cells. In vivo neutralization of IFN-γ resulted in a marked reduction of donor natural Treg expansion and exacerbation of graft-versus-host disease, which was associated with downregulation of host APC expression of B7H1. Furthermore, host APC expression of B7H1 was shown to augment donor Treg survival and expansion. Finally, donor Treg interactions with host APCs via B7.1/B7H1 but not PD-1/B7H1 were demonstrated to be critical in augmenting donor Treg survival and expansion. These studies have revealed a new immune regulation loop consisting of T cell-derived IFN-γ, B7H1 expression by APCs, and B7.1 expression by Treg cells.
The aim of the study reported here was to identify whether a stem cell biomarker, Lin28, may predict the pathologic tumor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for patients with locally advanced gastric cancer.
The study enrolled 47 patients with gastric cancer who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery between July 2004 and March 2012. Cancer tissue was biopsied by gastroscopy and Lin28 expression in the tissue was measured by immunohistochemistry. Statistical analyses were performed to identify the relationship between Lin28 expression and tumor regression grade.
Of the 47 cases, pathologic nonresponse was observed in 29 (61.7%) and pathologic response in 18 (38.3%). Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the histoscore of Lin28 expression with 0.325 as a cutoff value could differentiate between pathologic response and nonresponse. Multivariable analysis showed that Lin28 expression was an independent predictive factor for pathologic response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (P = 0.006).
Lin28 expression was associated with pathologic tumor response in locally advanced gastric cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy. This may suggest that Lin28 can serve as a predictive biomarker for neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with gastric cancer.
neoadjuvant chemotherapy; pathologic tumor response; stem cell biomarker; immunohistochemistry
EGFR is upregulated in most epithelial cancers where signaling through EGFR contributes to cancer cell proliferation and survival. The limited clinical efficacy of EGFR inhibitors suggests that identification of resistance mechanisms may identify new pathways for therapeutic targeting. Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription-3 (STAT3) is upregulated in many cancers and activated via both EGFR-dependent and EGFR-independent pathways. In the present study, we tested the consequences of STAT3 inhibition in EGFR inhibitor resistant head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and bladder cancer models to determine if STAT3 blockade can enhance responses to EGFR targeting.
pSTAT3 expression was assessed in human HNSCC tumors that recurred following cetuximab treatment. Cetuximab sensitive and cetuximab resistant cell lines were treated with a STAT3 decoy to determine EC50 concentrations and the effects on STAT3 target gene expression by western blotting. In vivo assays included evaluation of anti-tumor efficacy of STAT3 decoy in cetuximab sensitive and cetuximab resistant models followed by immunoblotting for STAT3 target protein expression.
Targeting STAT3 with a STAT3 decoy reduced cellular viability and the expression of STAT3 target genes in EGFR inhibitor resistance models. The addition of a STAT3 inhibitor to EGFR blocking strategies significantly enhanced anti-tumor effects in vivo. Biopsies from HNSCC tumors that recurred following cetuximab treatment demonstrated increased STAT3 activation compared with pretreatment biopsies.
These results suggest that STAT3 activation contributes to EGFR inhibitor resistance both in HNSCC and bladder cancer where concomitant targeting of STAT3 may represent an effective treatment strategy.
cancer; epidermal growth factor receptor; Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription; STAT3 decoy; cetuximab
We studied the clinicopathological and imaging characteristics of primary central nervous system diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (PCNS-DLBCL). Imaging, pathologic histology, and immunohistochemical staining characteristics were analyzed, and the immunoglobulin heavy and light chain gene rearrangement of 25 PCNS-DLBCL cases was examined. MicroRNA was extracted from 10 cases each of PCNS-DLBCL, extracerebral germinal center DLBCL (GC-DLBCL), and extracerebral non-GC-DLBCL (NGC-DLBCL); we conducted chip hybridization and comparatively analyzed the difference among the three. PCNS-DLBCLs typically involved no less than two cerebral lobes (10/25); the frontal lobe was affected most often (6/25). Target-shaped structures were observed in all PCNS-DLBCLs due to the proliferation of centroblast-like large lymphocytes surrounding the vessels. There was strong and diffuse immunostaining for CD20 and CD79a, and negative immunostaining for CD3, CD5, CD23, and cyclin D1 for all PCNS-DLBCLs. The percentage of cells with nuclear positivity for anti-Ki67 antibody ranged 50-90% (mean, 80%). Three, 19, and 22 PCNS-DLBCLs were CD10-, Bcl-6-, and melanoma ubiquitous mutated 1-positive, respectively. Twenty-four PCNS-DLBCLs were B-cell monoclonal. MicroRNA hybridization showed that 788 PCNS-DLBCL microRNAs/segments increased to at least twice that of NGC-DLBCLs, and 401 PCNS-DLBCL microRNAs/segments declined to less than half of that of NGC-DLBCLs. Six hundred and eleven PCNS-DLBCL microRNAs/segments increased to at least twice that of GC-DLBCLs, and 229 PCNS-DLBCL microRNAs/segments declined to less than half of that in GC-DLBCLs. PCNS-DLBCL typically affected multiple sites, tended to occur in older men, arose from activated B cells, had high B-cell monoclonality; its microRNA expression differed from that of NGC-DLBCL and GC-DLBCL.
Central nervous system; diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; gene rearrangement; microRNA
Over 200 cryptosporidiosis outbreaks have been reported, but little is known if other enteric pathogens were also involved in some of these outbreaks. Recently, an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis linked to poor hygiene by two Cryptosporidium hominis subtypes occurred in a pediatric hospital ward (Ward A) in China, lasting for more than 14 months. In this study, the concurrence during the outbreak of three other enteric pathogens with a similar transmission route, Giardia duodenalis, Enterocytozoon bieneusi, and Clostridium difficile, was assessed.
The occurrence of G. duodenalis, E. bieneusi, and C. difficile in 78 inpatients from Ward A and 283 and 216 inpatients from two control wards (Wards C and D) in the same hospital was examined using molecular diagnostic tools. Significantly higher infection rates were found in children in Ward A for all study pathogens than in Wards C and D (P<0.01): 9.5% versus 1.4% and 0% for G. duodenalis, 10.8% versus 2.8% and 3.7% for E. bieneusi, and 60.8% versus 37.8% and 27.8% for C. difficile, respectively. These differences were mostly seen in children ≤12 months. Enteric pathogen-positive children in Ward A (31/58 or 53.4%) were more likely to have mixed infections than those in Ward C (4/119 or 3.4%) or D (5/68, 7.4%; P<0.01). Having cryptosporidiosis was a risk factor for G. duodenalis (OR = 4.3; P = 0.08), E. bieneusi (OR = 3.1; P = 0.04), and C. difficile (OR = 4.7; P<0.01) infection. In addition, a lower diversity of G. duodenalis, E. bieneusi, and C. difficile genotypes/subtypes was observed in Ward A.
Data from this study suggest that multiple pathogens were concurrently present during the previous cryptosporidiosis outbreak. Examination of multiple enteric pathogens should be conducted when poor hygiene is the likely cause of outbreaks of diarrhea.
The transmission of Giardia duodenalis, Enterocytozoon bieneusi, and Clostridium difficile is poorly understood in developing countries despite their wide occurrence. Because they are transmitted by the same fecal-oral route as Cryptosporidium, in this study, we have examined the occurrence of these enteric pathogens in children during a cryptosporidiosis outbreak in a pediatric hospital in China. Using molecular diagnostic tools, we have detected significantly higher infection rates of these enteric pathogens in the outbreak ward than in two control wards in the same hospital. We have also shown a much higher occurrence of these pathogens in children having cryptosporidiosis than those having no cryptosporidiosis. We have demonstrated that the genetic diversity of enteric pathogens is much lower in the outbreak ward than in control wards. Therefore, other enteric pathogens are concurrently present during the cryptosporidiosis outbreak, and examinations for multiple enteric pathogens should be conducted when poor hygiene is considered the likely cause of outbreaks of diarrhea.
This study explored the clinical value of endoscopic ligation for the treatment of upper gastrointestinal (GI) protuberant lesions in children. According to the appearance and size of lesions, we used different ligation techniques for the treatment of the lesions. Endoscopic ultrasonography was used for preliminary characterization of the lesions. One case diagnosed with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome was successfully treated by a detachable snare. Two cases with semi-pedunculated or broad-base lesions originating from the submucosal layer of the upper GI were treated with endoscopic variceal ligation; endoscopic examination showed that one case had complete healing 11 wk after ligation, while an ulcer scar was observed at the ligation site after 6 wk in the other case. All lesions were successfully ligated at the first attempt. No significant complications occurred either during or after the procedure. Selective endoscopic ligation of upper GI lesions is an effective and safe treatment for upper GI protuberant lesions in children.
Endoscopy; Ligation; Endoscopic ultrasonography; Protuberant lesion; Children
It has been reported that diabetes mellitus (DM) was an epidemiologically identified risk factor for development of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF)/severe dengue in dengue virus (DENV) affected patients, and T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines such as interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-10 each plays an important role in the immunopathogenesis of DHF in studies involving general population. To better understand the relationship between these epidemiological and immunological findings, we performed an in vitro study evaluating the sequential immunological reactions and viral load in the DENV infected mononuclear cells of adults with type 2 DM (T2DM group, n = 33) and normal adults (control group, n = 29). We found in the T2DM group significantly higher IL-4 level on the first (P = 0.049) and the third (P = 0.022) postinfection days, while higher IL-10 (P = 0.042) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) (P = 0.009) were detected on the third postinfection day. No significant difference in DENV viral load between the cultured mononuclear cells from both groups was found on the first and third post-infection days. These data immunologically suggest that patients with T2DM are at higher risk for development of DHF/severe dengue and strengthen the previously epidemiologically identified role of DM being a predictive risk factor for progressing into DHF/severe dengue in DENV-affected patients.
Coital use of 1% tenofovir gel was shown to be modestly effective at preventing HIV transmission when applied vaginally in the CAPRISA 004 trial. Because the gel is hyperosmolar, which would reduce the integrity of the epithelium and induce fluid movement into the lumen, rectal use may not be acceptable. This study evaluated the pre-clinical safety and efficacy of a reformulated (reduced osmolality) tenofovir gel product.
Reduced glycerine (RG)-tenofovir gel was compared with the original tenofovir gel for physiochemical characteristics, product safety and anti-HIV-1 activity.
The formulations were similar in all characteristics except for osmolality and spreadability/firmness. The RG-tenofovir gel had a 73% lower osmolality, a 29.6% increase in spreadability and a 27% decrease in firmness as compared with the original tenofovir gel. When applied to epithelial cell monolayers, tenofovir gel showed a transient reduction in the transepithelial resistance while the RG-tenofovir gel did not. Both gels retained ectocervical and colorectal explant viability. However, tenofovir gel treatment resulted in epithelial stripping that was absent after RG-tenofovir gel treatment of the polarized explants. Anti-HIV-1 activity was confirmed by lack of HIV-1 infection in polarized explants treated with either gel as compared with the control explants.
Reducing the osmolality of the tenofovir gel resulted in improved epithelial integrity, which suggests better safety upon rectal use. The improved gel safety did not compromise drug release or anti-HIV-1 activity. These data support the use of this gel as a dual compartment microbicide.
HIV prevention; rectal microbicide; formulation; preclinical testing; safety
Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is the most important endocrine blood pressure control mechanism in our body, genes encoding components of this system have been strong candidates for the investigation of the genetic basis of hypertension. However, previous studies mainly focused on limited polymorphisms, thus we carried out a case-control study in the Han Chinese population to systemically investigate the association between polymorphisms in the RAAS genes and essential hypertension.
905 essential hypertensive cases and 905 normotensive controls were recruited based on stringent inclusion and exclusion criteria. All 41 tagSNPs within RAAS genes were retrieved from HapMap, and the genotyping was performed using the GenomeLab SNPstream Genotyping System. Logistic regression analysis, Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR), stratified analysis and crossover analysis were used to identify and characterize interactions among the SNPs and the non-genetic factors.
Serum levels of total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG), and body mass index (BMI) were significantly higher in the hypertensive group than in the control group. Of 41 SNPs genotyped, rs3789678 and rs2493132 within AGT, rs4305 within ACE, rs275645 within AGTR1, rs3802230 and rs10086846 within CYP11B2 were shown to associate with hypertension. The MDR analysis demonstrated that the interaction between BMI and rs4305 increased the susceptibility to hypertension. Crossover analysis and stratified analysis further indicated that BMI has a major effect, and rs4305 has a minor effect.
These novel findings indicated that together with non-genetic factors, these genetic variants in the RAAS may play an important role in determining an individual’s susceptibility to hypertension in the Han Chinese.
The present study aimed to quantify retinal and choroidal blood flow (BF) during light, dark adaptation and flicker light stimulation using the microsphere technique.
Materials and Methods
Adult male Sprague–Dawley rats were anesthetized with isoflurane. Eyes were dark (Group I, n = 8), light (Group II, n = 8) adapted or stimulated with 10Hz flicker light (Group III, n = 10). Retinal and choroidal BF were measured by a previously established method, using a mixture of 8 μm yellow-green and 10 μm red fluorescent microspheres. The microspheres were counted ex vivo in the dissected retina and choroid and in the reference arterial blood under a fluorescent microscope.
The choroidal BF was 64.8 ± 29 μl/min (mean ± SD) during dark adaptation, not significantly different from that during light adaptation (66.0 ± 17.8 μl/min). The retinal BF was 13.5 ± 3.2 μl/min during 10 Hz flickering light stimulation, significantly higher than that during dark adaptation in the control fellow eyes (9.9 ± 2.9 μl/min). The choroidal BF values were not statistically different between flicker stimulation and dark adaptation. Retinal BF was 11.6 ± 2.9 μl/min during light adaptation. Dark adaptation did not increase retinal BF (Group I, 8.2 ± 2.4 μl/min; Group II, 9.9 ± 2.9 μl/min).
These findings argue against a dark-induced or flicker-induced functional hyperemia in the choroid as a result of the demands of the outer retina. Retinal BF was not higher during dark adaptation. Our data support the conclusion that the inner retina has a higher energy demand in flicker conditions relative to dark.
Blood flow; choroid; dark adaptation; flicker light stimulation; light adaptation; microspheres; rat; retina
AIM: To assess the value of ultrasonography (US) in evaluation of proximal gastric accommodation disorder in patients with functional dyspepsia (FD).
METHODS: Between April 2011 and March 2012, 45 patients with FD and 27 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. Two-dimensional ultrasound (2DUS) and 3-dimensional ultrasound (3DUS) were performed sequentially to measure proximal gastric area (PGA), maximal proximal gastric diameter (MPGD), and proximal gastric volume (PGV). These values were measured separately in the two groups every other 5 min for a duration of 25 min after the beginning of ingestion of a test meal. Air pocket grading was done separately for images of 2DUS and blocks of 3DUS obtained at five scanning time points.
RESULTS: Both PGA and PGV of patients were significantly smaller than healthy controls (P = 0.000 and 0.002, respectively). Comparing the two parameters between the groups at each time point, the differences were also statistically significant (P = 0.000-0.013), except at 10 min for the PGV (P = 0.077). However, no overall difference was found between the groups in the MPGD measurements (P = 0.114), though it was statistically significant at a 20-minute examination point (P = 0.026). A total of 360 sets or blocks of images were obtained for both 2DUS and 3DUS. For the images analyzed by 2DUS, none were excluded because of gastric gas, and 50 (13.9%) and 310 (86.1%) sets were determined as air pockets grades 1 and 2, respectively. For the images analyzed by 3DUS, 23 (6.4%) blocks were excluded from the measurement due to presence of a large fundus air pocket (grade 3); fifty (13.9%) and 287 (79.7%) blocks were also graded as 1 and 2, respectively.
CONCLUSION: Measurement of both PGA and PGV by 2DUS and 3DUS could be useful for assessment of the proximal gastric accommodation.
Functional dyspepsia; Gastric accommodation; Ultrasonography; Diagnosis; 2-dimensional ultrasound; 3-dimensional ultrasound
For most practical quantum control systems, it is important and difficult to attain robustness and reliability due to unavoidable uncertainties in the system dynamics or models. Three kinds of typical approaches (e.g., closed-loop learning control, feedback control, and robust control) have been proved to be effective to solve these problems. This work presents a self-contained survey on the closed-loop and robust control of quantum systems, as well as a brief introduction to a selection of basic theories and methods in this research area, to provide interested readers with a general idea for further studies. In the area of closed-loop learning control of quantum systems, we survey and introduce such learning control methods as gradient-based methods, genetic algorithms (GA), and reinforcement learning (RL) methods from a unified point of view of exploring the quantum control landscapes. For the feedback control approach, the paper surveys three control strategies including Lyapunov control, measurement-based control, and coherent-feedback control. Then such topics in the field of quantum robust control as H∞ control, sliding mode control, quantum risk-sensitive control, and quantum ensemble control are reviewed. The paper concludes with a perspective of future research directions that are likely to attract more attention.
Combined inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Src family kinases (SFK) may lead to improved therapeutic effects. We evaluated the combination of dasatinib, an inhibitor of SFK and other kinases, and cetuximab, an anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody.
Patients and Methods
Patients with advanced solid malignancies received cetuximab intravenously on a standard weekly schedule and dasatinib orally, once daily at 3 dose levels: (1) 100 mg, (2) 150 mg, (3) 200 mg. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies of dasatinib were performed prior to starting cetuximab and following 14 days of treatment.
Twenty-five patients (3 dose level 1; 19 dose level 2; 3 dose level 3) were initially treated. Three patients developed dose-limiting toxicities: 1 at dose level 2 (headache) and 2 at dose level 3 (headache, nausea). Grade 3–4 toxicities in more than 2 patients included: dyspnea (4), vomiting (4), nausea (3), hypersensitivity reactions (3), headache (3) and anemia (3). Twenty-one patients developed headache (8 grade 1; 10 grade 2), which occurred after the loading of cetuximab and lasted 1–3 days. Six additional patients were treated with dasatinib starting 3 days after the loading dose of cetuximab; none developed headache after dasatinib. Dasatinib pharmacokinetics and a transient decrease in SFK PY416 levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were not altered by cetuximab. Patients with higher plasma TGF-alpha levels had worse progression-free survival.
Dasatinib 150 mg once daily plus weekly cetuximab is recommended for phase II studies. Early-onset headache was ameliorated by starting dasatinib after cetuximab.
dasatinib; cetuximab; Src; epidermal growth factor receptor; phase I; pharmacokinetic; pharmacodynamic
Background: Mutations at arginine 132 of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1/2 (IDH1/2) have recently been demonstrated to be recurrent gene alterations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Subsequently, this mutation was also found in a variety of other hematologic malignancies, including myelodysplastic syndromes, myeloproliferative diseases, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Only a few cases were so far identified in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). To study the IDH status in ALL patients, we analyzed 54 adult and 34 pediatric ALL samples' IDH1/2 gene. Results" Three adult cases and no pediatric case with an isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutation were identified. No isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2) mutation was identified in the total of 88 samples. The frequency of the IDH1 mutation in adult ALL was 5.5%. Among the three IDH1-mutated patients, two had normal karyotype and expressed the myeloid lineage markers. All three patients with an IDH1 mutation relapsed or died within 6 months. Conclusions: The results suggested that the IDH1 R132 mutation might be a recurrent gene alteration in ALL; patients carrying the mutation have a trend to aberrantly express myeloid antigen and the mutation may imply a dismal outcome.
Molecular diagnostic tools have been used increasingly in the characterization of the transmission of cryptosporidiosis and microsporidiosis in developing countries. However, few studies have examined the distribution of Cryptosporidium species and Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotypes in AIDS patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. In the present study, 683 HIV-positive patients in the National Free Antiretroviral Therapy Program in China and 683 matched HIV-negative controls were enrolled. Cryptosporidium species and subtypes and Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotypes were detected and differentiated by PCR and DNA sequencing. The infection rates were 1.5% and 0.15% for Cryptosporidium and 5.7% and 4.2% for E. bieneusi in HIV-positive and HIV-negative participants, respectively. The majority (8/11) of Cryptosporidium cases were infections by zoonotic species, including Cryptosporidium meleagridis (5), Cryptosporidium parvum (2), and Cryptosporidium suis (1). Prevalent E. bieneusi genotypes detected, including EbpC (39), D (12), and type IV (7), were also potentially zoonotic. The common occurrence of EbpC was a feature of E. bieneusi transmission not seen in other areas. Contact with animals was a risk factor for both cryptosporidiosis and microsporidiosis. The results suggest that zoonotic transmission was significant in the epidemiology of both diseases in rural AIDS patients in China.