Lupus flares when genetically predisposed people encounter appropriate environmental agents. Current evidence indicates that the environment contributes by inhibiting T cell DNA methylation, causing overexpression of normally silenced genes. DNA methylation depends on both dietary transmethylation micronutrients and Erk-regulated DNA methyltransferase 1 (Dnmt1) levels. We used transgenic mice to study interactions between diet, Dnmt1 levels and genetic predisposition on the development and severity of lupus.
A doxycycline-inducible Erk defect was bred into lupus-resistant (C57BL/6) or lupus-susceptible (C57BL/6xSJL) mouse strains. Doxycycline treated mice were fed a standard commercial diet for eighteen weeks then switched to diets supplemented(MS) or restricted(MR) intransmethylation micronutrients. Disease severity was assessed by anti-dsDNA antibodies, proteinuria, hematuria and histopathology of kidney tissues. Pyrosequencing was used to determine micronutrient effects on DNA methylation.
Doxycycline induced modest levels of anti-dsDNA antibodies in C57BL/6 mice and higher levels in C57BL/6xSJL mice. Doxycycline-treated C57BL/6xSJL mice developed hematuria and glomerulonephritis on the MR and standard but not the MS diet. In contrast C57BL/6 mice developed kidney disease only on the MR diet. Decreasing Erk signaling and methyl donors also caused demethylation and overexpression of the CD40lg gene in female mice, consistent with demethylation of the second X chromosome. Both the dietary methyl donor content and duration of treatment influenced methylation and expression of the CD40lg gene.
Dietary micronutrients that affect DNA methylation can exacerbate or ameliorate SLE disease in this transgenic murine lupus model, and contribute to lupus susceptibility and severity through genetic/epigenetic interactions.
Extracellular Receptor Kinase (Erk; Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE; CD70; micronutrients; CD40L; KirL1
Systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disease characterized by multi-system involvement and autoantibody production. Abnormal T cell DNA methylation and type-I interferon play an important role in the pathogenesis of lupus. We performed a genome-wide DNA methylation study in two independent sets of lupus patients and matched healthy controls to characterize the DNA methylome in naïve CD4+ T cells in lupus. DNA methylation was quantified for over 485,000 methylation sites across the genome, and differentially methylated sites between lupus patients and controls were identified and then independently replicated. Gene expression analysis was also performed from the same cells to investigate the relationship between the DNA methylation changes observed and mRNA expression levels. We identified and replicated 86 differentially methylated CG sites between patients and controls in 47 genes, with the majority being hypomethylated. We observed significant hypomethylation in interferon-regulated genes in naïve T cells from lupus patients, including IFIT1, IFIT3, MX1, STAT1, IFI44L, USP18, TRIM22 and BST2, suggesting epigenetic transcriptional accessibility in these genetic loci. Indeed, the majority of the hypomethylated genes (21 out of 35 hypomethylated genes) are regulated by type I interferon. The hypomethylation in interferon-regulated genes was not related to lupus disease activity. Gene expression analysis showed overexpression of these genes in total but not naïve CD4+ T cells from lupus patients. Our data suggest epigenetic “poising” of interferon-regulated genes in lupus naïve CD4+ T cells, argue for a novel pathogenic implication for abnormal T cell DNA methylation in lupus, and suggest a mechanism for type-I interferon hyper-responsiveness in lupus T cells.
Lupus; naïve CD4+ T cells; methylome; DNA methylation
CD4+ T cell DNA hypomethylation may contribute to the development of drug induced and idiopathic human lupus. Inhibiting DNA methylation in mature CD4+ T cells causes MHC-specific autoreactivity in vitro. The lupus-inducing drugs hydralazine and procainamide also inhibit T cell DNA methylation and induce autoreactivity, and T cells from patients with active lupus have hypomethylated DNA and a similarly autoreactive T cell subset. Further, T cells treated with DNA methylation inhibitors demethylate the same sequences that demethylate in T cells from patients with active lupus. The pathologic significance of the autoreactivity induced by inhibiting T cell DNA methylation has been tested by treating murine T cells in vitro with drugs which modify DNA methylation, then injecting the cells into syngeneic female mice. Mice receiving CD4+ T cells demethylated by a variety of agents including procainamide and hydralazine develop a lupus-like disease. Further, transgenic mice with an inducible T cell DNA methylation defect also develop lupus-like autoimmunity. This chapter describes the protocols for inducing autoreactivity in murine T cells in vitro, and inducing autoimmunity in vivo using an adoptive transfer approach or transgenic animal models.
Lupus; drug-induced lupus; DNA methylation; animal models; autoimmunity
B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS), a homeostatic factor for B-cell differentiation and survival, has a major role in B-cell expansion and autoreactivity that characterize systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Belimumab, a BLyS-specific inhibitor, has shown promising evidence of efficacy in several preclinical and clinical studies in SLE. Two recent large randomized controlled trials yielded a significant positive effect of the drug compared to placebo in patients with active disease. In this review, we discuss basic aspects of B-cell and BLyS biology in SLE and summarize the evidence supporting a role of belimumab in SLE, from animal studies to phase III clinical trials.
B lymphocyte stimulator; lupus erythematosus; belimumab
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a weak androgen that exerts pleomorphic effects on the immune system. The hormone has no known receptor, and consequently, the mechanism of action of DHEA on immunocompetent cells remains poorly understood. Interestingly, serum levels of DHEA are decreased in patients with inflammatory disease including lupus, and these levels seem to inversely correlate with disease activity. Following encouraging studies demonstrating beneficial effects of DHEA supplementation in murine lupus models, a number of clinical studies have tested the effect of DHEA administration in lupus patients. DHEA treatment could improve patient’s overall quality of life assessment measures and glucocorticoid requirements in some lupus patients with mild to moderate disease, however, the effect of DHEA on disease activity in lupus patients remains controversial. Long term safety assessment studies are required in light of the reported effect of DHEA supplementation in lowering HDL cholesterol in lupus patients.
Genetic polymorphism in MECP2/IRAK1 on chromosome Xq28 is a confirmed and replicated susceptibility locus for lupus. High linkage disequilibrium in this locus suggests that both MECP2 and IRAK1 are candidate genes for the disease. DNA methylation changes in lupus T cells play a central role in the pathogenesis of lupus, and MeCp-2 (encoded by MECP2) is a master regulator of gene expression and is also known to recruit DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) during DNA synthesis. Using human T cells from normal individuals with either the lupus risk or the lupus protective haplotype in MECP2/IRAK1, we demonstrate that polymorphism in this locus increases MECP2 isoform 2 mRNA expression in stimulated but not unstimulated T cells. By assessing DNA methylation levels across over 485,000 methylation sites across the entire genome, we further demonstrate that the lupus risk variant in this locus is associated with significant DNA methylation changes, including in the HLA-DR and HLA-DQ loci, as well as interferon-related genes such as IFI6, IRF6, and BST2. Further, using a human MECP2 transgenic mouse, we show that overexpression of MECP2 alters gene expression in stimulated T cells. This includes overexpression of Eif2c2 that regulates the expression of multiple microRNAs (such as miR-21), and the histone demethylase Jhdm1d. In addition, we show that MECP2 transgenic mice develop antinuclear antibodies. Our data suggest that the lupus associated variant in the MECP2/IRAK1 locus has the potential to affect all 3 epigenetic mechanisms: DNA methylation, microRNA expression, and histone modification. Importantly, these data support the notion that variants within the MECP2 gene can alter DNA methylation in other genetic loci including the HLA and interferon-regulated genes, thereby providing evidence for genetic-epigenetic interaction in lupus.
MECP2; IRAK1; lupus; epigenetics; polymorphism; DNA methylation; T cells; transgenic mouse
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease primarily afflicting women. The reason for the gender bias is unclear, but genetic susceptibility, estrogen and environmental agents appear to play significant roles in SLE pathogenesis. Environmental agents can contribute to lupus susceptibility through epigenetic mechanisms. We used (C57BL/6 × SJL)F1 mice transgenic for a dominant-negative MEK (dnMEK) that was previously shown to be inducibly and selectively expressed in T cells. In this model, induction of the dnMEK by doxycycline treatment suppresses T cell ERK signaling, decreasing DNA methyltransferase expression and resulting in DNA demethylation, overexpression of immune genes Itgal (CD11a) and Tnfsf7 (CD70), and anti-dsDNA antibody. To examine the role of gender and estrogen in this model, male and female transgenic mice were neutered and implanted with time-release pellets delivering placebo or estrogen. Doxycycline induced IgG anti-dsDNA antibodies in intact and neutered, placebo-treated control female but not male transgenic mice. Glomerular IgG deposits were also found in the kidneys of female but not male transgenic mice, and not in the absence of doxycycline. Estrogen enhanced anti-dsDNA IgG antibodies only in transgenic, ERK-impaired female mice. Decreased ERK activation also resulted in overexpression and demethylation of the X-linked methylation-sensitive gene CD40lg in female but not male mice, consistent with demethylation of the second X chromosome in the females. The results show that both estrogen and female gender contribute to the female predisposition in lupus susceptibility through hormonal and epigenetic X chromosome effects and through suppression of ERK signaling by environmental agents.
Extracellular Receptor Kinase (ERK); Systemic Lupus erythematosus (SLE); Mouse
Lupus is less common in men than women, and the reason is incompletely understood. Current evidence indicates that lupus flares when genetically predisposed individuals encounter environmental agents that trigger the disease, and that the environmental contribution is mediated at least in part by T cell DNA demethylation. We hypothesized that lupus disease activity is directly related to total genetic risk and inversely related to T cell DNA methylation levels in each patient. Since women are predisposed to lupus in part because of their second X chromosome, we also hypothesized that men would require a greater genetic risk, a greater degree of autosomal T cell DNA demethylation, or both, to achieve a lupus flare equal in severity to women. Genetic risk was determined by genotyping men and women with lupus across 32 confirmed lupus susceptibility loci. The methylation status of two T cell autosomal genes known to demethylate in proportion to disease activity, KIR2DL4 (KIR) and PRF1, was measured by bisulfite sequencing. Lupus disease activity was determined by the SLEDAI. Interactions between genetic score, T cell DNA demethylation, and the SLEDAI score were compared between the men and women by regression analysis. Combining the degree of DNA demethylation with the genetic risk score for each patient demonstrated that the (genetic risk)/(DNA methylation) ratio increased directly with disease activity in both men and women with lupus. Importantly, men required a greater (genetic risk)/(DNA methylation) ratio to achieve a SLEDAI score equivalent to women (p=0.010 for KIR and p=0.0054 for PRF1). This difference was not explained by a difference in the genetic risk or T cell DNA demethylation alone, suggesting a genetic-epigenetic interaction. These results suggest that genetic risk and T cell DNA demethylation interact in lupus patients to influence the severity of lupus flares, and that men require a higher genetic risk and/or greater degree of T cell DNA demethylation to achieve a lupus flare equal in severity to women.
Genetic risk; epigenetics; DNA methylation; lupus; genetic-epigenetic interaction; sex-disparity
There are many Green Fluorescent Proteins (GFPs) originating from diverse species that are invaluable to cell biologists today because of their ability to provide experimental visualization of protein expression. Since their initial discovery, they have been modified and improved to provide more stable variants with emission ranges spanning a wide array of colors. Due to their ease of expression both in-vitro and in-vivo, they are an attractive choice for use as markers in molecular biology. GFPs are generally assumed to have negligible effects on the cells to which they have been introduced. However, a growing number of reports indicate that this is not always the case. Consequently, because of GFP's ubiquitous use, it is important to document the nature and extent of unintended effects. In this report, we find that GFP affects T cell activation, leading to defects in clustering, upregulation of the activation marker CD25 and IL-2 cytokine production following stimulation in human primary T cells that also express TurboGFP. We utilized a reporter assay which has been routinely used to assay the NF-κB pathway and found reduced NF-κB activitation in stimulated HEK293 and HeLa cells that were co-transfected with TurboGFP, suggesting that GFP interferes with signaling through the NF-κB pathway. These findings indicate that the utilization of GFP-tagged vectors may negatively impact in vitro experiments in T cells, emphasizing the critical importance of controls to identify any GFP-induced effects.
Using a genome-wide association scan and DNA pooling, we previously identified 5 novel genetic susceptibility loci for Behçet’s disease. Herein, we establish the genetic effect within the UBAC2 gene, replicate this genetic association, and identify a functional variant within this locus.
A total of 676 Behçet’s disease patients and 1,096 controls were studied. The discovery set included 156 patients and 167 controls from Turkey, and the replication sets included 376 patients and 369 controls, and 144 patients and 560 controls, from Turkey and Italy, respectively. Genotyping of 14 SNPs within and around UBAC2 was performed using TaqMan SNP genotyping assays.
The genetic association between Behçet’s disease and UBAC2 was established, replicated and confirmed (Meta-analysis OR= 1.84, meta-analysis P= 1.69X10−7). Haplotype analysis identified both a disease risk and a protective haplotype (P= 0.00014 and 0.0075, respectively). Using conditional haplotype analysis we identified the SNP rs7999348 (A/G) within UBAC2 as the most likely SNP with a genetic effect independent of the haplotypic effect formed by the remaining associated SNPs in this locus. Indeed, we demonstrate that rs7999348 tags a functional variant associated with increased mRNA expression of a UBAC2 transcript variant in PBMCs of individuals homozygous for the Behçet’s disease-associated “G” allele. Further, our data suggest the possibility of multiple genetic effects that increase susceptibility to Behçet’s disease in the UBAC2 locus.
We established and confirmed the genetic association between UBAC2 and Behçet’s disease in three independent sets of patients and controls. We identified the minor allele in rs7999348 as a disease-risk allele that tags altered UBAC2 expression.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disorder of an unclearly determined etiology. Past studies, both epidemiological and biological, have implicated epigenetic influences in disease etiology and pathogenesis. Epigenetics describes changes in gene expression not linked to alterations in the underlying genomic sequence, and is most often typified by three modifications: methylation of DNA, addition of various side chains to histone groups and transcriptional regulation via short ncRNA sequences. The purpose of this article is to review the most important advances that link epigenetic changes to lupus. The contribution of DNA methylation changes to lupus pathogenesis is discussed. These include the role of apoptotic DNA, ultraviolet radiation, endogenous retroviruses, dietary contributions and aging. Hypomethylation of specific genes overexpressed in lupus T cells such as ITGAL (CD11a), CD40LG (CD40L), TNFSF7 (CD70), KIR2DL4 and PRF1 (perforin), and CD5 in lupus B cells seem to play an important role. Moreover, histone modifications such as increased global H4 acetylation in monocytes are highly associated with SLE. NcRNAs, especially miR-21, miR-148a and miR-126, control other elements of epigenetic regulation; particularly, transcription of the maintenance DNA methylation enzyme DNMT1. Epigenetic contributions to SLE etiology have been well established, but much is still unknown. Epigenome-wide studies coupled with functional analysis of the epigenomic changes discovered will uncover novel pathways important in disease pathogenesis. Epigenetic therapies for SLE may be feasible in the future, particularly if they are designed to target specific regions within the genome.
DNA methylation; epigenetics; histone modification; lupus; miRNA; SLE; T cells
Systemic lupus erythematosus is a chronic-relapsing autoimmune disease of incompletely understood etiology. Recent evidence strongly supports an epigenetic contribution to the pathogenesis of lupus. To understand the extent and nature of dysregulated DNA methylation in lupus T cells, we performed a genome-wide DNA methylation study in CD4+ T cells in lupus patients compared to normal healthy controls. Cytosine methylation was quantified in 27,578 CG sites located within the promoter regions of 14,495 genes. We identified 236 hypomethylated and 105 hypermethylated CG sites in lupus CD4+ T cells compared to normal controls, consistent with widespread DNA methylation changes in lupus T cells. Of interest, hypomethylated genes in lupus T cells include CD9, which is known to provide potent T-cell co-stimulation signals. Other genes with known involvement in autoimmunity such as MMP9 and PDGFRA were also hypomethylated. The BST2 gene, an interferon-inducible membrane-bound protein that helps restrict the release of retroviral particles was also hypomethylated in lupus patients. Genes involved in folate biosynthesis, which plays a role in DNA methylation, were overrepresented among hypermethylated genes. In addition, the transcription factor RUNX3 was hypermethylated in patients, suggesting an impact on T-cell maturation. Protein-protein interaction maps identified a transcription factor, HNF4a, as a regulatory hub affecting a number of differentially methylated genes. Apoptosis was also an overrepresented ontology in these interaction maps. Further, our data suggest that the methylation status of RAB22A, STX1B2, LGALS3BP, DNASE1L1 and PREX1 correlates with disease activity in lupus patients.
lupus; T cells; CD4+ T cells; methylation; methylome
The focus of the present review is on the extent to which epigenetic alterations influence the development of systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by the production of autoantibodies directed at nuclear self-antigens. A DNA methylation defect in CD4+ T cells has long been observed in idiopathic and drug-induced lupus. Recent studies utilizing high-throughput technologies have further characterized the nature of the DNA methylation defect in lupus CD4+ T cells. Emerging evidence in the literature is revealing an increasingly interconnected network of epigenetic dysregulation in lupus. Recent reports describe variable expression of a number of regulatory microRNAs in lupus CD4+ T cells, some of which govern the expression of DNA methyltransferase 1. While studies to date have revealed a significant role for epigenetic defects in the pathogenesis of lupus, the causal nature of epigenetic variation in lupus remains elusive. Future longitudinal epigenetic studies in lupus are therefore needed.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, multiorgan, autoimmune disease that affects people of all ages and ethnicities.
To explore the relationship between age at disease onset and many of the diverse manifestations of SLE. Additionally, to determine the relationship between age of disease onset and genetic risk in patients with SLE.
The relationship between the age at disease onset and SLE manifestations were explored in a multiracial cohort of 1317 patients. Patients with SLE were genotyped across 19 confirmed genetic susceptibility loci for SLE. Logistic regression was used to determine the relationships between the number of risk alleles present and age of disease onset.
Childhood-onset SLE had higher odds of proteinuria, malar rash, anti-dsDNA antibody, haemolytic anaemia, arthritis and leucopenia (OR=3.03, 2.13, 2.08, 2.50, 1.89, 1.53, respectively; p values <0.0001, 0.0004, 0.0005, 0.0024, 0.0114, 0.045, respectively). In female subjects, the odds of having cellular casts were 2.18 times higher in childhood-onset than in adult-onset SLE (p=0.0027). With age of onset ≥50, the odds of having proteinuria, cellular casts, anti-nRNP antibody, anti-Sm antibody, anti-dsDNA antibody and seizures were reduced. However, late adult-onset patients with SLE have higher odds of developing photosensitivity than early adult-onset patients. Each SLE-susceptibility risk allele carried within the genome of patients with SLE increased the odds of having a childhood-onset disease in a race-specific manner: by an average of 48% in Gullah and 25% in African-Americans, but this was not significant in Hispanic and European-American lupus patients.
The genetic contribution towards predicting early-onset disease in patients with SLE is quantified for the first time. A more severe SLE phenotype is found in patients with early-onset disease in a large multi-racial cohort, independent of gender, race and disease duration.
Sjögren’s syndrome; MECP2; genetic; epigenetic; polymorphism
Autoimmune diseases often have susceptibility genes in common, indicating similar molecular mechanisms. Increasing evidence suggests that rs6822844 at the IL2–IL21 region is strongly associated with multiple autoimmune diseases in individuals of European descent. This study was undertaken to attempt to replicate the association between rs6822844 and 6 different immune-mediated diseases in non-European populations, and to perform disease-specific and overall meta-analyses using data from previously published studies.
We evaluated case–control associations between rs6822844 and celiac disease (CD) in subjects from Argentina; rheumatoid arthritis (RA), type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM), primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS), and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in subjects from Colombia; and Behçet's disease (BD) in subjects from Turkey. Allele and gene distributions were compared between cases and controls. Meta-analyses were performed using data from the present study and previous studies.
We detected significant associations of rs6822844 with SLE (P = 0.008), type 1 DM (P = 0.014), RA (P = 0.019), and primary SS (P = 0.033) but not with BD (P = 0.34) or CD (P = 0.98). We identified little evidence of population differentiation (FST = 0.01) within cases and controls from Argentina and Colombia, suggesting that association was not influenced by population substructure. Disease-specific meta-analysis indicated significant association for RA (Pmeta = 3.61 × 10–6), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD; Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis) (Pmeta = 3.48 × 10–12), type 1 DM (Pmeta = 5.33 × 10–5), and CD (Pmeta = 5.30 × 10–3). Overall meta-analysis across all autoimmune diseases reinforced association with rs6822844 (23 data sets; Pmeta = 2.61 × 10–25, odds ratio 0.73 [95% confidence interval 0.69–0.78]).
Our results indicate that there is an association between rs6822844 and multiple auto-immune diseases in non-European populations. Meta-analysis results strongly reinforce this robust association across multiple autoimmune diseases in both European-derived and non-European populations.
CD40 ligand (CD40LG), encoded on the X chromosome, has been reported to be overexpressed on lupus Tcells. Herein, we investigated the effect of DNA demethylation on Tcell CD40LG expression and the production of IgG by autologous B cells in lupus. We found normal human T cells transfected with CD40LG induced autologous B cell activation and plasma cell differentiation. Both female lupus CD4+ T cells and demethylating agents treated CD4+ T cells overexpressed CD40LG mRNA. Further, lupus T cells from both genders or demethylated CD4+ T cells from healthy women overstimulated autologous B cells, and this could be reversed with anti-CD40LG Ab in only females. We demonstrated that female lupus CD4+ T cells and demethylated CD4+ T cells express high level of CD40LG and overstimulate B cells to produce IgG. This is due to DNA demethylation and thereby reactivation of the inactive X chromosome in female.
CD40 ligand; DNA methylation; Immunoglobulin G; Systemic lupus; erythematosus
Similar to other autoimmune diseases, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) predominately affects women. Recent reports demonstrate excess Klinefelter’s among men with SLE and a possible under-representation of Turner’s syndrome among women with SLE as well as a case report of a 46,XX boy with SLE. These data suggest that risk of SLE is related to a gene dose effect for the X chromosome. Such an effect could be mediated by abnormal inactivation of genes on the X chromosome as has been demonstrated for CD40L, or by genetic polymorphism as has been demonstrated for Xq28. On the other hand, a gene dose effect could also be mediated by a gene without an SLE-associated polymorphism in that a gene that avoids X inactivation will have a higher level of expression in persons with two X chromosomes.
Systemic lupus erythematosus; Genetics; X chromosome
Behçet's disease is a chronic systemic inflammatory disease that remains incompletely understood. Herein, we perform the first genome-wide association study in Behçet's disease.
Using DNA pooling technology and the Affymetrix 500K arrays, we identified possible candidate gene associations with Behçet's disease in a cohort of 152 Behçet's disease patients and 172 healthy ethnically matched controls. Genetic loci that were identified in the pooling study were genotyped in patients and controls using TaqMan genotyping technology.
We identified genetic associations between Behçet's disease and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in KIAA1529, CPVL, LOC100129342, UBASH3B, and UBAC2 (odds ratio = 2.04, 2.26, 1.84, 1.71, and 1.61, respectively; P value = 4.2 × 10-5, 1.0 × 10-4, 3.0 × 10-4, 1.5 × 10-3, and 5.8 × 10-3, respectively). Among the associated SNPs, the Behçet's disease-risk allele in rs2061634 leads to substitution of serine to cysteine at amino acid position 995 (S995C) in the KIAA1529 protein.
Using an unbiased whole-genome genetic association approach, we identified novel candidate genetic loci that are associated with increased susceptibility for Behçet's disease. These findings will help to better understand the pathogenesis of Behçet's disease and identify novel targets for therapeutic intervention.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a predominantly female autoimmune disease that affects multiple organ systems. Herein, we report on an X-chromosome gene association with SLE. Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) is located on chromosome Xq28 and encodes for a protein that plays a critical role in epigenetic transcriptional regulation of methylation-sensitive genes. Utilizing a candidate gene association approach, we genotyped 21 SNPs within and around MECP2 in SLE patients and controls. We identify and replicate association between SLE and the genomic element containing MECP2 in two independent SLE cohorts from two ethnically divergent populations. These findings are potentially related to the overexpression of methylation-sensitive genes in SLE.
Over the past 40 years more than 100 genetic risk factors have been defined in systemic lupus erythematosus through a combination of case studies, linkage analyses of multiplex families, and case-control analyses of single genes. Multiple investigators have examined patient cohorts gathered from around the world, and although we doubt that all of the reported associations will be replicated, we have probably already discovered many of the genes that are important in lupus pathogenesis, including those encoding human leukocyte antigen-DR, Fcγ receptor 3A, protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor 22, cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated antigen 4, and mannose-binding lectin. In this review we will present what is known, what is disputed, and what remains to be discovered in the world of lupus genetics.
Many patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) benefit from tumor necrosis factor-α blocking treatment (anti-TNF), but about one third do not respond. The objective of this study was to replicate and extend previously found associations between anti-TNF treatment response and genetic variation in the TNF-, NF-κB- and pattern recognition receptor signalling pathways.
Forty-one single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including 34 functional, in 28 genes involved in inflammatory pathways were assessed in 538 anti-TNF naive Danish RA patients with clinical data. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to test associations between genotypes and treatment response at 3–6 months using the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) response criterion. American College of Rheumatology treatment response (ACR50) and relative change in 28-joint disease activity score (relDAS28) were used as secondary outcomes. Subgroup analyses were stratified according to smoking status, type of anti-TNF drug and IgM-Rheumatoid Factor (IgM-RF) status. False discovery rate (FDR) controlling was used to adjust for multiple testing.
Statistically significant associations with EULAR response were found for two SNPs in NLRP3(rs4612666) (OR (odds ratio) for good/moderate response = 0.64 (95% confidence interval: 0.44–0.95), p = 0.025, q = 0.95) and INFG(rs2430561) (OR = 0.40 (0.21–0.76), p = 0.005, q = 0.18) and among IgM-RF positive patients for TNFRS1A(rs4149570) (0.59 (0.36–0.98), p = 0.040, q = 0.76). Current smokers who carried the NLRP3(rs4612666) variant allele were less likely to benefit from anti-TNF treatment (OR = 0.24 (0.10–0.56), p = 0.001, q = 0.04).
In a population of Danish RA patients, we confirm the NLRP3 gene as associated with EULAR anti-TNF response as previously reported. The NLRP3 variant (T) allele is associated with lower treatment response, in particular among current smokers. Furthermore, we find that a functional polymorphism in the interferon-γ gene is associated with anti-TNF response. All findings should be tested by replication in independent validation cohorts and augmented by assessing cytokine levels and activities of the relevant gene products.
Originating from Primordial Germ Cells/gonocytes and developing via a precursor lesion called Carcinoma In Situ (CIS), Germ Cell Cancers (GCC) are the most common cancer in young men, subdivided in seminoma (SE) and non-seminoma (NS). During physiological germ cell formation/maturation, epigenetic processes guard homeostasis by regulating the accessibility of the DNA to facilitate transcription. Epigenetic deregulation through genetic and environmental parameters (i.e. genvironment) could disrupt embryonic germ cell development, resulting in delayed or blocked maturation. This potentially facilitates the formation of CIS and progression to invasive GCC. Therefore, determining the epigenetic and functional genomic landscape in GCC cell lines could provide insight into the pathophysiology and etiology of GCC and provide guidance for targeted functional experiments.
This study aims at identifying epigenetic footprints in SE and EC cell lines in genome-wide profiles by studying the interaction between gene expression, DNA CpG methylation and histone modifications, and their function in the pathophysiology and etiology of GCC. Two well characterized GCC-derived cell lines were compared, one representative for SE (TCam-2) and the other for EC (NCCIT). Data were acquired using the Illumina HumanHT-12-v4 (gene expression) and HumanMethylation450 BeadChip (methylation) microarrays as well as ChIP-sequencing (activating histone modifications (H3K4me3, H3K27ac)). Results indicate known germ cell markers not only to be differentiating between SE and NS at the expression level, but also in the epigenetic landscape.
The overall similarity between TCam-2/NCCIT support an erased embryonic germ cell arrested in early gonadal development as common cell of origin although the exact developmental stage from which the tumor cells are derived might differ. Indeed, subtle difference in the (integrated) epigenetic and expression profiles indicate TCam-2 to exhibit a more germ cell-like profile, whereas NCCIT shows a more pluripotent phenotype. The results provide insight into the functional genome in GCC cell lines.
To calibrate the Dutch-Flemish version of the PROMIS physical function (PF) item bank in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to evaluate cross-cultural measurement equivalence with US general population and RA data.
Data were collected from RA patients enrolled in the Dutch DREAM registry. An incomplete longitudinal anchored design was used where patients completed all 121 items of the item bank over the course of three waves of data collection. Item responses were fit to a generalized partial credit model adapted for longitudinal data and the item parameters were examined for differential item functioning (DIF) across country, age, and sex.
In total, 690 patients participated in the study at time point 1 (T2, N = 489; T3, N = 311). The item bank could be successfully fitted to a generalized partial credit model, with the number of misfitting items falling within acceptable limits. Seven items demonstrated DIF for sex, while 5 items showed DIF for age in the Dutch RA sample. Twenty-five (20%) items were flagged for cross-cultural DIF compared to the US general population. However, the impact of observed DIF on total physical function estimates was negligible.
The results of this study showed that the PROMIS PF item bank adequately fit a unidimensional IRT model which provides support for applications that require invariant estimates of physical function, such as computer adaptive testing and targeted short forms. More studies are needed to further investigate the cross-cultural applicability of the US-based PROMIS calibration and standardized metric.